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Article

Katy Romanou

[ConstantinosConstantine](Alexandros)

(b Constantinople [Istanbul], May 19, 1866 or 1874; d Athens, July 9, 1949). Greek musicologist, music teacher, cantor, and composer. He was crucial in organizing a systematic teaching of Byzantine music in Greece and in establishing a uniform repertory and mode of interpretation in all church rites. After studying philology and theology in Constantinople and serving there as a cantor and a music teacher, he moved to Athens in 1904 to organize a course of Byzantine music in the Conservatory of Athens, an institution fully adapted to German and French music education. Through his articles (mainly in the music periodicals Phorminx (1901–10) and his own Nea [New] Phorminx (1921–2)), his lectures, and the performances he gave with his students, he was successful in changing prevailing ideas and practices, spreading the concept of the importance of preserving the ‘original’ sources.

The influence of equal temperament over Byzantine music performance was another concern of his. He organized concerts with the string professors of the Conservatory instructing them to use unorthodox tunings. In collaboration with the mathematician Stavros Vrachamis he designed, for teaching purposes, a keyboard of 42 keys in each octave, capable of producing all scales of the Byzantine echoi. An organ and a few harmoniums were constructed in 1924 in G.F. Steinmeyer’s factory in Oettingen in Germany; they were funded by his student Eva Palmer-Sikelianos, the American wife of the poet Angelos Sikelianos. Psachos gave the instruments her name (...

Article

Katy Romanou

(Theophrastou)

(b Litochoro, Pieria, Greece [then, Ottoman Empire], 1854; d Athens, Greece, 15 December 1938).

Greek cantor, choral conductor, arranger of church music, music teacher, and composer. He studied philology at the University of Athens and was instructed in both Byzantine and Western music. He taught music in schools and in private lessons. From 1904 to 1907 he taught H.J.W. Tillyard the New Method of Byzantine notation.

In the controversy called ‘The Music Question’ (whether church music should preserve its monophonic texture and neumatic notation or become homophonic notated in stave notation), Sakellarides was an enthusiastic exponent of the second option. Gifted with a flexible tenor voice, he attracted large congregations in central Athenian churches, including the cathedral, performing his own versions of liturgical chant, the product of his elementary knowledge of harmony. He attracted also wrathful criticism from purists.

Collaborating with Athens University professor Georgios Mistriotis, founder in 1876 of the Etaireia pros diadosin ton archaion dramaton (‘Society for the Dissemination of Ancient Dramas’), Sakellarides wrote music for Euripides’s ...

Article

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Dresden, July 25, 1780; d Leipzig, March 7, 1842). German Kantor, composer and teacher . He was the nephew of Christian Ehregott Weinlig (b Dresden, 30 Sept 1743; d Dresden, 14 March 1813), who was an organist in Leipzig (1767–73), a renowned Kantor at the Dresden Kreuzschule from 1785 and a composer of sacred and instrumental music. He first studied and practised law (1797–1803), then took music lessons (especially in composition) with his uncle (1804–6) and with Stanislao Mattei in Bologna (1806). He was Kantor of the Kreuzschule from 1814 to 1817, and in 1823 moved from Dresden to succeed Schicht as Kantor of the Thomaskirche in Leipzig: Weber’s letter of recommendation for this position described him as deeply devoted to his art and gifted with profound insight. In Leipzig Weinlig set himself to maintain the great tradition of the Thomaskirche and raised the standard of performance to a high level. Among others, Mendelssohn praised his activity at the Thomaskirche, where Weinlig remained until his death. A learned and conscientious teacher, he numbered among his pupils Clara Schumann, E.F.E. Richter and Richard Wagner. Though Wagner studied with Weinlig for only about six months (beginning about ...