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Article

Ortrun Landmann

[Jean]

(b c1705; d Dresden, Nov 13, 1779). German composer. He was a Jagdpfeifer at the Dresden court (1733–6), then until his death a violist in the Dresden Hofkapelle. He was also ‘ballet-compositeur’ of the court opera (from c1740), and composer and director of music for the elector’s French theatre (1763–9). According to Burney and Fürstenau, he added ballet music to operas by J.A. Hasse and made an adaptation of Rameau’s Zoroastre (Dresden, 1752); the documents of the Hofkapelle in the Dresden State Archives indicate that he also composed new pieces for various opéras comiques, and in 1756 he published a Recueil d’airs à danser executés sur le Théâtre du Roi à Dresde, arranged for harpsichord. The concertos and chamber works listed under ‘Adam’ in the Breitkopf catalogues may also be attributed to him. Few of his compositions are extant; apart from his arrangements of works by other composers, the Sächsische Landesbibliothek in Dresden contains only a concerto in G for flute and strings by him....

Article

Michael Talbot

revised by Enrico Careri

(b Bologna, Sept 20, 1685; d Bologna, Feb 18, 1751). Italian composer and violinist. He studied the violin with Carlo Manzolini, and counterpoint with P.M. Minelli and Floriano Arresti. He became a member of the Accademia Filarmonica, Bologna, in 1705, and from 1709 played the violin in the orchestra of S Petronio. His first set of concertos, published in 1713, were first performed under the composer's direction at the house of Count Orazio Bargellini. In 1721 Alberti was chosen president (principe) of the Accademia Filarmonica, a post to which he was re-elected in 1724, 1728, 1733, 1740 and 1746. A set of violin sonatas, op.2 (1721), was followed by a further set of concertos, collectively entitled ‘Sinfonie’, and issued by Le Cène in 1725 – presumably without the composer's authorization as they are incorrectly designated op.2. (This possibly inadvertent duplication of an opus number led to the renumbering of the violin sonatas as op.3 when published by Walsh shortly afterwards.) From ...

Article

Barbara Dobbs Mackenzie

[Carnace]

(fl 1729–62). Italian bass and impresario. He was one of the most popular comic opera singers of his day and a particularly important figure in the development and dissemination of the genre in the middle of the century. He performed in at least 100 productions beginning in the late 1720s, when he sang intermezzos in Foligno and Pesaro. He launched his comic opera career in Rome in 1738 with Gaetano Latilla’s La finta cameriera and Madama Ciana and Rinaldo di Capua’s La commedia in commedia. Productions throughout northern Italy of these operas along with another first performed in Rome, Rinaldo’s La libertà nociva (1740), dominated Baglioni’s career for the next decade. In 1749 he appeared in the dramma giocoso L’Arcadia in Brenta in Venice, the first collaboration between Galuppi and Goldoni, and for the remainder of his career he primarily sang texts written by Goldoni, in cities along the axis from Venice to Turin. His range encompassed ...

Article

Charles Beare

(b ?Salisbury, July 14, 1727; d Salisbury, Feb 18, 1795). English violin maker and instrument dealer. He lived and worked in Salisbury and, with Forster, did much to raise the standard of English violin making in the second half of the 18th century. Banks possibly learnt his craft from a relative or in London, perhaps with Wamsley. His woodwork, using native sycamore for backs and sides and pine for tops, looks like that of Duke and Joseph Hill, but he had even more in common with William Forster (i), since both used a thick, dark red oil-varnish, previously unknown in England. Banks might have worked in London on his own for a time, but most of his instruments are labelled from Salisbury. Banks is, like Forster, particularly famous for the many cellos he made. His violas were of the small size fashionable at the time and are less appreciated now, but his violins, though rare, are very good instruments tonally and sometimes pass for Italian. Of the cellos, most are built on a reduced Amati pattern and are very similar to the work of the Forsters, both in appearance and tone. Occasionally, however, Banks made a cello with features of Stradivari, and these are excellent in every way. Bows were sometimes branded by him, though they were doubtless made for him, and he was careful to brand his instruments, sometimes in many places. Some of the later instruments were made for and branded by the London firm of Longman & Broderip, who also employed lesser makers....

Article

Frank Kidson

revised by H.G. Farmer, Peter Ward Jones and David Hunter

(b ?London, ?1706; d London, bur. June 23, 1771). English engraver, publisher and bookseller. He worked in Covent Garden, London, having learnt the trade from his father George Bickham (b ?1684; d London, 4 May 1758), an engraver best known for The Universal Penman (1733–41). He was principally famous in music circles for his two illustrated folio volumes The Musical Entertainer, first issued in fortnightly parts, each containing four plates, from January 1737 to December 1739. The 200 plates are songs, headed and surrounded with pictorial embellishments illustrative of the song (see illustration), and engraved in the style of and even copied directly from Gravelot and Watteau. This work was the first of its kind to be published in England and quickly produced imitators such as Lampe’s British Melody, engraved by Benjamin Cole.

A second edition, corrected by Lampe, was also issued in parts (...

Article

Sylvette Milliot

(b c1693; d Paris, Nov 25, 1733). French music seller and music publisher. He was the nephew of the double bass player and composer Montéclair, and brother of the string instrument maker Claude Boivin. On 15 July 1721 Boivin bought the music shop ‘A la règle d’or’ on the rue St Honoré, Paris, after the death of Henry Foucault who had owned it; he and his uncle went into partnership to trade there. In addition to selling scores he soon published music and bought two licences in 1728 and 1729. He published works by Montéclair, Jacques Loeillet and Quantz, among others. On 2 July 1724 he married Elizabeth Catherine Ballard, second daughter of Jean-Baptiste-Christophe Ballard, who assisted him. As a result of their efforts, and the family connection with Montéclair and Ballard, ‘A la règle d’or’ became one of the foremost music shops in Paris. Works by Vivaldi, Corelli, P.A. Locatelli, Telemann and Quantz could be found there, but the mainstay of the stock was French, including cantatas by Nicolas Bernier and Clérambault, harpsichord works by François Couperin, Louis Marchand and Jean-François Dandrieu, violin sonatas by J.-M. Leclair and Senaillé, sonatas for flute by Louis Hotteterre, suites for viola da gamba by Marais and Caix d’Hervelois, motets by Lalande (...

Article

(b Montaigut-sur-Save, Jan 26, 1700; d Paris, May 3, 1788). French concert entrepreneur and cellist. He served as basse du grand choeur in the Paris Opéra orchestra from 1736 to 1755. That he played the cello, rather than the basse de viole, is implied by Corrette in 1741: ‘at the Musique du Roi, at the Opéra, and in concerts, it is the violoncello that plays the basse continue’. By 1748 Capperan was rehearsing singers as a maître de chant. His health began failing by 1753. He had obtained the survivance of a charge in the Vingt-Quatre Violons du Roi in 1746 and succeeded to the post in 1749; he resigned it in 1759 to André-Joseph Exaudet. The Affiches de Paris reported his burial at St. Roch in Paris; the Almanach musicale gave the date of death.

On 14 June 1748, Joseph-Nicolas-Pancrace Royer made Capperan a 25 percent partner in the ...

Article

Robert Lamar Weaver

(b Tuscany, c1730; d after 1792). Italian librettist and stage director. He was one of two poets at the Teatro del Cocomero in Florence around 1755, a position requiring him to alter and add to librettos by other authors, notably Goldoni. His I matrimoni in maschera (1763) and L’amore industrioso (1765), comic operas composed by G. M. Rutini, established the reputations of both men in Italy and can be regarded as Casorri’s masterpieces. He was an active translator into Italian of French farces, the most successful being Il disertore, originally by L. S. Mercier and set to music by Giuseppe Gazzaniga, which probably owed its popularity to its unswerving morality and optimism. Casorri wrote two opera seria librettos, Attalo, re di Bitinia (1780) and Mesenzio, re d’Etruria, the latter set by the young Cherubini in 1782; both are solemn and noble, though conventional. In the 1790s Casorri directed a Tuscan prose company which performed in the Palla a Corda and the Piazza Vecchia theatres. His principal composer there was Neri Bondi; Casorri wrote and translated intermezzos and farces for the company to perform....

Article

Francesco Giuntini and John Walter Hill

(b Florence, Sept 18, 1698; d after 1749). Italian trumpeter, impresario and composer. The word ‘corazza’ (cuirassier), used in connection with his name, suggests a link between his family (of German origin) and the Swiss Guard of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. On 13 December 1719 he joined a company of Florentine musicians. His activity as an impresario and composer of dramatic music was mostly in Florence, but also in other Tuscan cities such as Lucca, Pisa and Pistoia. After 1738 he is described in some librettos as ‘professor di tromba’ by imperial appointment, and after 1743 as ‘maestro di cappella della Real Brigata de’ Carabinieri di Sua Maestà Cattolica’. A French privilege to print his instrumental music, issued to Chinzer on 11 March 1749, suggests that he was in Paris at that time.

In his operas he continued the tradition of Florentine commedia per musica until its popularity was supplanted by the Neapolitan variety. His sonatas often employ rounded binary form, small-scale phrase repetition, reverse dotting, echo phrasing and small, ornamental figures typical of mid-century style. Lack of imagination is notable in his motifs....

Article

William C. Smith

revised by Peter Ward Jones

(b ?London, 1695–1705; d ?London, after1742). English music seller and publisher, father of organist and composer Benjamin Cooke. He was active in London from 1726 to 1743, and published a considerable number of vocal and instrumental works, some of them obviously pirated from other publishers, others under licence as authoritative first editions. His publications were mostly in a heavy bold style, but some were engraved in a lighter style by Thomas Cross. After Cooke’s death or retirement some of his plates were acquired by John Johnson (ii), who reissued copies from them. Cooke’s publications include Roseingrave’s XII Solos for a German Flute (1730), Handel’s Sonatas op.2 (c1733) and 42 ‘suites’ by Domenico Scarlatti in two volumes (1739). His most interesting publication, however, was that of the five books of sonatas and the 12 concertos of Corelli issued in 1732. Not only do these constitute a collected edition of the composer’s works, but all, including the concertos, were published in score expressly for study purposes, an extraordinary form of publication for instrumental music at that time. Cooke’s plates were used well into the 19th century for reissues of these works....

Article

Alison Stonehouse

(b Dijon, Jan 13, 1674; d Paris, June 17, 1762). French dramatist. He studied law at Dijon and by 1703 was living in Paris. He became a member of the Académie Française in 1731 and was appointed theatre censor in 1735. His nine tragedies, based on subjects from classical antiquity, are melodramatic and exploit violence and romantic entanglements; they were highly regarded during his lifetime. Idoménée (1705), his first work, was a source for Campra and Danchet’s Idoménée, which in turn served for Mozart and Varesco’s Idomeneo. His masterpiece, Rhadamiste et Zénobie, was first performed in 1711; there are notable similarities between it and Metastasio’s Zenobia, as also between Crébillon’s Xerces (1714) and Metastasio’s Artaserse. Other plays by Crébillon on which operas were based were Semiramis and Pyrrhus. Crébillon’s son Claude-Prosper (1707–77) was also a playwright; he was theatre censor from 1774 to 1777...

Article

(b ?Pinerolo, nr Turin, c1700; d after Jan 1771). Italian opera impresario. He played an important role in the early diffusion of comic opera; his troupe, including the buffi Pietro Pertici and Filippo Laschi, was part of the first wave of Italian buffo companies to invade northern Europe in the 1740s and early 1750s. In 1746 he promoted comic opera in Milan. Two years later he introduced the genre in London, but only his production of Gaetano Latilla’s Don Calascione met with some success. In August and September 1749 he introduced Italian comic opera in Brussels before returning to London. After a dispute with the King’s Theatre director Francesco Vanneschi, Crosa moved to the Little Theatre in the Haymarket, where his company performed Vincenzo Ciampi’s Il negligente. In January 1750 they returned to the King’s, giving comic operas and two opere serie by Ciampi. The operas failed and the season was cut short in April by the impresario’s bankruptcy. Crosa went to prison for debt but escaped on 8 May. A reward of £50 was promised for help in apprehending the fugitive, who was ‘about five feet and five inches high, of a swarthy complexion, with dark brown eye-brows, pitted with the small-pox, stoops a little in the shoulder, is about fifty years of age and takes a remarkable deal of snuff’ (...

Article

Frank Kidson

revised by William C. Smith, Peter Ward Jones and David Hunter

(b ?London, ?1660–65; d ?London, ?1732–5). English music engraver, printer, publisher and music seller. He was probably the son of the 17th-century engraver Thomas Cross, who engraved some frontispieces and portraits for John Playford’s publications, including the portrait of the composer John Gamble (Ayres and Dialogues, 1656), and who may have engraved some music. From 1683 to about 1710 the younger Cross often signed himself ‘Tho. Cross junior sculpt.’, as on his first known work, Purcell’s Sonnata’s of III. Parts (1683), printed for the composer. From about 1692 to about 1720 he kept a music shop in London. He was the first to issue songs in single sheet format rather than in collections, and from the 1690s a considerable number of these appeared under his imprint. At first they were engraved on copper plates, which was an expensive method considering the ephemeral nature of the sheet songs, but he later used a cheaper material, probably pewter. He had a virtual monopoly of the music engraving trade until Walsh established his business in ...

Article

Anne Schnoebelen

(d Oct 6, 1749). Italian music publisher and bookseller. His firm was active in Bologna for most of the 18th century and was famous in the art of typography and for the accuracy and elegance of its editions. In 1720, as head of a society of Bolognese printers, Della Volpe acquired the printing establishment of the widow of Giulio Borsaghi. His first musical publication was an enlarged edition (1720) of Angelo Bertalotti’s Regole utilissime per … il canto fermo. He issued a further enlarged edition in 1744 (reprinted 1756, 1764 and 1778). He ordered musical type characters from the Netherlands and in 1734 began his music printing activities in earnest, starting with Giovanni Battista Martini’s op.1, Litaniae atque antiphonae finales B. Virginis Mariae. Della Volpe was also active as a bookseller, handling the musical publications of the Bolognese printers P.M. Monti and G.A. Silvani. In ...

Article

Brian Boydell

(b London, 1703; d London, July 3, 1767). English violinist, composer and musical director. He was the natural son of Isaacs, a dancing-master. As a pupil of Geminiani, he soon made a name as a remarkably gifted boy violinist, first appearing at one of Thomas Britton’s concerts, where, standing on a high stool, he played a solo by Corelli with great success. On 27 May 1714 he had a benefit concert at Hickford’s Room. In 1724 he visited Dublin, and on 17 June 1727 married Frances Gates at Stanmore, Middlesex.

In 1728 he was appointed to succeed J.S. Kusser as Master and Composer of State Music in Ireland, a post said to have been intended for Geminiani but transferred to Dubourg for religious reasons. From then until 1752, when he succeeded Festing as leader of the King’s Band in London, he spent most of his time in Dublin, where he was an active influence in the musical community, though occasionally travelling to London (he took part, for instance, in performances of Handel’s ...

Article

Gottfried Küntzel

revised by Barbara M. Reul

(b Buttelstädt, nr Weimar, April 15, 1688; d Zerbst, Dec 5, 1758). German composer and Kapellmeister and one of the most significant contemporaries of Bach. Drawing primarily from mixed and galant style characteristics, Fasch’s works feature novel instrumental colours, unusual harmonic turns, and innovative hybrids of instrumental genres.

Fasch described his early life and career path in an autobiographical account (Lebenslauf) in 1757 (i.e., the year before his death). He was descended from a line of Lutheran clerics and lawyers. His earliest musical studies as a boy soprano took place in Suhl and Weissenfels, and in 1701 Thomaskantor Kuhnau recruited him as one of his first students for the Leipzig Thomasschule. Unable to afford lessons, Fasch taught himself how to compose, taking the music of his ‘most beloved’ friend Telemann as his model. After graduation Fasch not only studied theology and law at the University of Leipzig, but also founded and directed his own ensemble, the ‘Second Collegium Musicum’. This semi-professional group performed regularly in public, including at local coffee houses, the university church, and the opera house. In ...

Article

Frank Dobbins

(fl Paris, 1690–1719/20). French music dealer and publisher. It is not known whether he was related to earlier publishers with the same family name, none of whom was apparently involved in music printing. Like other 18th-century music dealers, Henri Foucault was associated with the corporation of haberdashers and jewellers rather than that of the booksellers. He was originally a paper seller, with a shop ‘A la règle d’or’, rue St Honoré, but seems to have branched out from this trade by 28 June 1690, when a condemnation issued by the Conseil d’Etat accused him – in association with the engraver Henri de Baussen – of contravening Christophe Ballard’s royal privilege by publishing ‘divers airs de musique’. Two years later Foucault’s name appears on the title-page of Marais’s Pièces en trio pour les flûtes, violons et dessus de viole, in association with Hurel, Bonneüil and the composer, but he is still designated simply as ‘marchand papetier’. However by ...

Article

(b Modena, c 1700; d Naples, ?1774). Italian dancer, choreographer and impresario . He spent the early part of his career in Venice, where he created ballets for more than 40 operas, 1720–45. His name first appears as a choreographer for the 1720 Ascension season (Orlandini’s Griselda) at the Teatro S Samuele, here he worked for 11 Ascension seasons (later productions included works by Porpora, Albinoni and Galuppi, and Gluck’s Demetrio in 1742). He also choreographed at S Giovanni Grisostomo (24 operas, 1722–45, including Porpora’s Siface, Meride e Selinunte, Rosbale and Statira, and Hasse’s Alessandro nell’Indie and Semiramide riconosciuta) and at S Angelo, S Cassiano, and S Moisè. At the Teatro Falcone in Genoa (1731) and the Regio Ducal Teatro in Milan (1732–3, Lampugnani’s Candace; 1737–40, works by Bernasconi, Brivio and Leo) he worked with his wife Maria, a Venetian ballerina. While in Milan Goldoni, who knew the couple from Venice, spent an evening at their home, in his ...

Article

Nicole Wild

(d Paris, 20/Aug 30, 1712). French administrator . He was granted the licence of the Opéra (Académie Royale de Musique) by a deed signed on 5 October 1704, when the current managers, Jean-Nicolas de Francine and Hyacinthe de Gauréault Dumont, became overwhelmed by debt. In exchange the new manager undertook to pay salaries, pensions, the entertainment tax and all the debts of the Opéra. He was also to pay an annual pension of 75 000 livres to Francine and one of 25 000 livres to Dumont. Despite his financial experience, Guyenet failed. In eight years he burdened the Opéra with debt, leaving liabilities in the region of 400 000 livres. He ruined his family and his own health. Hounded by his creditors, he took refuge in his theatre at the Palais-Royal and died there. On his death his creditors, represented by their delegates, the receivers, negotiated with Francine and Dumont....

Article

Lowell Lindgren

(b Rome, July 6, 1678; d London, July 31, 1729). Italian composer, librettist and theatre manager. According to his obituary in The Weekly Medley (9 August 1729), he was ‘deservedly famous for divinely touching the Violoncello’, manifested ‘Genius for Musick as a Composer, … devoted several Hours daily to the Belles-Lettres’, and ‘was Secretary for many Years to the Royal Academy of Musick in this City, in which Employment he distinguish'd himself by his indefatigable Industry and the general Satisfaction he gave to all the Directors’. His ‘uncommon Modesty, Candour, Affability and all the amiable Virtues of Life’ undoubtedly contributed much to his success in collaborative endeavours.

From 1694 to 1700 he was occasionally employed as a cellist by Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni in Rome. He may also have played in the orchestra at the Teatro Capranica, which staged the first two operas he was to adapt for London: Alessandro Scarlatti's ...