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Article

John Whenham

(b 1623–8; d Bologna, 1699, before 28 Jan). Italian singer, composer and instrument maker. He was an Augustinian monk who was employed from about 1649 as a soprano castrato at the Este court at Modena. On 13 November 1660 he was appointed to the choir of S Petronio, Bologna, with a stipend of 50 lire a month; he was discharged on 24 April 1662 but rejoined on 25 July 1663. In October 1665 he returned to Modena, where he succeeded Marco Uccellini as choirmaster of the cathedral. He vacated this post in November 1673 and by early 1674 was again living at Bologna. Between 1677 and 1681 he served as a singer in the cappella of Duke Francesco II of Modena. In 1685 he was made a member of the Accademia Filarmonica, Bologna, and seems to have spent his last years in or near that city. He wrote to the Duke of Modena in ...

Article

Jerome Roche

revised by Noel O’Regan

(b Rome, 1582; d Rome, Feb 7, 1652). Italian composer and singer, brother of Domenico Allegri. From 1591 to 1596 he was a boy chorister and from 1601 to 1604 a tenor at S Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, where the maestro di cappella was G.B. Nanino. According to Allegri’s obituary he studied with G.M. Nanino (see Lionnet). He was active as a singer and composer at the cathedrals of Fermo (1607–21) and Tivoli, and by August 1628 he was maestro di cappella of Santo Spirito in Sassia, Rome. He joined the papal choir as an alto on 6 December 1629, under Urban VIII, and was elected its maestro di cappella for the jubilee year of 1650. In 1640 his fellow singers elected him to revise Palestrina’s hymns (necessitated by Urban VIII’s revision of the texts), which were published in Antwerp in 1644. His contemporaries clearly saw him as a worthy successor to Palestrina and a guardian of the ...

Article

Lowell Lindgren

[‘Pippo del Violoncello’]

(b Rome, c1665; d London, c1725). Italian cellist and composer. He was mistakenly named ‘Filippo Mattei’ in Mattheson’s Critica musica (January 1723). He played at Rome in concerts and religious functions sponsored by Cardinal Pamphili (1685–1708), the church of S Luigi dei Francesi (1686–1711), Cardinal Ottoboni (1690–99), the Accademia del Disegno di S Luca (1702–11), Prince Ruspoli (1708–11) and the church of S Giacomo degli Spagnoli (1707–13). He joined the musicians’ Accademia di Santo Cecilia on 25 September 1690, was the organist at S Spirito in 1694 and a trombonist in the Concerto del Campidoglio beginning in 1702. He is called ‘Roman’ in the libretto for his oratorio Aman delusus (1699) and that of La stella de’ magi (1702) identifies him as a ‘virtuoso’ of Cardinal Ottoboni. He served as ...

Article

Paolo Emilio Carapezza and Giuseppe Collisani

(b Ciminna, nr Palermo, Jan 5, 1629; d Palermo, July 29, 1670). Italian composer. His family were connected with the princely houses of Ventimiglia and Gambacurta. His younger brother Paolo, author of Teatro marmoreo della marina (Palermo, 1682), was one of the greatest Italian architects. His sister or cousin Eleonora was the mother of Alessandro Scarlatti; deputizing for the parish priest of S Antonio Abate, Palermo, Amato personally baptized her daughters. He spent his life at Palermo. Entering the Seminario dei Chierici in adolescence, he obtained a degree in theology and took holy orders. From 1652 he directed music at the church of S Maria del Carmine and from 1665 until his death he was maestro di cappella at the cathedral. He was commissioned by S Maria del Carmine to compose two Passions (one according to St Matthew, the other according to St John). These are not oratorio Passions but liturgical works; recitatives and ...

Article

Denise Launay

revised by James R. Anthony

(b Burgundy, late 16th century; d Rouen, July 6, 1637). French composer. All that is known of his life is that in 1626 he was procureur of the Compagnie de Jésus at Rouen. He left only musical works, from which we may infer that he was director of music of one of the colleges of his order. His Octonarium sacrum (1634) is a set of five-part verses for the Magnificat, using all eight tones; they are fugal and closely resemble similar pieces by Formé. Two years later he published his Harmonia sacra in two complementary volumes for four and six voices respectively. It includes works for double choir in a distinctly modern style originating in Italy that had already been adopted in France by several composers, Du Caurroy and Le Jeune notable among them; each volume also contains several masses and motets for a single choir. The double-choir works are for liturgical use and comprise psalms, motets and hymns. In his preface d'Ambleville states that they may be performed according to the forces available, for example by two groups – one of four soloists, the other a six-part chorus – by a soprano and bass duet from each choir or by a solo soprano, the missing voices being replaced by instruments or, failing them, by organ alone. He normally wrote either in fauxbourdon style (which he also called ‘musica simplex’) or contrapuntally, including fugal textures (‘musica figurata’), which he handled skilfully. Apart from these Latin works he was also, according to Gastoué (p.264), the composer of the music published in ...

Article

Almonte Howell

(b southern France; fl 1609–14). Spanish liturgist of French birth. A Dominican friar, educated at the monastery at Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume, Provence, he served as cantor in a number of houses of his order in France, Aragon and Castile, including S Pablo at Valladolid and finally S María de Atocha in Madrid. He was commissioned to prepare a new simplified processional for the Spanish Dominicans, Processionarium secundum morem almi ordinis Praedicatorum S.P.N. Dominici (Madrid, 1609), which contains information on past chant manuals of the order, and the rubrics and music for the special services involving processions. Its music was badly garbled by the printer. Artufel’s second work, Modo de rezar las horas canónicas conforme al rezo de los Frayles Predicadores … con un Arte de canto llano y con la entonación de los hymnos y sus rúbricas (Valladolid, 1614), is in three parts with separate paginations. The first, a ceremonial for the Office, is chiefly an extract in translation from the Dominican Ordinary but with some interesting added material on the use of the organ; the second part contains the hymn intonations; the third is a manual on chant consisting of 23 chapters on the rudiments of music (notation, solmization, intervals, modes) and a collection of examples. The bulk of the technical material is taken verbatim from the ...

Article

Alexander Lingas

[Bereketēs, Petros; Byzantios, ho Melōdos, Glykys, Tzelepēs, Kouspazoglou]

(b Constantinople, ?1665; d ?1725). Romaic (Greek) composer and cantor. Though undoubtedly influenced by the works of Panagiotes, Germanos and Balasios, he appears never to have been directly associated with the patriarchal court that nurtured his older colleagues. His own substantial contributions to their continuing renewal of Byzantine chanting were made instead from the Constantinopolitan parish church of St Constantine (in the district of Hypsomatheia), where Bereketes held successively the offices of reader, domestikos, and prōtopsaltēs.

Among the traditional repertories, Bereketes virtually ignored the stichērarion and heirmologion recently ‘beautified’ by Panagiotes, Germanos, and Balasios in order to focus his compositional skills on the more structurally malleable chants of the Papadikē. He also brought the newer paraliturgical genre of the kalophonic heirmos to its highest point with the composition of 45 heirmoi for use in monastic refectories or during the distribution of antidoron (blessed bread) at the conclusion of the Divine Liturgy. Cultivating what Chatzigiakoumis and Stathis have described as a comparatively popular style of liturgical music, he occasionally composed works incorporating elements of the Arabo-Persian tradition of Ottoman secular music. Among his chants for Orthros are settings of the first and second ...

Article

Jonathan P. Wainwright

(b Canterbury, bap. Sept 20, 1610; d London, Nov 26, 1681). English cathedral singer and music copyist. He was trained as a chorister at Canterbury Cathedral (1617/18–24) and probably left Canterbury soon after his voice changed. It seems likely that sometime during the 1630s he moved to Cambridge (his hand appears in the Peterhouse partbooks, GB-Cp 33–34, 38–39 & [47–49]), where he became acquainted with the music patron Sir Christopher Hatton and his musicians and copyists, in particular George Jeffreys and John Lilly. During the 1630s Bing took holy orders, and in 1640 or 1641 he was appointed as a minor canon of St Paul’s Cathedral, London. Among Bing’s colleagues at St Paul’s were John Barnard and John Woodington (also a court violinist). The association between Barnard, Bing and Woodington is apparent in a number of surviving manuscripts copied by Bing in the late 1630s and early 1640s, the most important of which are the sets of viol consort music in the library of Christ Church, Oxford, copied in conjunction with Lilly whilst working under the patronage of Hatton....

Article

Edward Higginbottom

(b Toulouse, c1650; d Paris, March 28, 1727). French organist. He was the son of Jean Buterne (d before 1687), organist in Toulouse and subsequently Pontoise. When Louis XIV had to appoint a new organiste de la chapelle du Roi in 1678 Buterne was one of four to be chosen. He took the April quarter, the others being covered by Nivers, Jacques Thomelin and Lebègue. It may be assumed that the honour reflected his accomplishments; we have no extant music of his to judge by, apart from the manuscript Petites règles pour l’accompagnement ( F-Psg ). He was also organist of St Etienne-du-Mont from 1674 and of St Paul from 1684 in succession to Du Mont, his former teacher. In 1721 his court duties were taken over by Jean-François Dandrieu. At St Etienne he was assisted from 1723 by C.N. Ingrain, who succeeded him in ...

Article

Howard Mayer Brown

(b France, mid-16th century; d Reims, c1620). French organist and calligrapher. He was organist at the cathedrals of Laon and Reims. Between 1583 and 1587 he copied out a manuscript by François Merlin, controlleur général for Marie Elizabeth, only daughter of Charles IX. The work, Recherches de plusieurs singularités ( F-Pn fonds fr. 9152), contains drawings, diagrams and finely written texts on a number of artistic and scientific subjects, including alphabets and the Lord's Prayer in many languages, exterior and interior views of buildings (among them two showing the organs in Reims Cathedral and the Ste Chapelle in Paris), scientific diagrams and maps, music, and drawings of musical instruments. Many of the pages are signed by Cellier. The volume was prepared for presentation to Henri III. The musical section is dated 1585.

Besides tunings, canons and short compositions, a table of notes and rests, and samples of tablature, the section on music contains detailed drawings, some of them incorrect, of many instruments, including the mandore, drums, trumpet, several wind bands, musical glasses, anvil, psaltery, hurdy-gurdy, transverse flute, viol, harp, bagpipe, violin, carillon, the Turkish ‘tambora’, jingles sewn on to a dancer, clavichord, regals, lute, triangle, cittern, a neo-classical lyre, virginals, guitar and panpipes (some of the drawings are reproduced as plates 6 and 7 in ...

Article

Ulf Grapenthin

( b Dömitz, 1598; d Hamburg, Dec 31, 1654). German organist . He was taught by his father, organist at Dömitz, and by the age of 16 was active as an organist at the Schwerin court chapel. By February 1619 he had been sent to Sweelinck in Amsterdam for further tuition, paid for by the court at Schwerin, and in 1722 succeeded J.C. Augustin as court organist at Schwerin. In 1627, having received no salary for over 18 months, he felt obliged to take up employment in Wallenstein. According to his own account, he then went to Italy, and he perhaps met Frescobaldi there. Later he worked in Lübeck and in Hamburg, where he was appointed organist and clerk at the Jacobikirche in 1632, a condition of the appointment being that he marry the widow of his predecessor, Joachim Möring; together they had a son and four daughters. When Jacob Praetorius (ii), organist at the Petrikirche, died in ...

Article

Barton Hudson

(b Bergamo, 1566; d Naples, 1625). Italian theorist, singer and priest. From his early years Cerone associated himself with the music of Spain and the Spanish-owned Kingdom of Naples. In 1592, after singing for a time at the cathedral at Oristano, Sardinia, he went to Spain, where he served Philip II and later Philip III in their chapel; Italian musicians were rare at that time in Madrid. While in Spain Cerone made detailed studies of Spanish music and theory that later played a large part in his own great treatise. He apparently left Spain in 1603 and became a priest and singer at the church of Ss Annunziata, Naples. In 1609 he also began to teach plainchant to the deacons of the church, for whom he probably wrote Le regole più necessarie per l'introduttione del canto fermo (Naples, 1609). From 1610 until his death he was a singer in the royal chapel....

Article

William Hays

(b ? c1636; d Paris, June 17, 1694). French composer, priest and serpent player. Papillon and Poisot asserted that he was born at Beaune. Brenet, however, maintained that he was born in Paris and that he entered the Ste Chapelle as a choirboy on 24 June 1645. The records of the Ste Chapelle relating to his death and burial state that he had been a choirboy there and had served the chapel uninterruptedly thereafter. On the title-page of his one extant work he is described as chaplain of the Ste Chapelle and also of Quimper Cathedral. Four masses by him were published in Paris: Missa ‘Pulchra ut luna’ (1689, 2/1729), Missa pro defunctis (1690), Missa ‘Floribus omnia cedant’ (1691) and Missa ‘Electa ut sol’ (1691), all for four voices, except the third, which was for five. Only the first is extant. Its style is simple and largely syllabic but with points of imitation even in the longer movements; it suffers from the monotony and narrow range of the melodic lines....

Article

Peter Le Huray

revised by Ian Spink

(b Oxford, bap. May 2, 1622; d London, Sept 1698). English divine. He was a chorister of Magdalen College, Oxford, from 1632 until 1642. On 1 July 1661 he was appointed a minor canon of St Paul’s Cathedral, London, and by 1682 had become senior cardinal. In 1663 he published a book of anthem texts entitled The Divine Services and Anthems usually sung in His Majesties Chappell, and in all Cathedrals and Collegiate Choires in England and Ireland, ‘that the people may follow the Choire in their Devotions without any loss or mistake’. Evidently the book met a need, for a greatly expanded edition followed in 1664. Both editions include ‘briefe Directions for the understanding of that part of the Divine Service performed with the Organ … on Sundays and Holydayes’; the second edition provided, in addition, not only the texts of many more anthems, but also a selection of chants for psalms and canticles. As evidence of the cathedral repertory and the way it expanded in the early years of the Restoration, the books are invaluable; likewise as a demonstration of the continuity of musical tradition despite a break of some 15 years following the suppression of choral services in ...

Article

Philippe Vendrix

(b c1579-1581; d Liège, May 30, 1654). Flemish composer, singer and priest. His name is first recorded in 1599, when he was one of the three duodeni seniori in the choir school of the cathedral of St Lambert, Liège. In the same year he received one of the two Toleolo bursaries. At that time he was probably about 18 to 20 years of age, and may have been a pupil of Dominus Henri Jamaer, singing master at the cathedral, and of his deputies Jacques Chabot and Narthodi Bartholdi. On 15 December 1606 he was appointed a singer at the cathedral, receiving a benefice (of the altar of St Aldegonde) from December 1611. In 1615 he seems to have spent a brief period in the collegiate church of St Denis as monitor choraylium, since on 12 September 1615 he was promoted to canon of the petite-table of the cathedral. A little later he became a priest, and was appointed ...

Article

Robert Thompson

(b c1656; d London, Feb 16, 1739). English cathedral singer and composer. According to Thomas Ford ( GB-Ob MS Mus. e. 17) he was ‘bred up under Capt Cook’ in the Chapel Royal. He matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, on 4 April 1674, later taking the degrees of BA (1677), MA (1680) and BD (1682). He was a chaplain of Christ Church from 1679 to 1711, although the college battel books suggest that after 1700 he was rarely present; from 22 December 1691 until his death he was a minor canon of St Paul’s Cathedral, London, where he also became sacrist and succentor. Estwick belonged to the Mermaid Tavern music club in Oxford and in 1726 was listed as a founder member of the Academy of Vocal Music ( Lbl Add. 11732). At the request of the stewards of the London Cecilian celebrations of ...

Article

Denise Launay

revised by James R. Anthony

(b Paris, April 26, 1567; d Paris, May 27, 1638). French composer, singer and priest. He was probably educated at the choir school of Notre Dame, Paris. By the time he was 20 ‘his ability in both music and letter’ was such that on 4 July 1587 he was admitted to the Ste Chapelle du Palais as a clerk; in a document of 28 February 1590 he described himself as a chantre ordinaire there. During the next two years the chapter reprimanded him on many occasions for drunkenness, lack of moderation and negligence in carrying out his duties. From the first quarter of 1592 his name appears in the records of the royal chapel as an haute-contre, with a salary of 150 livres. One of the sous-maîtres under whom he worked was Eustache Du Caurroy. As soon as Du Caurroy died, on 7 August 1609, he succeeded him as ...

Article

Alexander Lingas

[Germanos Neōn Patrōn]

(b Tyrnavo, Thessaly, ?1625; d ?Wallachia, 1685). Romaic (Greek) composer, cantor, and hymnographer. He studied Byzantine chant in Constantinople under the patriarchal prōtopsaltēs Panagiotes. Some time before 1665 he was elevated to the episcopacy, possibly at the instigation of Patriarch Dionysios III (a fellow native of Thessaly), becoming Metropolitan of New Patras (now Ypati). He appears to have resigned from the see before 1683 and subsequently travelled to Wallachia.

Musically active from at least the early 1660s, Germanos is known to have produced five autographs: two copies of his edition of the Stichērarion, a Mathēmatarion in two volumes, and an anthology of the Papadikē. An abundance of grammatical and spelling errors in these manuscripts suggest that he had received little more than a rudimentary general education, but he was nevertheless highly respected as a musician, teaching the composers Balasios and Kosmas Makedonos as well as the Wallachian prōtopsaltēs...

Article

Watkins Shaw

revised by Robert Ford

(b East Malling, Kent, March 25, 1650; d July 17, 1733). English cathedral singer and music copyist. He was educated at King’s School, Rochester, and St John’s College, Cambridge (sizar, 1668; BA, 1672–3). He was a minor canon of Canterbury Cathedral, 1675–1733. In addition he was a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal from 1679 and a minor canon of St Paul’s Cathedral from 1683 to 1733. His post of sub-dean of St Paul’s (from 1689), sometimes mentioned separately, was attached to his minor canonry there. Besides holding posts as clergyman-singer, he was vicar of Littlebourne, Kent, from 1675 to 1733 and rector of Hope All Saints, near New Romney, Kent, 1682–1709. He was a non-residentiary canon (with prebend) of Lincoln Cathedral, 1689–1733. On 20 December 1689 he was sworn a personal Chaplaine in Ordinary to William III. Both he and his son William Gostling were involved in Canterbury’s first music club and concert series. John Gostling was also a noted amateur viol player. Still active in ...

Article

Joan Parets i Serra

(b Palma de Mallorca, Aug 25, 1649; d Madrid, Oct 25, 1722). Spanish guitarist, singer, composer and priest. In 1659 he was admitted to the royal chapel in Madrid as a cantorcico (choirboy) and became a cantor (adult chorister) in 1669. From 1693 to 1701 he was chamber musician and maestro de capilla of the Colegio de Niños Cantores. His loyalty to Philip of Anjou was rewarded in 1700 when he was made a chaplain in the royal chapel. His brother Gabriel (?1653–1720) was also a singer.

Guerau’s Poema harmónico compuesto de varias cifras por el temple de le guitarra española (Madrid, 1694/R) includes 27 compositions and an introduction to the principles of tablature notation and ornamentation. The pieces are all variation sets of various types. Most are passacalles, but there are also other typically Spanish dances (jácaras, marizápalos, españoletas, folías etc.). Guerau’s style is characterized by its sobriety and by the use of ...