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Article

Henri Vanhulst

(b Bonsecours, Hainaut, Oct 23, 1893; d Uccle, Brussels, Feb 2, 1974). Belgian composer. He studied the organ, the piano and harmony with Alphonse Oeyen, organist of Bonsecours. He continued his studies at the Ecole St Grégoire, Tournai, where he gave his first organ recital in ...

Article

Ferenc Bónis and Anna Dalos

(b Szigetszentmiklós, Dec 12, 1896; d Budapest, May 15, 1982). Hungarian composer, conductor and teacher. From 1911 until 1915 he received instruction in organ playing and theory at the Budapest teacher-training college. Then, as a prisoner of war (1916–20), he organized and conducted a men’s choir and an orchestra in Russia. He studied composition at the Budapest Academy of Music under Kodály (...

Article

Edward Blakeman

(b London, Jan 25, 1920). English flautist. He studied at the RCM with Robert Murchie, but was resistant to the English tradition of flute playing and has always considered himself largely self-taught. In 1938 he made his orchestral début in the St Matthew Passion...

Article

Howard Schott

(b Kingston-on-Thames, May 30, 1938). English maker of fortepianos, clavichords, and harpsichords. He was educated at the Guildhall School of Music, London, where he specialized in keyboard instruments, studying the piano with Frank Laffitte, the harpsichord with Celia Bizony, and the organ with Harold Dexter. After some years as a music teacher, during which he also undertook some restorations of early keyboard instruments, he became curator of the Colt Clavier Collection, Bethersden, Kent (...

Article

Harold Rosenthal

(b Cologne, June 29, 1896; d Garmisch-Partenkirchen, July 23, 1979). German baritone. He studied with Karl Niemann in Cologne and made his début at Mönchengladbach in 1929 as Wolfram. He sang at the Kroll Oper, Berlin (1930–31), at the Hamburg Staatsoper (...

Article

Hermann Fischer

(b Göttingen, April 28, 1930). German organ builder. Ahrend studied in Göttingen with Paul Ott from 1946 until 1954, before opening a workshop in Leer, East Friesland, with his partner Gerhard Brunzema. After intensive study of surviving historical organs, Ahrend and Brunzema developed a special interest in the north German mechanical-action tradition and adopted its methods. From the beginning they divided their activities between the careful restoration of historical instruments and the construction of exemplary new organs. They often collaborated with leading performers of early music, and their groundbreaking work gained an international reputation. 67 organs were built and restored between ...

Article

José López-Calo

(b Gauteriz de Arteaga, Vizcaya, Sept 25, 1869; d Barcelona, March 19, 1948). Spanish organ builder. He began his career as an apprentice in the workshops of Aquilino Amezúa in Barcelona in 1885 and was active for more than 50 years. In 1895...

Article

Hans Klotz

(b Stuttgart, May 12, 1938; d 1984). German organ builder. Born into a family of organ builders once active in the vicinity of Waldhut, he was trained by the firm of Walcker, followed by Rieger in Schwarzach (Vorarlberg), for whom he didSeit 1960...

Article

William Waterhouse

( b 1872; d Switzerland, Jan 1938). Italian flute maker, flautist and composer . He was a flautist at La Scala, Milan, from 1897. In 1910 he invented his ‘Albisiphon’, a vertically-held, Boehm-system bass flute in C, with a T-shaped head, which he described in his ...

Article

Robert E. Eliason

(b Holland, MA, Sept 24, 1815; dc1905). American brass instrument maker. About 1853 he designed a very efficient rotary valve, featuring flattened windways, string linkage, and enclosed stops. This valve was very successful in the USA during the second half of the 19th century. Other makers who adopted the Allen valve included B.F. Richardson, D.C. Hall, and B.F. Quinby, all of whom had at one time worked with Allen; Henry Lehnert, who worked in Boston for a time before moving to Philadelphia; and E. Glier of Cochecton, New York....

Article

Charles Beare

(b Cornwall, England, 1848; dc1905). English bow maker. He worked for W.E. Hill & Sons from about 1880 until 1891. During this time he made many bows marked with the brand of his employers, some of them with exquisitely decorative mountings. He also repaired and modernized old sticks. On leaving Hill’s he continued to make bows, branding them ‘S. ALLEN’; he made at least one double bass as well. Some players complain that his violin bows are too ‘whippy’, but strong sticks were apparently not highly regarded by players at that time. He earned his reputation mainly through his cello bows: patterned in most respects after Tourte, they are medium to heavy in weight, of the strongest pernambuco wood, and in every way ideal for the modern cellist. His sticks are almost always octagonal....

Article

Hugh Davies

(b Joeuf, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Feb 27, 1915; d Nov 10, 1992). French poet, painter, instrument maker, and inventor of board games. In 1948 he created a brand of poetry, métapoésie, developed from the lettrisme of Isidore Isou (introduced in 1946), which concentrates on sound without semantic content. In ...

Article

Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

(b Hanwell, Middlesex, UK, Sept 16, 1949). English bow maker. He served his apprenticeship with W.E. Hill & Sons (1966–71) and remained with the firm until 1978. His post-Hill bows retain many elements of the Hill style although the heads tend to be slightly smaller. He uses a gold laurel-wreath inlay for his gold and tortoise-shell mounted bows....

Article

Ole Olesen

( b Varde, Dec 17, 1904; d Copenhagen, June 5, 1980). Danish organ builder . He was apprenticed in 1926 to Marcussen & Søn in Åbenrå, and only five years later was appointed managing director of the firm’s Copenhagen division. In 1963 he founded his own workshop in Copenhagen, and under his own name built many distinguished and characteristic instruments based on the ideals he had developed during the preceding decades. He was one of the pioneers and theoreticians of the Danish Organ Reform Movement; he took a special interest in organ architecture, and always preferred to design his own instruments in order to create what he described as ‘an intimate coherence between aural and visual architecture’. Examples of his work are the organs at the church of Our Saviour, Copenhagen (rebuild, ...

Article

Barbara Owen

(b Boston, Dec 26, 1785; d Reading, MA, July 11, 1872). American organ builder. Apprenticed as a young man to a Boston cabinet maker, Appleton entered the workshop of William Marcellus Goodrich in 1805. From 1810 to 1820 both men were associated with the Franklin Musical Warehouse, building church and chamber organs, pianos and claviorgans. During this period Appleton assisted Goodrich in building organs, but also made pianos in partnership with Lewis and Alpheus Babcock (Babcock, Appleton & Babcock, ...

Article

Astor  

Niall O’Loughlin

English and American firm of instrument makers, publishers and dealers. The two founders were the sons of Jacob Astor, a merchant of Mannheim. George [Georg] (Peter) Astor (b Waldorf [now Walldorf], nr Heidelberg, April 28, 1752; d London, Dec 1813), after an initial visit to London, decided to establish a business there with his brother John [Johann] Jacob Astor (...

Article

Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

(b Mirecourt, France, Dec 12, 1842; d Paris, France, 1920). French violin maker. He was the son and pupil of Leopold Audinot (1811–91) and surpassed all the other members of this Mirecourt family of violin makers. From 1863 to 1868 he worked for Sebastien Vuillaume in Paris and in ...

Article

Edward H. Tarr

(b Baden, nr Vienna, March 24, 1890; d New York, Jan 8, 1976). American brass instrument maker of Austrian birth. He played the violin as a child and studied the trumpet (cornet) with Josef Weiss and Georg Stellwagen. In 1910 he earned a degree in mechanical engineering at the Maschinenbauschule in Wiener Neustadt. After a year as an Austrian navy bandsman, he studied the solo cornet repertory with Fritz Werner in Wiesbaden (...

Article

Peter Andreas Kjeldsberg

(b Kranz, Russia, July 7, 1896; d Trondheim, Norway, Nov 19, 1963). Norwegian collector of musical instruments and founder and director of the Ringve Museum in Trondheim. An amateur singer, she had no formal musical training, but three siblings became professional musicians. In ...

Article

Robert B. Winans and Jonas Westover

(b Holyoke, MA, Jan 17, 1871; d Newfane, VT, Nov 18, 1948). American banjoist and banjo maker. He began his career playing with a medicine show and a Wild West show, then from 1890 to 1915 performed in a vaudeville act with his wife. He studied with ALFRED A. FARLAND in the mid- 1890s and about ...