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Article

Anna Maria Busse Berger

(b Schwiebus [now Świebodzin, Poland], c1486; d Magdeburg, June 10, 1556). German music theorist, teacher and composer. According to his own statements, he came from a peasant family and was largely self-taught in music. By 1520 he was in Magdeburg working as a music teacher. He became choirmaster of the Protestant Lateinschule in about 1525 and retained this position until his death.

Agricola was one of the earliest teachers of music to realize Luther's wish to incorporate music as a central component of Protestant education. His foremost aim in educating students and congregation was to present material as clearly as possible and to reach a large audience. It was for this reason that his early treatises were written in German rather than the customary Latin. His translation of the terms clavis (as Schlüssel), vox (as Stimme or Silbe) and scala (as Leiter) are still used today. His desire to relate music education to everyday life can be seen in his modernization of old-fashioned rules of harmonic and rhythmic proportions, which he related to commercial arithmetic, in particular the Rule of Three, which formed the most important component of arithmetic instruction in Latin schools. He was the only theorist to consider ...

Article

[Johann]

(b Tonnedorf, nr Erfurt; d Eisenberg, nr Gera, Jan 22, 1617). German writer on music, composer and schoolmaster. In 1579 he was teaching at the Lateinschule at Ronneburg, near Gera, and in 1591 he was Rektor of the Lateinschule at Gera. Later he was a preacher at Bernsdorf, near Torgau, at Munich and at Krossen, near Gera, and from ...

Article

F.E. Kirby

(b Immecke, nr Meinerzhagen, 1536; d Dortmund, Aug 6, 1609). German theorist, teacher and Kantor. He was educated first in Münster and Dortmund, and later at Cologne University where he received the MA in 1560. After serving as teacher, Kantor and administrator for several years in various schools, mainly in Dortmund, he took up a post in 1567 as Kantor at the famous Reinoldi School there; he became Rektor in 1582 in succession to his former teacher and long-standing friend and colleague, Johann Lambach. His work in this post was widely acclaimed and in 1587 he was made Comes Palatinus by Emperor Rudolf II.

He is important for his treatise Erotematum musicae, originally published in 1573 under the title Musicae erotematum, and subsequently reprinted three times. The treatise, of the musica practica type, presents the fundamentals of music in question and answer form. For his formulations Beurhaus borrowed considerably, as was customary in a treatise of this kind, from other German theorists of the time, notably Agricola, Faber (both Gregor and Heinrich), Figulus, Galliculus, Ornithoparchus, Wilfflingseder and Zanger....

Article

(b ?Liegnitz [now Legnica], c1494; d after 1527). German theorist. The family residence in Liegnitz is documented from 1381, but the name is absent from the town records begun in 1546. Bogentantz attended the Gymnasium in Goldberg, and in 1508 he matriculated in the faculty of arts of Cologne University, where he may have been the pupil of Cochlaeus and fellow student of Glarean. In 1516 he was granted the status of magister, and he probably taught there for two years in accordance with the faculty regulations. In 1525 he matriculated at Wittenberg University, perhaps to study theology; he returned to Liegnitz in 1527. No documents have been found to support Bauch’s theory that Bogentantz was rector of the parish school of St Peter and St Paul Liegnitz, from about 1530.

Bogentantz wrote a music treatise, Collectanea utriusque cantus … musicam discere cupientibus oppido necessaria (Cologne, 1515...

Article

Heinrich Hüschen

[Borckhart, Burchard, Burckhart, Burgardus, Purckhart; Ulrich]

(b Waischenfeld, c1484). German music theorist and theologian. He attended the cathedral school in Bamberg and in 1500 entered Leipzig University where he became Bachelor of Arts in 1507, Master of Arts in 1511 and from 1513 until 1515 taught as Master of Law. In 1515 he joined the theology faculty, but left Leipzig in 1516 and returned to Bamberg, where he was court chaplain until 1527 and served the prince-bishops Georg III of Limburg and Weigand von Redwitz. In Bamberg he got to know Tilman Riemenschneider and Albrecht Dürer and in 1517, 1518 and 1520 had contact with von Hutten. The publication of Burchardi’s Ein schöner Dialog von dem christlichen Glauben (Bamberg, 1527), in which he presented a German translation of his treatise Dialogus de fide christiana (Bamberg, 1522), a work in the spirit of Erasmus’s reforming zeal, led to his dismissal from the service of the prince-bishops. He resumed his teaching at Leipzig University and in ...

Article

Adam Adrio

revised by Clytus Gottwald

[Kalwitz, Seth]

(b Gorsleben, nr Sachsenburg, Thuringia, Feb 21, 1556; d Leipzig, Nov 24, 1615). German music theorist, composer, teacher, chronologist and astronomer. He was one of the most influential German theorists of his time and prominent in the musical and intellectual life of Leipzig.

After attending schools at Frankenhausen and Magdeburg, Calvisius began his studies at the University of Helmstedt in 1579 and continued them from Easter 1580 at the University of Leipzig, where he had matriculated in 1576. In 1581 he became Kantor at the Paulinerkirche, Leipzig, only to move in November 1582, on the recommendation of the Leipzig theologian Nikolaus Selnecker, to Schulpforta as Kantor of the Fürstenschule. He spent 12 fruitful years there not only as an inspiring teacher but also in the study of history, chronology and music theory. In May 1594 he was recalled to Leipzig as Kantor of the Thomaskirche in succession to Valentin Otto. For a short period in about ...

Article

Donna G. Cardamone

revised by James Haar

(b Monte San Giovanni Campano, nr Arpino, c1510; d after 1579). Italian composer, teacher, poet and theorist. He was active in Naples during the 1540s, though he seems never to have held a permanent post there. He was attached, perhaps informally, to the entourage of Giovanna d'Aragona: his madrigal volume of 1548 opens with dedicatory poems addressed to her and her sons Fabrizio and Marc'Antonio Colonna. He seems also to have had some connection with the short-lived Accademia dei Sereni (1546–8), composing a madrigal for a comedy staged there in 1548. At some point, perhaps in the 1550s, Cimello was in Rome in the service of Marc'Antonio Colonna. During that time he began a treatise on plainchant reform, and he had some dealings with Annibale Zoilo, to which he later alluded in a rambling letter to Cardinal Guglielmo Sirleto (in I-Rvat ). In the early 1570s he was in Benevento, teaching grammar and music at the local seminary and doing research on witchcraft in the area; he claimed to have written some collections of poetry (none are known to survive) including a poem called ...

Article

(b Wendelstein, Jan 10, 1479; d Breslau, Jan 10, 1552). German theologian, historian, humanist, music theorist and pedagogue. After studies with Heinrich Grieninger in Nuremberg, Cochlaeus entered the University of Cologne in 1504. A year later he had already gained the baccalaureate degree and in 1507 the MA. During these years his first treatise, Musica, was printed in three editions. He also became the music teacher of Heinrich Glarean, who, greatly admiring him, later included in his Dodecachordon three pedagogical compositions from his Musica. In 1510 on the recommendation of Willibald Pirckheimer, he became the rector of St Lorenz school in Nuremberg. There he organized a humanistically orientated curriculum and wrote the Tetrachordum musices (1511), his most valuable music treatise. In 1517 he earned a doctorate in theology at Ferrara and was ordained to the priesthood in Rome. In succeeding years he acquired a reputation as a fierce and unremitting opponent of Lutheranism and Calvinism. In an encounter with Luther at Worms in ...

Article

Claude V. Palisca

(b Deruta, nr Perugia, c1554; d after March 25, 1610). Italian organist, teacher and music theorist. He was the author of the first comprehensive treatise on organ playing, in the form of a dialogue under the title Il transilvano, published in two parts (Venice, 1593, 1609).

In a letter dated 1 February 1602 from Chioggia to the magistrates of Deruta, Diruta pleaded that after 30 years of work he desired to return to his homeland. This would indicate that he began his career as an organist in about 1572. On 19 June 1574 he entered the Franciscan monastery of Correggio, near Reggio nell'Emilia, at the same time as Battista Capuani, who may have been his first teacher. He apparently went to Venice in about 1580: he acknowledged that he had as preceptors Zarlino, Costanzo Porta and Claudio Merulo (Il transilvano, seconda parte, iii, 11). Merulo left Venice in ...

Article

Martin Ruhnke

(b Brandenburg an der Havel, 1561; d Stargard, Pomerania, June 12, 1623). German music theorist, teacher and composer. He is a direct ancestor of the conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler. He taught at the town school at Stargard from 1588, and by 1596 he was Kantor there. Both in their subject matter and in the treatment of it, his two treatises on music are superior to the usual German song manuals for schools. In Oratio de divina origine atque utilitate multiplici … artis musicae (Stettin, 1600) he set out to demonstrate the divine origins and miraculous properties of music, drawing on biblical evidence and the writings of Boethius.

Eichmann was also concerned with improving the effectiveness of new music. Music, he maintained, could fulfil its purpose, stirring the emotions, bringing order into people’s lives and heightening their awareness of God, only when it was well performed. Singers must therefore master the foundations of music theory and performing practice. ...

Article

Michael Fend

[Lefèvre d’Etaples, Jacques]

(b Etaples,c1460; d Nérac, 1536). French theologian, scholar and music theorist . He matriculated at the University of Paris, possibly in 1474 or 1475, and received the BA in 1479 and the MA probably in 1480. He taught in the Faculty of Arts at the Collège du Cardinal Lemoine, University of Paris, until 1508 and was afterwards active as a scholar at the abbey of St Germain-des-Prés outside Paris. There he prepared a French translation of the New Testament and Psalms, which provoked the Parlement of Paris to summon him on suspicion of heresy. Clearly in sympathy with the Reformation, he fled to Strasbourg in 1525, but in 1526 he was recalled by François I, who appointed him librarian of the royal collection and made him tutor to his children. Faber completed his translation under royal protection; it was published in 1530. He spent his last years at the court of Queen Marguerite of Navarre....

Article

Clement A. Miller

[Lichtenfels, Hainrich]

(b Lichtenfels, before 1500; d Oelsnitz, Feb 26, 1552). German music theorist and composer . Under the name of Hainrich Lichtenfels he may have been a singer from 1515 to 1524 in Copenhagen at the court of King Christian II of Denmark (see Peters-Marquardt). In 1538 he was a teacher at the Benedictine monastery of St George in Naumburg. He entered the University of Wittenberg in 1542 and three years later received the Master of Arts degree. Meanwhile he became rector of the cathedral school of Naumburg in 1544, but his advocacy of Lutheran doctrines brought him into conflict with Catholic authorities and in about 1549 he left the city. He lectured on music in 1551 at Wittenberg, and at the time of his death he was rector at Oelsnitz.

Faber’s musical renown rests on three theoretical works. His Compendiolum musicae (Brunswick, 1548), a textbook for beginners in music, was the most popular music treatise in Lutheran schools during the 16th and 17th centuries. It had more than 30 editions, the last appearing in ...

Article

F.E. Kirby

(b Pirna, March 21, 1527; d Wittenberg, Dec 29, 1558). German theorist, composer, teacher and organist. He was the great-nephew of the composer Heinrich Finck. After early training, presumably in Pirna, it is thought that he joined the chapel of King Ferdinand I of Hungary and Bohemia. In 1545 he matriculated at Wittenberg University, where in 1554 he became a teacher of music. Three years later he was appointed organist in Wittenberg. He does not appear ever to have lived in Poland, as has been suggested on the basis of the dedication of his most important work, the treatise Practica musica, to members of the Gorca family (Polish nobility prominent in Wittenberg).

Finck was involved with the intellectual life of Wittenberg, then a centre of Lutheranism and humanism. In particular he gained the support of Melanchthon, two of whose poems he set to music and whose Epistola complectens commendationem musicae...

Article

Clement A. Miller

[Fries, Hans]

(b Greifensee, canton of Zürich, 1505; d Zürich, Jan 28, 1565). Swiss schoolteacher, theologian, philologist, humanist and music theorist. Between 1527 and 1531 he attended the cathedral school in Zürich on a scholarship provided by the Swiss reformer, Ulrich Zwingli. In the company of his friend the polyhistor Conrad Gesner he went to Paris in 1533 and for two years studied music and philology at the university. After spending a year teaching in the Lateinschule at Basle he returned to Zürich in 1537 as a teacher of Latin, Greek and music in the cathedral school, a position he held until his death. In order to complete his education he went to Italy in 1545. Although he visited many Italian cities, Venice was of particular importance, for there he studied Hebrew and numerous Latin and Greek manuscripts. After returning to Zürich in 1547 he reorganized musical instruction in its schools. He was interested in both sacred and secular music, and studied the lute in ...

Article

Claude V. Palisca

[Vincentio, Vincenzio]

(b S Maria a Monte, Tuscany, probably in the late 1520s; d Florence, bur. July 2, 1591). Italian theorist, composer, lutenist, singer and teacher. He was the leader of the movement to revive through monody the ancient Greek ideal of the union of music and poetry.

Galilei was probably born later than his traditionally accepted date of birth of about 1520. As a youth he studied the lute. It was probably his playing that attracted the attention of Giovanni de' Bardi, his principal patron, who facilitated his theoretical studies with Zarlino in Venice, probably about 1563. By that time he had settled in Pisa, where in 1562 he married a member of a local noble family. The scientist Galileo (who was born in 1564) was the first of his six or seven children; another was the lutenist Michelagnolo Galilei (b 18 Dec 1575; d 3 Jan 1631...

Article

Elżbieta Witkowska-Zaremba

[Schelling, Jan]

(b Glogau [now Głogów], ?c1445; d Kraków, Feb 11, 1507). Polish philosopher, astronomer and music theorist. After studying at Kraków University, he was a lecturer there for 40 years. During 1497–8 he lectured in mathematics in Vienna. He was one of the leading scholars in Kraków and Copernicus was probably among his pupils. A manuscript from the Krasiński Library, Warsaw, that included two treatises associated with Jan z Głogowa (MS 47) was destroyed during World War II. The treatises taken together were most probably a commentary on Johannes de Muris’s Musica speculativa. The manuscript, written during the period 1475–8, was owned by Jan z Głogowa and included his writings on astronomy. His commentary to Aristotle’s De anima, Quaestiones librorum de anima magistri 10 annis versaris (Kraków, 1501), presents some of the more standard views of medieval philosophy on the place of music among the mathematical disciplines....

Article

Wilfried Brennecke

[Johann]

(b Braunau am Inn; fl 1580–87). German composer, music theorist and schoolmaster of Austrian birth. From an entry in the accounts of the Stuttgart church administration dated 15 November 1580 it appears that he was converted to the Protestant faith while a member of the Jesuit college in Vienna and that he made his way to Stuttgart with an introduction from the Protestant authorities in Austria. In Stuttgart he received a grant to study for one year from Duke Ludwig of Württemberg and matriculated at Tübingen. In the autumn of 1581 he became a Kantor at Lauingen, near Ulm, and in 1582 a schoolmaster at the town’s grammar school, which, as a ‘Gymnasium illustre’ (or rectorial school), was not just an ordinary grammar school, but one at which theologians and lawyers also received their training. In his Perfacilis, brevis, et expedita ratio componendi symphonias, concentusque musicos (Lauingen, 1585...

Article

Elżbieta Witkowska-Zaremba

(b Legnica, 1464; d after 1546). German humanist, theorist and composer, active in Poland. He belonged to a German family in Silesia and his true name was probably Weihrauch. In 1494 he began his studies at Kraków University, and later went to Cologne for a time before returning to Kraków in 1501. From 1506 he was probably associated with the Gymnasium of the church of St Maria, Kraków, first as a cantor and from 1514 as rector. In 1511, 1513 and 1520 Liban lectured at Kraków University. About 1530 he travelled to the abbey of St Florian, near Linz. Among his many writings are two music treatises: De accentuum ecclesiasticorum exquisita ratione and De musicae laudibus oratio (both Kraków, c1539). There are also passages on music in his De philosophiae laudibus oratio (Kraków, 1537). All three treatises are reprinted in MMP, ser.D, vi–viii (1975–6...

Article

Walter Blankenburg

(b Schneeberg, Saxony, April 4, 1515; d Königsberg, Nov 27, 1585). German jurist and humanist. He was one of the children of a Saxon mine inspector. In 1527 he went to school and later to university in Leipzig; in 1535 he took the Master of Arts degree and remained as a teacher at the university until 1550, when he became Hofmeister (private tutor) to two noble students at Leuven University and, from 1551, at the University of Paris. On returning to Leipzig in 1556, he was appointed councillor and chancellor to the Prince of Meissen (Saxony). In 1562 he went to Bologna to study at the university, taking the degree of Doctor of Laws, and in 1563 he was called by Duke Albrecht of Prussia to the chair of law at Königsberg University, where he stayed until his retirement in 1580.

Lobwasser's great achievement was the translation of the Genevan (or Huguenot) Psalter into German, following the original verse forms exactly, in the years immediately after its completion in ...

Article

Hans-Christian Müller

revised by Robin A. Leaver

( b Bretten, Feb 16, 1497; d Wittenberg, April 19, 1560). German Lutheran theologian . He was a great-nephew of the humanist Reuchlin. After attending the Latin school in Pforzheim, he became a student at Heidelberg University in 1509, transferring in 1512 to Tübingen, where he took the master’s degree in 1514. In 1517 he took up a post teaching Greek at Wittenberg University, where he remained for the rest of his life. In the same year he published a lecture, De artibus liberalibus, in which he articulated a new understanding of music as an art form akin to literary poetics. Influenced by Luther, he took the degree of Bachelor of Theology in 1520 and later became professor of theology.

He worked closely with Luther in the reforming movement, establishing its theology and practice. His Loci communes (Augsburg, 1521) established the parameters for the teaching of Lutheran theology, normative well into the next century, and his primary work on the Augsburg Confession (...