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Karol Berger

(b Genoa, c1600; d after 1640). Italian theorist. A Franciscan, he was chaplain and musician to Cardinal Franz von Dietrichstein, Prince-Bishop of Olomouc and governor of Moravia. Before 1629 he probably taught music at the seminary at St Oslowan and from 1629 at the newly established Loretan seminary at Nikolsburg (now Mikulov), the cardinal’s principal residence. He returned to Italy in 1632. His treatise Regulae contrapuncti excerptae ex operibus Zerlini et aliorum ad breviorem tyronum instructionem accommodate (St Oslowan, 1629/R), which in spite of its Latin title and dedicatory letter is written in Italian, was conceived as a textbook of counterpoint for his seminarians. It is an entirely unoriginal and conservative compendium of the most elementary rules concerning the use of consonances and dissonances, derived, according to the title, ‘from the works of Zarlino and others’.

ČSHS EitnerQ E. Bohn: Die musikalischen Handschriften des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts in der Stadtbibliothek zu Breslau...


Colleen Reardon

(b c1580; d Siena, Jan 1642). Italian composer and theorist.

Agazzari’s parents were evidently of Sienese origin, and he himself settled in Siena as a boy and received his training there, perhaps from Francesco Bianciardi. He was organist at Siena Cathedral from 1597 to 1602, when he left to direct the music at the Collegio Germanico, Rome (1602–3). In 1604 he attended the celebrations marking the centenary of Siena’s Accademia degli Intronati. By 1606 he was maestro di cappella at the Seminario Romano, but returned to Siena in 1607 after being blacklisted by the Cappella Sistina. In the following years he was organist at Siena Cathedral on three different occasions: in 1609, 1611–17, and 1629–33; he also served for two short periods as music director at S Maria di Provenzano, Siena, 1617–19 and 1620–?1622. Not until February 1641 was he appointed maestro di cappella...


H. Wiley Hitchcock

revised by Nicholas Temperley

(b Swanton Morley, Norfolk, bap. Jan 15, 1571; d Amsterdam, ?1622–3). English minister and psalmodist. He attended Cambridge University from 1586 to 1591, leaving without a degree. He was expatriated as a ‘Brownist’ in 1593 and settled in Amsterdam, where he became ‘teacher’ of the Ancient Separatist Church in 1596; in 1610 he founded an Independent church, becoming minister of it himself. He took the Calvinist position on predestination. He was the author of a number of controversial religious tracts, annotations, and translations of scripture. Many consider him one of the finest Hebrew scholars of his day. His Book of Psalmes: Englished both in Prose and Metre, with Annotations (Amsterdam, 1612, 4/1644; music ed. in ISAMm, xv, Brooklyn, NY, 1981) contains all 150 psalms in a new metrical version, together with prose translations and annotations. 48 are provided with monophonic tunes (six melodies are used twice and one three times). 21 of the 40 tunes are drawn from the Continental Reformed tradition, and 16 are from English sources (including three of the newer, short variety such as ...


Robert Shay

(b Westminster, London, Jan 1648; d Oxford, Dec 14, 1710). English scholar, composer and music collector. He matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford (after early training in mathematics at Westminster School), in 1662, receiving the BA, MA and DD degrees in 1666, 1669 and 1682 respectively. He took holy orders and was assigned the rectorate at Wem, Shropshire, but chose to remain at Christ Church, becoming a canon in 1681 and dean (a unique position in Oxford as head of both college and cathedral) in 1689, also serving as vice-chancellor of the University of Oxford, 1692–5. He was a leader of the Oxford resistance to James II's Catholic advances, and under William III he became one of the chief defenders of High Church practices, publicly opposing both the comprehension of non-Anglicans and revisions to the prayer book. He was an industrious and practically minded scholar, producing books on logic, heraldry and architecture, designing a number of Oxford buildings, serving as draftsman and engraver for the Oxford Almanacks, and producing a sizable body of compositions for the English cathedral service. His account of Greek music survives in manuscript (...


Ingo Schultz

revised by Howard Hotson

(b Ballersbach, nr Herborn, March 1588; d Gyulafehérvár [Weissenburg, Transylvania; [now Alba Julia, Romania], Nov 9, 1638). German theologian, encyclopedist and music theorist. From 1608 he taught at the Calvinist academy, Herborn, where J.A. Komenský was among his pupils. Following the disruptions of the Thirty Years War, he transferred to Gyulafehérvár in Transylvania in 1629–30. His liberal strand of Calvinist thought is reflected in his theological understanding of music: he tolerated secular music (both polyphonic and instrumental) alongside strictly regulated church music as long as it was committed to the spiritual purpose of all music. Classifying music among the mathematical disciplines, he treated it briefly in a series of mathematical textbooks and most extensively in his masterwork, the largest, most comprehensive and systematic encyclopedia assembled to that time (1630). Like that of most of the 37 disciplines handled in the work, his treatment of music is derivative, and its chief importance lies in its comprehensiveness, systematic presentation, wide distribution and easy accessibility within the encyclopedia as a whole. Like Erycius Puteanus and David Mostart, he favoured seven-syllable solmization series (...


Eleanor Selfridge-Field

(b Rimini, c1600; d Rimini, c1678). Italian composer and author. He was a priest and maestro di cappella of Rimini Cathedral. From 1649 he was librarian of the Biblioteca Gambalunghiana, Rimini. He wrote literary and historical works; all his music dates from his early years. He had some connection with the pseudonymous composer Accademico Bizzarro Capriccioso, to each of whose opp.1 and 2 (1620–21) he contributed a madrigal, one for two voices, the other for three. As a composer he is known mainly for three volumes of sacred music written mostly in a simple style suited to the needs of a provincial maestro di cappella: 14 eight-voice psalms with organ continuo, op.1, a book of four- and five-voice concertato masses, op.2 (incomplete), and four masses and two motets with organ continuo, op.3 (all Venice, 1623). The description ‘a tre voci variate’ of op.3 refers to an unusual arrangement of partbooks – one each for the highest, middle and lowest voices....


John Clapham

(b Frýdek, 1644; d Chroustovice, nr Chrudim, July 1, 1716). Czech priest and hymnologist. A priest of Chroustovice, he collected sacred songs over a long period. His hymnal, Slaviček rajský na stromě života slávu tvorci svému prozpěvující (‘A nightingale of paradise, perched on The tree of life, singing glory to its creator’; Hradec Králové, 1719), which bears a dedication to Count František Antonín Sporck, was published posthumously with the count’s support. It contains both old and new hymns from Bohemia and other lands, and with about 930 texts and 470 melodies is one of the larger Catholic collections of the period.

K. Konrád: ‘Božanův kancionál’ [Božan's hymnal], Cecilie, 4 (1877), 46–7, 67–8 J. Bužga: ‘Slaviček rajský Jana Josefa Božana’ [Božan's A nightingale of paradise], Časopis slezského musea, 5 (1956), 31–46 C. Schoenbaum: ‘Jan Joseph Božans Slavíček rájský (Paradiesnachtigall, 1719) und die tschechischen Katholischen Gesangbücher des XVII. Jahrhunderts’, ...


Yolande de Brossard

(b Dompierre, bap. Sept 12, 1655; d Meaux, Aug 10, 1730). French priest, theorist, composer, lexicographer and bibliophile. He was descended from a family founded by Antoine de Brossard (b c1286), a natural son of Charles de Valois (son of Philip the Bold) and Hélène Broschart, daughter of the king's treasurer. Sébastien was the last of a family of glass-blowers from lower Normandy. He studied at the Jesuit college in Caen and then attended that city's famous university, studying philosophy for two years and theology for three. When he turned to music, therefore, he was self-taught; he studied the lute, copying and composing pieces for the instrument. He took minor orders in 1675 and became a sub-deacon the next year, but the date when he became a priest is not known, nor is the date of his arrival in Paris. He was living there in ...


James W. Pruett

revised by Rebecca Herissone

(b Wycomb [?High Wycombe], Bucks., c1560; d Wootton St Lawrence, 28/March 29, 1647). English priest, philologist and amateur musician. He was a chorister at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, from 1579 to 1585, and later served as a Bible clerk at Magdalen College, taking the BA in 1583 and the MA in 1587. On leaving Oxford in 1593 he served for seven years as parish rector in Nately Scures, near Basingstoke, and as master of the Holy Ghost School in Basingstoke. In 1600 he became vicar of nearby Wootton St Lawrence, a post he held until his death. He was buried in the church he served.

Butler’s principal contributions were to the science of bee-keeping, the study of the English language, and 17th-century music theory. The Feminine Monarchie is devoted to the hierarchy, virtues, benefices and ‘music, of bees’; added to the minute detail on bee-keeping are Butler’s musical transcriptions of the buzzing of bees. In the first edition these consist of two simple melodies (one for the ‘Princess’ and one for the ‘Queen’) arranged in triple time; by the third edition, however, they have expanded into a large-scale four-part madrigal, the ...


Barton Hudson

(b Bergamo, 1566; d Naples, 1625). Italian theorist, singer and priest. From his early years Cerone associated himself with the music of Spain and the Spanish-owned Kingdom of Naples. In 1592, after singing for a time at the cathedral at Oristano, Sardinia, he went to Spain, where he served Philip II and later Philip III in their chapel; Italian musicians were rare at that time in Madrid. While in Spain Cerone made detailed studies of Spanish music and theory that later played a large part in his own great treatise. He apparently left Spain in 1603 and became a priest and singer at the church of Ss Annunziata, Naples. In 1609 he also began to teach plainchant to the deacons of the church, for whom he probably wrote Le regole più necessarie per l'introduttione del canto fermo (Naples, 1609). From 1610 until his death he was a singer in the royal chapel....


George J. Buelow

(b Gornitz, nr Borna, 1660; d Lockwitz, nr Dresden, May 25, 1731). German clergyman and writer. He studied theology at the universities of Leipzig and Wittenberg, receiving a master's degree from the latter in 1684. In 1685 he became a minister at Rothschönberg and in 1690 at Lockwitz. He wrote the chorale text Wohl dem, der Gott zum Freunde hat, but his more significant connection with music developed out of one of his several theological works, Unerkandte Sünden der Welt, nach Gottes heil. Wort, und Anleitung vornehmer Lehrer unserer Kirche, der sichern Welt zu ihrer Bekehrung vor Augen gestellt (Dresden, 1690, 5/1703). In chapter 81, ‘Von dem Missbrauch der Kirchen-Music’, he denounced, as a true Pietist, the use of music in the Protestant church, citing the scriptures and the words of Luther to prove that the church music of his time was sacrilegious. His overzealous criticisms and his frequently faulty citations from the Bible and Luther engendered an effective and interesting counter-attack in defence of church music by ...


Jan Kouba

[Comenius, Johann Amos]

(b Nivnice, nr Uherský Brod, March 28, 1592; d Amsterdam, Nov 15, 1670). Czech educational reformer, theologian, and hymnologist. He was made a priest of the evangelical church of the Bohemian Brethren in 1616, and in 1632 became its last bishop. He studied at the school of the Bohemian Brethren in Přerov from 1607, at the academy in Herborn from 1611 and at Heidelberg University from 1613. In 1614 he became administrator of the school in Přerov, and in 1618–21 he was spiritual guide of the community of German Brethren in Fulnek, north Moravia. In 1628 he left for Leszno in Poland to escape from Catholic persecution, and he returned there several times after visits to England (1641–2), Prussia (1642–8) and Hungary (1650–54). From 1656 until his death he lived in Amsterdam.

Komenský’s principal contribution to hymnology is his Kancionál, to jest kniha žalmů a písní duchovních...


Imogene Horsley

revised by Herbert Schneider

( fl 1680–1700). French theorist and church musician . According to the title page of his Nouveau traité he was director of music at Châlons-sur-Marne Cathedral, Champagne, around 1680, and later at the Maison Professe of the Jesuits in Paris. His Nouveau traité des règles pour la composition de la musique (Paris, 1697) was the main theory book used in France before Rameau. A second, heavily revised edition was brought out in 1699 (facs. (New York, 1967)) and had several reprintings (Paris, 1700, 1701, 1705/R; Amsterdam, c 1708; Paris 1738, 1755). Masson also published Divers traitez sur la composition de musique (Paris, 1705).

In his Nouveau traité, Masson followed Jean Rousseau and M.-A. Charpentier by giving rules for composing in the major and minor modes, and for using the figured bass for writing tasteful vocal counterpoint as well as for improvising accompaniments. He insists on the importance of tempo and metre to move the soul, and justifies the use of intervals such as the augmented second, and the use of chromaticism in several voices. The work ends with a short theory of fugue and canon. His rules are close to the practice of his day, and he often cites specific compositions by Lully as examples. Rameau refers to Masson several times in his ...


Don Harrán

( b Venice, 1571; d Venice, 1648). Italian rabbi, cantor and scholar . He was a cantor in the Scuola italiana (Italian synagogue), Venice, from 1607 until his death. He appears to have introduced some form of polyphony, probably improvised, into the synagogue at Ferrara in 1604. Erudite in Jewish and humanist studies, Modena composed more than 40 writings, on subjects as diverse as Hebrew language and grammar, lexicography, Jewish rites and customs, Kabbalah, alchemy and gambling, as well as various plays, prefaces and rabbinical authorizations, translations, editions, almost 400 poems, and a highly personal autobiography. Music occupied a central place in his life and thought. Among his extended responses to questions put to him in his capacity as a religious authority, he wrote two essays on music, specifically polyphony: the first (1605) legitimizes its use in Jewish prayer services and celebrations, as well as for study; the second (from later years) addresses the issue of whether it is permitted to repeat the name of God (in a single voice or between voices)....


F.J. León Tello

[Despuig, Guillermo ]

( fl late 15th century). Spanish priest and music theorist . Born possibly in Valencia or Tortosa, he is usually identified with the Guillermo de Puig who was curate of S Catalina, Alzira, from 1479 to 1488. A Guillermo Molins de Podio held a benefice at Barcelona Cathedral, and was a chaplain to John II of Aragon in 1474. The relationship between these two clergymen has not been established. The theorist wrote Ars musicorum (Valencia, 1495/R; ed. A. Seay, Colorado Springs, 1978) and In enchiridion de principiis musicae (MS, I-Bc ; ed. Anglès); the latter, apparently intended for Spanish students at Bologna, may be evidence that Podio visited that city. The first treatise comprises eight books and sets out to be exhaustive; an expanded treatment of part of it appears anonymously in In enchiridion. Podio’s musical aesthetic was based on the ideas expounded by Boethius; thus, he regarded music as a mathematical and physical science, integrated into the Quadrivium according to the Pythagorean system. He classified musicians as theoretical or practising exponents, the former, as was customary, being regarded as superior. On several important points he opposed Ramis de Pareia's innovations, particularly in his discussion of the sizes of intervals, where he adhered to Pythagorean arithmetic. In the same way, he retained and discussed the use of Guidonian solmization, rather than adopt Ramis’s syllabic notation. Podio attributed the growth of Roman chant and its relationship to polyphony to Pope Vitalian. ...


Patrizio Barbieri

(b Gunzing, near Lohnsburg am Inn, Germany, Nov 28, 1669, d Mainz, Germany, April 30, 1728). German priest, philosopher, editor of Latin works of Raymond Lull, and inventor of an enharmonic keyboard. While working at the court of Johann Wilhelm, Prince-Elector of the Palatinate, in Düsseldorf, Salzinger invented and built a keyboard (‘Tastatura nova perfecta’) accommodating the division of the octave into 31 equal parts. His enharmonic harpsichord is mentioned by Joseph Paris Feckler, who reports (1713) that a further two had been ordered: one for the Emperor in Augsburg, the other for the Grand Duke of Tuscany, in Florence. Details of this instrument appear in Salzinger’s ‘Revelatio secretorum artis’ (1721), which he published as an introduction to his edition of Lull’s Ars magna et major. This work tells that ‘the Most Serene Elector continuously used this harpsichord for music at court’, and that years earlier the construction of an organ with the same kind of keyboard had begun, only to be halted in ...


Karl-Ernst Bergunder


(b Erfurt, Aug 31, 1609; d Erfurt, April 5, 1680). German writer on music and organist. He spent his whole life at Erfurt. He attended the St Michael Lateinschule until 1621, when he transferred to the Protestant Ratsgymnasium, which was at that time noted for its fostering of music. One of his teachers there was Liborius Capsius, director of the collegium musicum and an important Erfurt University professor. He matriculated at the university in 1626, took his bachelor’s degree in 1628 and became a Master of Philosophy in 1629. He then became organist at the Protestant Thomaskirche and at the Catholic church of the Neuwerk monastery. From 1632 to 1635 he was Kantor and teacher at the Protestant school of preaching and also studied theology. In 1635 he was ordained and became deacon (in 1638 pastor) of the Kaufmannskirche in succession to Joseph Bötticher, who had won a good reputation as a musician. In ...