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Article

Howard Schott

(b Kingston-on-Thames, May 30, 1938). English maker of fortepianos, clavichords, and harpsichords. He was educated at the Guildhall School of Music, London, where he specialized in keyboard instruments, studying the piano with Frank Laffitte, the harpsichord with Celia Bizony, and the organ with Harold Dexter. After some years as a music teacher, during which he also undertook some restorations of early keyboard instruments, he became curator of the Colt Clavier Collection, Bethersden, Kent (...

Article

Hermann Fischer

(b Göttingen, April 28, 1930). German organ builder. Ahrend studied in Göttingen with Paul Ott from 1946 until 1954, before opening a workshop in Leer, East Friesland, with his partner Gerhard Brunzema. After intensive study of surviving historical organs, Ahrend and Brunzema developed a special interest in the north German mechanical-action tradition and adopted its methods. From the beginning they divided their activities between the careful restoration of historical instruments and the construction of exemplary new organs. They often collaborated with leading performers of early music, and their groundbreaking work gained an international reputation. 67 organs were built and restored between ...

Article

José López-Calo

(b Gauteriz de Arteaga, Vizcaya, Sept 25, 1869; d Barcelona, March 19, 1948). Spanish organ builder. He began his career as an apprentice in the workshops of Aquilino Amezúa in Barcelona in 1885 and was active for more than 50 years. In 1895...

Article

Hans Klotz

(b Stuttgart, May 12, 1938; d 1984). German organ builder. Born into a family of organ builders once active in the vicinity of Waldhut, he was trained by the firm of Walcker, followed by Rieger in Schwarzach (Vorarlberg), for whom he didSeit 1960...

Article

William Waterhouse

( b 1872; d Switzerland, Jan 1938). Italian flute maker, flautist and composer . He was a flautist at La Scala, Milan, from 1897. In 1910 he invented his ‘Albisiphon’, a vertically-held, Boehm-system bass flute in C, with a T-shaped head, which he described in his ...

Article

Robert E. Eliason

(b Holland, MA, Sept 24, 1815; dc1905). American brass instrument maker. About 1853 he designed a very efficient rotary valve, featuring flattened windways, string linkage, and enclosed stops. This valve was very successful in the USA during the second half of the 19th century. Other makers who adopted the Allen valve included B.F. Richardson, D.C. Hall, and B.F. Quinby, all of whom had at one time worked with Allen; Henry Lehnert, who worked in Boston for a time before moving to Philadelphia; and E. Glier of Cochecton, New York....

Article

Charles Beare

(b Cornwall, England, 1848; dc1905). English bow maker. He worked for W.E. Hill & Sons from about 1880 until 1891. During this time he made many bows marked with the brand of his employers, some of them with exquisitely decorative mountings. He also repaired and modernized old sticks. On leaving Hill’s he continued to make bows, branding them ‘S. ALLEN’; he made at least one double bass as well. Some players complain that his violin bows are too ‘whippy’, but strong sticks were apparently not highly regarded by players at that time. He earned his reputation mainly through his cello bows: patterned in most respects after Tourte, they are medium to heavy in weight, of the strongest pernambuco wood, and in every way ideal for the modern cellist. His sticks are almost always octagonal....

Article

Hugh Davies

(b Joeuf, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Feb 27, 1915; d Nov 10, 1992). French poet, painter, instrument maker, and inventor of board games. In 1948 he created a brand of poetry, métapoésie, developed from the lettrisme of Isidore Isou (introduced in 1946), which concentrates on sound without semantic content. In ...

Article

Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

(b Hanwell, Middlesex, UK, Sept 16, 1949). English bow maker. He served his apprenticeship with W.E. Hill & Sons (1966–71) and remained with the firm until 1978. His post-Hill bows retain many elements of the Hill style although the heads tend to be slightly smaller. He uses a gold laurel-wreath inlay for his gold and tortoise-shell mounted bows....

Article

Ole Olesen

( b Varde, Dec 17, 1904; d Copenhagen, June 5, 1980). Danish organ builder . He was apprenticed in 1926 to Marcussen & Søn in Åbenrå, and only five years later was appointed managing director of the firm’s Copenhagen division. In 1963 he founded his own workshop in Copenhagen, and under his own name built many distinguished and characteristic instruments based on the ideals he had developed during the preceding decades. He was one of the pioneers and theoreticians of the Danish Organ Reform Movement; he took a special interest in organ architecture, and always preferred to design his own instruments in order to create what he described as ‘an intimate coherence between aural and visual architecture’. Examples of his work are the organs at the church of Our Saviour, Copenhagen (rebuild, ...

Article

Astor  

Niall O’Loughlin

English and American firm of instrument makers, publishers and dealers. The two founders were the sons of Jacob Astor, a merchant of Mannheim. George [Georg] (Peter) Astor (b Waldorf [now Walldorf], nr Heidelberg, April 28, 1752; d London, Dec 1813), after an initial visit to London, decided to establish a business there with his brother John [Johann] Jacob Astor (...

Article

Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

(b Mirecourt, France, Dec 12, 1842; d Paris, France, 1920). French violin maker. He was the son and pupil of Leopold Audinot (1811–91) and surpassed all the other members of this Mirecourt family of violin makers. From 1863 to 1868 he worked for Sebastien Vuillaume in Paris and in ...

Article

Edward H. Tarr

(b Baden, nr Vienna, March 24, 1890; d New York, Jan 8, 1976). American brass instrument maker of Austrian birth. He played the violin as a child and studied the trumpet (cornet) with Josef Weiss and Georg Stellwagen. In 1910 he earned a degree in mechanical engineering at the Maschinenbauschule in Wiener Neustadt. After a year as an Austrian navy bandsman, he studied the solo cornet repertory with Fritz Werner in Wiesbaden (...

Article

Peter Andreas Kjeldsberg

(b Kranz, Russia, July 7, 1896; d Trondheim, Norway, Nov 19, 1963). Norwegian collector of musical instruments and founder and director of the Ringve Museum in Trondheim. An amateur singer, she had no formal musical training, but three siblings became professional musicians. In ...

Article

Jaak Liivoja-Lorius and Philip J. Kass

(b Mirecourt, France, April 13, 1844; d Paris, Nov 20, 1907). French violin maker. He served his apprenticeship in Mirecourt with Jules Gaillard and Prosper Gérard, then worked for Nicolas Vuillaume in Mirecourt. In 1864 he went to Paris to join J.-B. Vuillaume’s workshop, remaining there until ...

Article

Jeremy Montagu

(b Croydon, South London, UK, April 11, 1863; d Oxford, Feb 9, 1939). English ethnographer, museum curator, and collector. He was appointed first curator of the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford (GB.O.prm), in 1893, having worked there as assistant from its foundation in 1884...

Article

Guy Bourligueux

Spanish family of organ builders. José Ballesteros y Latuente (bc1710; d ?Valladolid, after 1763) established himself at Valladolid and restored the organs at Mucientes (1730), Villaverde de Medina (1755) and S María de Torrelobatón (1762–3); he also offered his services for instruments at Villabáñez (...

Article

James B. Kopp

(b London, UK, July 17, 1946). Conservator of musical instruments and maker of brasses, based in Ottawa, Canada. After studying fine arts and English at the University of Toronto, he joined the Canadian Conservation Institute, Ottawa, in 1975 as a conservator of furniture and wooden objects. He was trained in instrument conservation at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, and received a PhD from the Open University in ...

Article

G. Grant O’Brien and Darryl Martin

(b Windsor, Oct 11, 1928; d Edinburgh, March 9, 1998). English organologist, instrument maker and restorer. He studied physics at the University of London and began his career with an English firm making sound-recording tape. In 1962 he began to make and restore early keyboard instruments as a full time occupation. His early work included restorations for the Victoria and Albert Museum and the museum of the Royal College of Music, London, as well as building new historically-based instruments. In ...

Article

Baschet  

Hugh Davies and Laura Maes

French sound sculptors and instrument inventors. Bernard (b Paris, France, 24 Aug 1917) and his brother François (b Paris, France, 30 March 1920) developed a variety of sound sculptures and new instruments under the generic name Structures sonores. Bernard Baschet trained and originally worked as an engineer, and then (...