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John C.G. Waterhouse

[Ottavio Felice Gaspare Maria]

(b Montegiorgio, Ascoli Piceno, Nov 16, 1881; d Montegiorgio, Dec 28, 1928). Italian musicologist, conductor and composer. He studied the piano, organ and composition at the Liceo Musicale di S Cecilia, Rome, where he gained his diploma in 1906 and was from 1912 professor of aesthetics and music history. He also graduated in 1907 from Rome University with a thesis on the Italian oratorio, subsequently expanded into an important book. His scholarly writings – notably those on Italian laudi spirituali and on Carissimi – in general helped to lay the foundations of modern Italian musicology. As a conductor he specialized in choral music, and in 1926 he founded the Madrigalisti Romani. He also fought hard for the improvement of Italian music education. His most ambitious composition, the opera Mirra, is eclectic and uneven, but shows technical enterprise – not least in the brief use of a specially constructed ‘pentaphonic harmonium’, in which the octave was divided into five equal parts (cf Indonesian ...

Article

Saul Novack

(Ludwig)

(b Cologne, Nov 17, 1902; d Basle, Oct 19, 1996). American musicologist and pianist of German origin. After schooling in Cologne he was awarded a music teacher's diploma by the Austrian State Commission in 1930. He studied musicology at the University of Vienna (1933–8), and took the doctorate in 1938 with a dissertation on acoustical psychology. He also studied privately with Schenker. In 1940 he emigrated to the USA, later becoming an American citizen, and was active as a conductor, teacher, accompanist and répétiteur. He held teaching posts at the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music and Art (1947–53) and the University of California at Los Angeles (1953–6) before his appointment in 1956 as professor of music at the California State University at Los Angeles, where he taught until his retirement in 1970 as professor emeritus. He frequently served as accompanist to distinguished singers such as Elisabeth Schumann, Pinza and Fischer-Dieskau, and assisted Lotte Lehmann in her art-song courses. Albersheim was one of the first to write on the importance of the theories of Heinrich Schenker, whose influence is occasionally reflected in his writings. He wrote mainly on acoustics and the psychology of hearing, as well as its relationship to musical aesthetics....

Article

José López-Calo

(b Évora, Dec 27, 1917). Portuguese musicologist. He studied music at the Évora Seminary and in Rome at the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra, where he obtained the licentiate in 1951. From 1940 he taught music and conducted the choir at the Évora Seminary; he also taught at the Centro de Estudios Gregorianos, Lisbon, where in 1966 he succeeded Mario Sampayo as conductor of the Polyphonia, a choir devoted to the interpretation of early music (particularly Portuguese). In 1974 he resigned from both posts. He was made canon of the Évora Cathedral Chapter, where he was active as mestre da capela, in 1957 and was granted the honorary doctorate by the University of Évora in 1988. He has contributed to the encyclopedia Verbo and to various national journals, and has taken part in many conferences, both national and international. His publications may be divided into three fields: transcriptions of Portuguese polyphonic music, catalogues of Portuguese musical archives, and diverse writings on the history of Portuguese music, particularly in the cathedrals. His transcriptions are always extremely accurate and faithful to the originals and, at the same time, practical for choral use. His catalogues, though seldom including musical incipits, are complete, detailed and clear, and form the greatest list of musical sources in Portugal....

Article

Carolyn Gianturco and Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Mosso Santa Maria, nr Biella, Jan 31, 1921). Italian musicologist. He took diplomas in piano at the Parma Conservatory (1942) and in choral music at the Turin Conservatory (1948), and studied music history with Della Corte at Turin University, where he took an arts degree (1946). He subsequently taught music history in the conservatories of Bolzano (1950–51), Parma (1951–5) and Milan (1954–88); he has edited the journals Almanacco musicale italiano (1954–5), Ricordiana (1955–7) and Musica d’oggi (1958–63) and has been vice-director of Enciclopedia della musica Ricordi (1960–64). He has been a consulting editor for Ricordi since 1964. Music education is one of his major interests: he became director of the series Manuali di Didattica Musicale and Canti nel Mondo (Ricordi) in 1965, and editor of Educazione musicale...

Article

Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Neuss, July 6, 1899; d Lüdenscheid, Sept 1, 1994). German musicologist and choir director. He studied musicology with Ludwig at Göttingen University (1919–21) and subsequently with Gurlitt at Freiburg University, where he received the doctorate in 1924 with a dissertation on the melodies Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen and Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh' darein. He was a lecturer at the Bauernhochschule in Rendsburg (1924–5) and at the Volkshochschule in Kassel (1925–6). He then acted as music consultant to the Central Office for General Librarianship in Leipzig (1926–8) and lectured in Protestant church music at the University of Münster (1930–39). After the war he lectured at the Landeskirchenmusikschulen of Hanover (1947–8) and the Rhineland (1949–57).

In the early 1920s Ameln embarked on a fruitful career as a choral and orchestral conductor and director of choral courses. His object was the authentic performance of old music, and this was coupled with considerable editorial work. He edited the journal of the Finkenstein League, ...

Article

Lawrence Schenbeck

(b Detroit, MI, Sept 24, 1951). American composer, theorist, and jazz saxophonist. He attended public schools in Detroit, including Cass Technical High School, where he studied jazz and led his own band, the Seven Sounds. He continued his education at the University of Michigan (BMEd 1973, MA 1974) and at Yale University (MDiv 1977, PhD music theory 1993). Andrews was ordained as a minister in 1978, serving as Yale University campus chaplain and as faculty member in the Music Department and Department of African American Studies for more than a decade. During that period he met Lloyd Richards, director of the Yale Repertory Theatre, and playwright August Wilson. Andrews became resident music director (1979–86) for the company and contributed original music scores to a number of Wilson’s plays, including Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom, Joe Turner’s Come and Gone, Fences, The Piano Lesson, and Seven Guitars...

Article

Rreze Kryeziu

(b Skopje, Macedonia, Sept 23, 1909; d Pristina, Kosovo, Oct 21, 1991). Albanian composer, music pedagogue, conductor, and ethnomusicologist. He learned music by analysing the works of other composers and by attending private lessons with professors in Belgrade. During his secondary education he learned to play the violin, the cello, and the piano. He arrived in Kosovo to pursue a career as a music pedagogue. He spent a decade in Prizren (1946–56), which was typified by intense musical activity and during which time he directed the choir SH.K.A. ‘Agimi’ (1944) and was a professor and director of the School of Music (1948). (See E. Berisha: Studime dhe vështrime për muzikën, Pristina, 2004, 209–14).

His familiarity with folk music is evidenced by his analyses of Albanian folk songs, which he summarized in a seven volume work called Albanian Folk Music. As a result of this work, he became known as the first ethnomusicologist specializing in Albanian folklore....

Article

Vera Lampert

[Weisshaus, Imre]

(b Budapest, Oct 22, 1905; d Paris, Nov 28, 1987). French composer, pianist and ethnomusicologist of Hungarian birth. He studied the piano at the Budapest Academy of Music with Bartók (1921–4), whose advice on composition he often sought in later years and who kindled his love for folksong and collection. (In a lecture given at Harvard in 1943, Bartók spoke of Arma’s textless song for solo voice on one pitch with variations of vowel sound, dynamic and rhythm.) Arma began his career as a member of the Budapest Piano Trio (1925–6). Between 1924 and 1930 he gave many recitals in Europe and the USA and lectured on contemporary music at American universities. He settled in Germany in 1931, and for a time he led the musical activities at the Dessau Bauhaus, lecturing on modern music and experimenting with electronic music produced on gramophone records. Later he lived in Berlin and Leipzig, where he conducted several smaller choirs and orchestras. The advent of the Nazi regime in Germany forced his move to Paris, where he made his permanent home. At first he was associated with the RTF, notably as founder-director of the Loisirs Musicaux de la Jeunesse (...

Article

Michael B. Bakan

[Gedé ]

(b Kaliungu Kaja, Denpasar, 1955). Balinese composer, performer, teacher and musicologist. Born into a musical family, he is the brother of I Komang Astita and the cousin of Wayan Sadra and I Wayan Yudana, all well-known composers. He has taught composition and gamelan performance at the Sekolah Menengah Karawitan Indonesia and Sekolah Tinggi Seni Indonesia in Bali since 1981. He is a graduate of these same institutions (1974 and 1980 respectively) and also holds a graduate degree (SSKar) from the Institut Seni Indonesia in Yogyakarta, as well as an MA in ethnomusicology from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, where he wrote his thesis on Balinese gambuh drumming under the direction of Mantle Hood (1991). He directed the Balinese gamelan programme at the University of Maryland while a student there (1988–91), and since that time has taught gamelan at the University of Montreal (...

Article

Ada Benediktovna Schnitke

(b Odessa, 18/Jan 31, 1906; d Leningrad, June 25, 1985). Russian musicologist, pianist and teacher. He studied the piano with G.M. Biber and composition with V.A. Zolotaryov at the Odessa Conservatory (1920–25) and mathematics at Odessa University (1922–5). He later completed his musical studies with F. Blumenfel′d at the Moscow Conservatory (1925–30). He taught in a music school in Odessa (1923–5), and worked at the Moscow Central School of Music from 1930 and in the Moscow Music Department of the Commissariat for Public Education (1930–31). Concurrently he was deputy chairman of the piano and methodology section of the State Institute for Musical Sciences in Moscow. From 1931 to 1939 he taught at the Moscow Conservatory, where he ran a class for the piano and the methodology of piano teaching. He was appointed senior scientific officer at the Science Research Institute for Music attached to the Moscow Conservatory in ...

Article

(b Tarnopol′, 8/Feb 20, 1888; d L′viv, June 9, 1963). Ukrainian composer, musicologist, pianist and teacher. He took piano lessons first at the K. Mikuli Music School (1895–1905) and with W. Kurtz (1905–06) at the conservatory in L′viv. During the same period he studied jurisprudence at Lemberg University, and from 1907, philosophy at the University of Prague. In Prague Barvyns′ky studied musicology with Z. Nejedly and O. Hostinsky, the piano with I. Holfeld and composition with Vítězsláv Novák (1908–14), who exerted a powerful influence on him. From 1915 to 1939 Barvyns′ky taught at, and was director of, the Lysenko Music Institute in L′viv, and also taught at the conservatory there (1939–41 and 1944–8). A prolific organizer, he initiated and took part in many musical activities in L′viv and became a member of the editorial board of the journal ...

Article

Jean-Paul Montagnier

(b Mantes-la-Jolie, 5/June 6, 1665; d Paris, July 6, 1734). French composer, harpsichordist, theorist and teacher. He probably learnt music in the maîtrise of the collegiate church of Notre Dame, Mantes, and in that of Evreux Cathedral. According to the Etat actuel de la Musique du Roi (1773) he then studied with Caldara in Rome. In 1692 Bernier was living in the rue Tiquetonne in Paris and was teaching the harpsichord. On 20 November 1693 he failed to win the post of maître de musique at Rouen Cathedral in competition with Jean-François Lalouette. He was appointed head of the maîtrise of Chartres Cathedral on 17 September 1694 and remained there until 18 March 1698, when he obtained a similar position at St Germain-l'Auxerrois, Paris. A Te Deum performed before the king at Fontainebleau on 24 October 1700 was very successful, and was sung again in several Parisian churches in ...

Article

F.E. Kirby

(b Immecke, nr Meinerzhagen, 1536; d Dortmund, Aug 6, 1609). German theorist, teacher and Kantor. He was educated first in Münster and Dortmund, and later at Cologne University where he received the MA in 1560. After serving as teacher, Kantor and administrator for several years in various schools, mainly in Dortmund, he took up a post in 1567 as Kantor at the famous Reinoldi School there; he became Rektor in 1582 in succession to his former teacher and long-standing friend and colleague, Johann Lambach. His work in this post was widely acclaimed and in 1587 he was made Comes Palatinus by Emperor Rudolf II.

He is important for his treatise Erotematum musicae, originally published in 1573 under the title Musicae erotematum, and subsequently reprinted three times. The treatise, of the musica practica type, presents the fundamentals of music in question and answer form. For his formulations Beurhaus borrowed considerably, as was customary in a treatise of this kind, from other German theorists of the time, notably Agricola, Faber (both Gregor and Heinrich), Figulus, Galliculus, Ornithoparchus, Wilfflingseder and Zanger....

Article

Lisa Summer

(b Rockford, IL, March 31, 1921). American music therapy clinician, educator, and researcher. She received degrees from Oberlin College Conservatory (BM violin performance 1943), the University of Kansas (music therapy equivalency 1964, MME 1968), and Union Institute and College in Cincinnati, Ohio (PhD 1976). She is acknowledged as the first pioneer in humanistic/transpersonal music psychotherapy for the method she developed in 1970: Guided Imagery and Music (GIM), alternatively referred to as the “Bonny Method.” GIM sessions combine a relaxation procedure with evocative classical music. A trained therapist assists the client in experiencing music as a vehicle for psychological and spiritual transformation. After developing GIM, Bonny was director of music therapy at Catholic University (1975–9). She also disseminated her method and its adaptations through her Institute for Music and Consciousness in Baltimore, Maryland (1972–9), and at the Bonny Foundation for Music-centered Therapies in Salina, Kansas (...

Article

Howard Schott

( b Lausanne, May 5, 1944). Swiss clavichord player and musicologist . After piano studies in Lausanne (1963–7) and Vienna (1968–9), he became increasingly attracted to the clavichord and its repertory. He made his European début at Fribourg, Switzerland, in 1972 and his American début at Marlboro College, Vermont, in 1973. He studied musicology at the New England Conservatory with Julia Sutton (MMus 1976) and began research in early Iberian clavichord music with Macario Santiago Kastner in Lisbon in 1977. He regularly tours Europe and North America, performing and recording a wide repertory of Renaissance and Baroque clavichord music, with an emphasis on Iberian composers. He has won high praise as a sensitive and tasteful performer. In contrast to most other modern clavichord players, he restricts himself to the fretted form of the instrument. Brauchli has given summer courses in many European countries, has lectured at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and was appointed professor of clavichord at the New England Conservatory in ...

Article

F.E. Sparshott

(Jeanne Marie Noémie)

(b Fontenay-le-Comte, Vendée, March 6, 1915; d Sèvres, June 21, 1973). French musicologist and pianist. She studied the piano at the conservatories of Nantes (under G. Arcouet) and Paris (under Lazare Lévy), and biology and philosophy at the Sorbonne (doctorat d'Etat in philosophy 1949). From 1950 she directed the Bibliothèque Internationale de Musicologie, and in 1952 was appointed solo pianist to the RTF for whom she also lectured and produced musical programmes. She published extensively in the aesthetics of music, with special emphasis on the status of music as the art of time and on the privileged role of the virtuoso performer.

Brelet's work elaborates the view of music borrowed from Pierre Souvtchinsky by Igor Stravinsky, to whom she assigns the central place in 20th-century music. Her three books develop a single argument. The first contrasts the traditional poetics of music, according to which a system of intervals forms the basis of harmonic and melodic structures, with an alternative poetics of temporal form. The second book elaborates this theme into an encomium on music. Since time is the form of the inner life, music must be the most perfect art, for it directly imparts formal perfection to experience itself. From this standpoint, modern non-tonal music appears as aberrant, since the absence of a tonal centre eliminates expectation and thus makes significant temporal form impossible. The third book uses this view of music to prove that the virtuoso performer is the only true musician. Music, being a form of temporal experience, can exist only as and when it is performed. The composer merely provides possibilities which he leaves to performers to actualize in various ways. It follows that performers should not strive to recreate the original effect of a work, or respect a composer's intentions: historical fidelity is not aesthetic fidelity....

Article

Keith Moore

(b Memphis, Jan 21, 1944). American composer, pianist, conductor and musicologist. He studied the piano with Roy McAllister at the University of Alabama (BM 1965), with Sophia Rosoff, and with Soulima Stravinsky at the University of Illinois (MM 1966), where he also studied composition with Ben Johnson (DMA, 1971) and had contact with Hamm, Hiller, Kessler and Brün. He served on the music faculty at Illinois (1968–74) before joining the staff at Wesleyan University. He was a member of the editorial committee of New World Records (1974–8), founding chairman of New England Sacred Harp Singing (1976) and has held visiting professorships at Middlebury College, Bucknell University and the University of Michigan. In 1980 he was Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Studies in American Music at Brooklyn College.

In 1968 Bruce founded the American Music Group (AMG), an ensemble innovative in its dedication to American music of all eras. AMG recorded the music of Anthony Philip Heinrich for Vanguard, toured widely in the United States and, under Bruce’s direction, gave the 20th-century première of Bristow’s ...

Article

Irina Boga

(b Ploieşti, Romania May 18, 1916; d Bucharest, Romania, July 23, 1998). Romanian conductor, composer, musicologist, and professor. He began his studies at the Bucharest Conservatory (orchestra conducting with Ionel Perlea 1933–40). He specialized in Salzburg (1941–2 with Klemens Krauss), and also graduated from the Philosophy Department of the Bucharest University (1933–6). He was conductor (1957–76) and director (1957–9) of the Romanian Opera in Bucharest, and conductor at the Alhambra Theatre, at the Company for Comic Opera, and at the Bucharest Philharmonic (1947–62). He was also conductor and director at the Romanian Opera in Cluj (1948–52), professor at the Department of Music History and Orchestral Conducting (1952–76) at the Bucharest Conservatory, the first conductor and director of the Cinematography Orchestra in Bucharest (1953–68), and director of music and advisor in the Ministry of Culture (...

Article

Trena Jordanoska

(b Skopje, Aug 8, 1952). Macedonian composer, pianist and scholar. He studied piano and composition at Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Music, in Skopje before attending the Faculty of Music of Belgrade (MA in composition, 1976); he defended his doctoral dissertation on the aesthetics of music at UKIM Faculty of Philosophy in 1984. He has twice been a Fulbright Scholar in the USA (1985–6 and 1999–2000).

His catalogue includes symphonies, concertos, oratorios, operas, ballets, song cycles, and sonatas for different instruments. He defines his compositional approach as polystylistic: using mainly multi-movement orchestral forms in the manner of the European music tradition from the 17th century to the 20th and incorporating elements of folk, jazz, and rock. He is among Balkan pioneers in the use of electronic music instruments – live synthesizer performances (in the ballet Vozovi [Trains], 1984); music notation software (Third Piano Sonata, ...

Article

Patrick Warfield

(b Buffalo, NY, Dec 5, 1930). American musicologist, conductor, and educator. Camus attended Queens College, CUNY (BA 1952), Columbia University (MA 1956), and New York University (PhD 1969, with a dissertation on military music in the US Army prior to 1834). Joining the 42d Infantry (Rainbow) Division Band in 1945 (New York National Guard), Camus was commissioned as an army reserve bandmaster (warrant officer) in 1957, a position from which he retired in 1974. Following several years working in music publishing and teaching in New York public schools, Camus joined the faculty at Queensborough Community College, CUNY in 1969. He retired as emeritus in 1995. While at Queensborough, Camus founded and directed the Queens Symphonic Band (1970–96).

Camus has long been a vigorous advocate for the study of American music in general, and bands in particular. One of the founding members of the Sonneck Society for American Music in ...