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(b Comber, Co. Down, Aug 10, 1904; d Oxford, Oct 10, 1965). Northern Irish music scholar, teacher, organist, composer and editor. He went to Bedford School, and studied at the RCM in London, Trinity College, Dublin, and New College, Oxford, gaining doctorates of music at both universities. In 1938, after four years as organist and choirmaster at Beverley Minster, he moved to a similar position at New College. Thereafter, he lived and worked in Oxford, where he was a university lecturer in music and a Fellow of New College, and later of Balliol. He also taught at the RCM.

Andrews's published work consists of three books, various articles (including contributions to the fifth edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music), reviews, and several motets, services and songs. The Oxford Harmony, vol.ii, traces the development of chromatic harmony through standard repertory works and relates this to techniques of composition. The opening chapters of ...


Yolande de Brossard

(b Dompierre, bap. Sept 12, 1655; d Meaux, Aug 10, 1730). French priest, theorist, composer, lexicographer and bibliophile. He was descended from a family founded by Antoine de Brossard (b c1286), a natural son of Charles de Valois (son of Philip the Bold) and Hélène Broschart, daughter of the king's treasurer. Sébastien was the last of a family of glass-blowers from lower Normandy. He studied at the Jesuit college in Caen and then attended that city's famous university, studying philosophy for two years and theology for three. When he turned to music, therefore, he was self-taught; he studied the lute, copying and composing pieces for the instrument. He took minor orders in 1675 and became a sub-deacon the next year, but the date when he became a priest is not known, nor is the date of his arrival in Paris. He was living there in ...


Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...


Argia Bertini

revised by Giulia Anna Romana Veneziano

(b Florence, July 8, 1638; d Florence, Jan 16, 1703). Italian composer, teacher, music editor, theorist, organist and singer. He spent his entire life as a priest in Florence. On 1 August 1663 he was appointed chaplain at the cathedral, S Maria del Fiore, where he was also active as an organist and singer. He was particularly admired as a teacher, and it was this above all that determined the nature of his publications; the numerous reprints particularly of Il cantore addottrinato and Scolare addottrinato bear witness to the popularity of his methods. In these two manuals he sought to establish rules for the effective composition and performance of church music, contributing, according to his contemporaries, to the codification of the ‘true rule of ecclesiastical singing’. However, he is better remembered for his Corona di sacre canzoni and Colletta di laude spirituali, which have great importance for the final phase in the history of the ...


Christopher Fifield

(Aloys Theodor)

(b Cologne, Jan 23, 1813; d Berlin, Aug 17, 1887). German music historian, editor, organist and composer. He was a pupil of Joseph Klein and Carl Leibl and in 1828 became organist of the Carmelite church at Cologne and a member of the cathedral choir. In 1832 he went to Berlin, where he studied with A.W. Bach (organ) and K.F. Rungenhagen (composition) and attended A.B. Marx’s lectures. His interest in old music was stimulated by his friendship with Carl von Winterfeld, whom he met in 1835, and by a commission to set in order the library of the Royal Institute for Church Music, which from 1845 held much of Forkel’s personal library. In 1839 Musica sacra, the first of Commer’s many important editions of early music, began to appear. In 1845 he became regens chori of the Hedwigskirche and singing teacher at the Elisabeth School, and he held several other similar positions. He was much decorated by royalty for his research. In ...


Edith Gerson-Kiwi

revised by Bret Werb

[Yuly Dmitrevich]

(b Berdyansk, Crimea, 4/April 16, 1868; d Tel-Aviv, Feb 11, 1927). Russian composer, critic, lexicographer and folklorist. He studied law at Kharkov University but soon turned to music, studying theory and composition with Taneyev and Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory (1893–7). From 1897 to 1919 he worked as a music critic for the newspaper Russkiye vedomosti. In 1901 his translation of Riemann’s Lexikon into Russian with newly written sections on Russian music was published in Moscow. Although an early opera, Esther, was performed in 1894, his work as a critic overshadowed that as a composer. Under the influence of the Russian nationalist music critic Vladimir Stasov, however, he turned his attention to Jewish folklore, collecting, arranging, performing and publishing the songs of eastern European Jews. In 1909 his first album of ten Jewish folksongs appeared in Moscow; a second volume followed later in the same year. Engel continued to promote his new interest with public lectures and a series of articles in ...


Israel J. Katz

(b Turgutlu, Turkey, Dec 23, 1896; d Aubervilliers, nr Paris, Oct 7, 1975). Italian composer, ethnomusicologist and music publisher. After education at the Alliance Israélite Universelle in Turgutlu, from 1907 he attended the school of the Société Musicale Israélite in Izmir, studying composition with Shemtov Shikayar and cantorial music with Isaac Algazi. He won a scholarship to Milan Conservatory, where he was a pupil of Zavaldi and Pozzoli (theory and solfège), Gatti (orchestration), Zampieri (history), Bossi (composition) and Andreoli (piano) (1914–15, 1917–19). His studies were interrupted by war service and Hemsi was severely wounded. He returned to Izmir to teach, then on to Rhodes (1923–7) and finally Alexandria. From 1920 he became intensely interested in the traditional music of Sephardi Jewry, collecting material around the eastern Mediterranean, in Alexandria, Jerusalem, Rhodes, Turgutlu, Manisa, Izmir and Thessaloniki. Most of the material in Coplas sefardíes, the work which established his reputation, was furnished by the Sephardi communities of Alexandria, Istanbul and Sofia; his well-suited piano accompaniments brought these songs into the salons and concert halls. In Alexandria he founded the Edition Orientale de Musique, the first Egyptian house to publish the work of composers familiar with Middle Eastern culture. In his own music he sought a compromise between Western technique and oriental tradition, believing that harmonic, equal-tempered music would replace microtonal heterophony. He founded a conservatory to propagate these ideas; he also established and conducted the Alexandria PO (...


Kimberly Greene

(b Branford, CT, Oct 22, 1746; d New Haven, CT, June 5, 1823). American tunebook compiler, composer, clock maker, and engraver. An influential compiler of tunebooks in the 1780s and 1790s, he included established English and American favorites in his books and introduced the works of such new American composers as Lewis Edson and Daniel Reed. His significant compilations are The Chorister’s Companion (1782/R), which was issued in collaboration with the publisher Amos Doolittle; a 48-page supplement to The Chorister’s Companion entitled “Part Third” (1783); A Collection of Favorite Psalm Tunes (1787); The Federal Harmony (1793); and The New Haven Collection of Sacred Music (1818). Jocelin helped to create a distinctive New England idiom which is representative of early American psalmody; his publications are counted among the important early American tunebooks. Details about his life remain scarce. However, Eli Whitney served as his partner in the manufacture of clocks, and his sons Simeon Jr. and Nathaniel, an aspiring portrait painter and active abolitionist, bought several firms in ...


Katherine K. Preston

revised by Thomas L. Riis

(b Louisville, KY, April 13, 1932). American musicologist, music editor, composer, and bibliographer. He studied composition with Claude Almand and George Perle at the University of Louisville (BM 1954, MM 1959), composition with Gordon Binkerd and musicology with Dragan Plamenac at the University of Illinois (MS 1961), and musicology with Janet Knapp at Brown University (PhD 1976). From 1962 until 1964 he was curator of the Americana Collection in the Music Division of the New York Public Library and from 1964 to 1967 composer-in-residence with the Eugene (Oregon) public school system as a Ford Foundation Fellow. He taught at Ohio University (1967–8), Moorhead (Minnesota) State College (1971–2), and Wake Forest University at Winston-Salem (North Carolina), where he also served as director of the Moravian Music Foundation from 1972 until 1980. As a Leverhulme Fellow he taught at the University of Keele, UK (...


George J. Buelow

(b Hamburg, Sept 28, 1681; d Hamburg, April 17, 1764). German composer, critic, music journalist, lexicographer and theorist.

Mattheson was the third and only surviving son of Johann Mattheson, a Hamburg tax collector, and Margaretha Höling of Rendsburg (Holstein). Details of Mattheson’s life come largely from his autobiography published in the Grundlage einer Ehren-Pforte. His education was exceptionally broad, perhaps because his parents hoped he would gain a position in Hamburg society. At the Johanneum he received a substantial background in the liberal arts, including musical instruction from Kantor Joachim Gerstenbüttel. He also had private instruction in dancing, drawing, arithmetic, riding, fencing, and English, French and Italian. At six he began private music lessons, studying the keyboard and composition for four years with J.N. Hanff (later organist at Schleswig Cathedral), taking singing lessons from a local musician named Woldag and instruction on the gamba, violin, flute, oboe and lute. At nine Mattheson was a child prodigy, performing on the organ and singing in Hamburg churches. His voice was of such quality that Gerhard Schott, manager of the Hamburg opera, invited him to join the company, and he sang in J.W. Franck’s opera ...


Tessa Murray

revised by Philip Brett

(b Norwich, 1557 or 1558; d London, early Oct 1602). English composer, editor, theorist, publisher and organist. He was the most influential figure, as writer and editor as well as composer, in the Elizabethan vogue for the Italian madrigal, which reached its peak during the eight years in which his works first appeared in print (1593–1601). Although a taste for madrigalian music can be discerned in England for a much longer period, it was Morley who appears to have been chiefly responsible for grafting the Italian shoot on to the native stock and initiating the curiously brief but brilliant flowering of the madrigal that constitutes one of the most colourful episodes in the history of English music. In much the same way, it was Morley who provided the impetus for a rapid expansion in the production of printed secular music in London during the last decade of the 16th century....


Fritz Feldmann

revised by Dorothea Schröder

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Feb 12, 1589; d Breslau, Dec 27, 1661). German music editor, publisher, composer and theorist. After studying theology at Wittenberg, he became a teacher at the Elisabeth Gymnasium at Breslau in 1617 and in the same year was appointed Lutheran Kantor and schoolmaster at Jauer (Jawor), Silesia. In 1629 Lutheranism was suppressed there and Catholic worship re-established, so he was obliged to return to Breslau, where he set up as a merchant. In 1633 he was appointed organist of St Elisabeth there, without, however, giving up his commercial activities. His organist’s post came to an end in 1649, when part of the church fell in and destroyed the organ; but he continued his business career and died prosperous.

It is not as a composer but as an assiduous editor and collector that Profe particularly deserves mention. His principal collection is the Geistliche Concerten und Harmonien...


David Mateer

revised by Ian Payne

(b ?1592; dc1635). English editor, composer and theorist. Although his parentage is still unknown, he was most probably a member of the Flintshire branch of the Ravenscroft famliy. His year of birth is implied by the prefatory poem to the Briefe Discourse (1614), which states that he was then aged 22; the claim that he was a son of Roger Ravenscroft, canon of Chester Cathedral, is not supported by this evidence, as the canon’s son was baptized in 1598 (not 1592 as is stated in The Family of Ravenscroft, London, 1915). If the early birth-date is correct, the Thomas ‘Raniscroft’ who was a chorister at Chichester Cathedral in 1594 cannot be identified with the composer. Ravenscroft was a chorister at St Paul’s Cathedral under Thomas Giles (both their names appear in a list of the choir included in the report of Bishop Bancroft’s visitation, ...


Jon Newsom

revised by H. Wiley Hitchcock

(b Lafayette [now part of Jersey City], NJ, Oct 6, 1873; d New York, Oct 30, 1928). American musicologist, librarian, editor and composer. As a boy he was sent to Germany to study; he was a piano pupil of James Kwast (1883–93) and later attended courses at the universities of Heidelberg and Munich, developing his interests in philosophy and, especially, musicology. He studied composition in Munich with Melchior Ernst Sachs, composition and orchestration with Iwan Knorr in Frankfurt, and conducting with Carl Schröder at the Sondershausen Conservatory.

In 1899 Sonneck returned to the USA and for three years travelled from New England to South Carolina, collecting references to American musical life before 1800, primarily from newspapers. He also did much work in the new Library of Congress building, and in 1902 the librarian Herbert Putnam made him head of the newly formed music division, where he organized and developed what was to become one of the most comprehensive collections of music, manuscripts and books on music in the world. He established its unrivalled archive of opera scores and librettos, and in ...


(b Madrid, c1670; d Madrid, June 3, 1738). Spanish composer, organist, theorist and publisher. He entered the royal chapel boys’ school in 1680, when he must have been between seven and ten years old. His training as an organist was almost certainly undertaken at the Daroca school by Pablo Bruna, and he was probably tutored in composition by the then master of the royal chapel, Cristóbal Galán. Torres was appointed organist of the royal chapel on 14 December 1686, and taught at the school there from 1689 to 1691.

The forced exile of the maestro de capilla Sebastián Durón, because of his support for the Archduke of Austria in the War of the Spanish Succession, gave rise to a vacancy in the royal chapel which was filled temporarily by Torres from 1708 until his definitive appointment on 3 December 1718. A second chapel functioned from 1721 at La Granja, where the court had moved as a result of the king’s melancholy state of mind. It was dissolved in ...


George J. Buelow

(b Erfurt, Sept 18, 1684; d Weimar, March 23, 1748). German organist, composer, theorist and lexicographer. His father was Johann Stephan Walther, an Erfurt fabric maker; his mother, Martha Dorothea, née Lämmerhirt, was a close relative of J.S. Bach’s family. Walther’s autobiography was published in Mattheson’s Grundlage einer Ehren-Pforte. His education began at the age of four with private instruction; in 1691 he entered the lower school of Erfurt. Organ lessons were begun with Johann Bernhard Bach, organist of the Kaufmannskirche, and continued with his successor, Johann Andreas Kretschmar. Walther said he learnt in less than a year to sing well enough to become a soloist in church music performances. According to Walther, his teacher was Jakob Adlung, but he probably meant David Adlung, the father of Jakob. The latter, born in 1699, became a friend of Walther in the early 1720s and later a prominent Erfurt organist and theorist....


Paula Morgan

(b Patton, PA, April 2, 1927). American liturgiologist . He took two BA degrees at St Vincent College (1949 and 1952) and the MS in piano at the Juilliard School (1954), and then took further graduate courses at Columbia University. From 1957 to 1967 he was associated with St Vincent College, first as a music teacher and later in administrative positions, including those of chancellor and chairman of the board of directors. He was a member of the university seminar in medieval studies at Columbia, 1957–66. In 1967 he was appointed abbot primate of the Benedictine Confederation and in 1977 he became the Archbishop of Milwaukee. He was also music editor of the New Catholic Encyclopedia. His principal interests are medieval Latin drama and music theorists, and Ambrosian chant. He studied the compositions and theoretical writings of Hucbald, and his transcription of the Play of Daniel...