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Article

Colleen Reardon

(b c1580; d Siena, Jan 1642). Italian composer and theorist.

Agazzari’s parents were evidently of Sienese origin, and he himself settled in Siena as a boy and received his training there, perhaps from Francesco Bianciardi. He was organist at Siena Cathedral from 1597 to 1602, when he left to direct the music at the Collegio Germanico, Rome (1602–3). In 1604 he attended the celebrations marking the centenary of Siena’s Accademia degli Intronati. By 1606 he was maestro di cappella at the Seminario Romano, but returned to Siena in 1607 after being blacklisted by the Cappella Sistina. In the following years he was organist at Siena Cathedral on three different occasions: in 1609, 1611–17, and 1629–33; he also served for two short periods as music director at S Maria di Provenzano, Siena, 1617–19 and 1620–?1622. Not until February 1641 was he appointed maestro di cappella...

Article

Karl-Ernst Bergunder

revised by Peter Wollny

(b Grossfurra, Thuringia, Oct 25, 1643; d Gotha, Feb 20, 1676). German composer and writer. After initially going to school in his native town he was sent in 1656 to Eisenach for three years. There he attended the town school, the staff of which included Theodor Schuchardt, a highly respected teacher of music and Latin. From 1659 to 1662 Agricola studied for his school-leaving examination at the Gymnasium of Gotha; the headmaster there was Andreas Reyher, who was the co-author of the Gothaer Schulmethodus, an educational work which set an example for the teaching of music too. In 1662–3 Agricola studied philosophy at Leipzig University and from 1663 to 1668 theology and philosophy at Wittenberg, where he was awarded a master's degree by the faculty of philosophy. His four recorded scholarly essays dating from this period are lost. He had begun to learn the fundamentals of music during his school years, and he may also have been a pupil of the Kantor of the Thomaskirche, Leipzig, Sebastian Knüpfer. He continued his musical training at Wittenberg, completing the study of composition under the guidance of Italian musicians resident there. Returning to his native Thuringia he was able to turn his musical abilities to good use in the Kapelle of the Schwarzburg-Sondershausen court until in ...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Mühlhausen, bap. June 12, 1651; d Mühlhausen, Dec 2, 1706). German composer, theorist, organist and poet, son of Johann Rudolf Ahle. He no doubt received his musical education from his father, whom he succeeded at the age of 23 as organist of St Blasius, Mühlhausen. Like his father he held the post until his death, and he was succeeded by the young Bach. Again like his father, he was elected to the town council. He was described on the title-page of his Sapphisches Ehrenlied (1680) as a bachelor of law, but it is not known where he studied. His education may well have included training in literary composition, for he distinguished himself as a poet and was made poet laureate by the Emperor Leopold I in 1680. His music, some of which is lost, is almost totally unknown. Much of it is scattered through his series of anecdotal novels, named after the Muses, which themselves deserve closer study. He clearly followed his father in his interest in writing songs, both sacred and secular, and his style in them seems to be even more popular and folklike. He also composed music for the church and for occasions such as weddings, anniversaries, celebrations of political events and ceremonies honouring distinguished visitors to Mühlhausen. Among his theoretical writings is his enlarged and copiously annotated edition of his father's singing manual. Here, as in his own treatises, among which the four ...

Article

Monique Escudier

(b Krempe, Jan 27, 1602; d Brunsbüttel, May 29, 1672). German theologian, historian, poet and music theorist. After studying in Krempe and Hamburg he completed his studies at Leipzig University in 1624 and in the same year became Poet Laureate. Meanwhile in 1621 he had become tutor to the children of a wealthy Leipzig bookseller, Henning Gross. Disappointed at not being made a professor at the university, he became a pastor and from 1630 practised his vocation at Brunsbüttel; he was also assessor to the consistory at nearby Meldorf. He was in contact with the Dutch humanists Johannes Meursius and Daniel Heinsius. He devoted only one work to music, De veterum musica (Schleusingen, 1636). Its point of view is that of a moralist and erudite humanist, and it contains many references to Greek and Latin texts; it is divided into 29 short chapters. After studying the relationship of music to other sciences, Alard presented some rudiments of Greek theory. There follow ten chapters on the effects of music: when well employed it exorcises evil, demons and madness and inspires virtue and piety. Alard then denounced the corrupt music of his time and censured the intrusion of virtuosity and ornaments into religious music. He devoted the last chapter to the mythological or legendary inventors of musical instruments. In an appendix he included the Greek text of a treatise of ...

Article

Robert Shay

(b Westminster, London, Jan 1648; d Oxford, Dec 14, 1710). English scholar, composer and music collector. He matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford (after early training in mathematics at Westminster School), in 1662, receiving the BA, MA and DD degrees in 1666, 1669 and 1682 respectively. He took holy orders and was assigned the rectorate at Wem, Shropshire, but chose to remain at Christ Church, becoming a canon in 1681 and dean (a unique position in Oxford as head of both college and cathedral) in 1689, also serving as vice-chancellor of the University of Oxford, 1692–5. He was a leader of the Oxford resistance to James II's Catholic advances, and under William III he became one of the chief defenders of High Church practices, publicly opposing both the comprehension of non-Anglicans and revisions to the prayer book. He was an industrious and practically minded scholar, producing books on logic, heraldry and architecture, designing a number of Oxford buildings, serving as draftsman and engraver for the Oxford Almanacks, and producing a sizable body of compositions for the English cathedral service. His account of Greek music survives in manuscript (...

Article

Eleanor Selfridge-Field

(b Rimini, c1600; d Rimini, c1678). Italian composer and author. He was a priest and maestro di cappella of Rimini Cathedral. From 1649 he was librarian of the Biblioteca Gambalunghiana, Rimini. He wrote literary and historical works; all his music dates from his early years. He had some connection with the pseudonymous composer Accademico Bizzarro Capriccioso, to each of whose opp.1 and 2 (1620–21) he contributed a madrigal, one for two voices, the other for three. As a composer he is known mainly for three volumes of sacred music written mostly in a simple style suited to the needs of a provincial maestro di cappella: 14 eight-voice psalms with organ continuo, op.1, a book of four- and five-voice concertato masses, op.2 (incomplete), and four masses and two motets with organ continuo, op.3 (all Venice, 1623). The description ‘a tre voci variate’ of op.3 refers to an unusual arrangement of partbooks – one each for the highest, middle and lowest voices....

Article

Josef-Horst Lederer

(fl 1657). Italian theorist and ?composer. His treatise Regole di musica, divise in cinque trattati (Rome, 1657) indicates that in 1657 he was Predicatore in the Minori Osservanti – an order of strict Franciscans – in the province of Terra Lavoro. In some reference works he is mentioned as a composer of lute music, but there are no known compositions. The Regole di musica deals not only with music but with a range of other subjects as well, including astronomy and astrology. However, Avella’s theories and views failed to impress his contemporaries and fellow theorists: G.F. Beccatelli, for instance, in his Annotazioni (MS, I-Bc ) on the Regole, rightly accused Avella of ignorance of musical history in attributing the Guidonian Hand not only to Boethius but also to Plato and Aristotle, and in making Guido of Arezzo a contemporary of Pope Gregory I.

J.-H. Lederer: Lorenzo Penna und seine Kontrapunkttheorie...

Article

Randall H. Tollefsen

[Bannius, Joannes Albertus]

(b Haarlem, 1597 or 1598; d Haarlem, July 27, 1644). Dutch theorist and composer. He came from a patrician family, entered the priesthood in Haarlem and became a canon in 1628. As a musician he was entirely self-educated. He studied theoretical works from Pythagoras to Zarlino and, dissatisfied, turned to his prominent contemporaries – among them Constantijn Huygens, Mersenne, G.B. Doni and Descartes – for assistance. Although much is made of a song-writing competition between Ban and Antoine Boësset staged by Mersenne in 1640, in which it was a foregone conclusion that Boësset should win, Ban was unaffected by his loss (see Walker). In many of his letters he declared that music must be practised under strict and demonstrable rules and not left to individual arbitrary taste: it must not mask the natural delivery of a text but rather reinforce it. In this light his praise of, and familiarity with, contemporary Italian music is not remarkable; but it is typical of his ‘monodic approach’ that, although aware of the usefulness of modulation, he recognized neither the musical value nor the expressive power of dissonance....

Article

William S. May and Frans Wiering

[Tomaso]

(b Bologna, Sept 3, 1568; d Bologna, 1634). Italian composer, organist,theorist and writer. He was one of the most versatile figures in the Italian music of his day and is of particular interest as a theorist.

Banchieri entered the Olivetan order of Benedictine monks in 1587, officially becoming a novice and receiving the name Adriano in 1589; he completed his solemn vows in 1590. He was a pupil of Gioseffo Guami, under whom he certainly developed much of his skill as an organist and composer. During his first years as a monk he worked at various houses of his order: in 1592 he was at the monastery of SS Bartolomeo e Ponziano, Lucca, in 1593 at S Benedetto, Siena; in 1594 he returned to the vicinity of Bologna to the monastery of S Michele in Bosco, where in 1596 he assumed the duties of organist. From 1600 to 1604...

Article

George J. Buelow

[Pipegrop, Pipgrop, Pipgroppe, Heinrich]

(b Wernigerode, Harz, Sept 17, 1581; d Quedlinburg, Saxe-Anhalt, Jan 13, 1655). German theorist and composer. Jacobs established that his German family name was Pipegrop, not Grobstimme as stated in some earlier biographical accounts. He attended the Lateinschule at Wernigerode, where he probably first studied music with the Kantor Johann Krüger as well as with the organist of the Oberpfarrkirche, Paul Becker. He entered the university at Helmstedt in April 1603. In 1605 he went to Quedlinburg as Kantor of St Benedikti and as a teacher at the Gymnasium, whose Subkonrector he became in 1606. He remained in these positions for almost half a century until his death. He seems to have been admired as a composer, but all but two of his pieces are lost, as apparently are all but one of his many treatises. Michael Praetorius, who supported him enthusiastically, announced in the third volume of ...

Article

(b St Georg, Upper Austria, Feb 28, 1655; d Weissenfels, Aug 6, 1700). Austrian-German composer, singer, violinist, keyboard player, music theorist and novelist. At seven his father sent him to the Benedictine monastery at Lambach, a short distance north-east of St Georg, where he began his musical education. Beer pursued further general and music studies at Reichersberg, south of Passau, as well as in Passau itself. In 1670 his parents took him to Regensburg, where they had moved to preserve their Protestant faith. As a student at the Gymnasium Poeticum Beer became a friend of his fellow student Pachelbel. He continued to study music, including composition, and he wrote the score for a school play, Mauritius imperator. At the end of his studies at the gymnasium, the city of Regensburg awarded him a scholarship to enter the university at Leipzig in 1676 as a student of theology. He soon became acquainted with the musicians there, including the Thomas Kantor Sebastian Knüpfer, and Werner Fabricius, organist at the Nikolaikirche....

Article

Arved M. Larsen III

(b S Agata, Feltria c1636; d Rome, April 9, 1694). Italian theorist, composer and organist. His extensive knowledge of earlier theorists allowed his writings to provide both a comprehensive view of 17th-century music and the most complete summary of the theory and pedagogy of species counterpoint prior to Fux.

Much of the information about Berardi’s life derives from his published works. His place of birth is given as S Agata on the title-pages of four of his theoretical works. Although there are several S Agatas in Italy, a recent series of conferences in S Agata, Feltria have proven that he was born there. He first was a pupil of Giovanni Vincenzo Sarti and then studied with Marco Scacchi, who lived at Gallese near Viterbo, from about 1650 until his death. Since Berardi’s op.4 (1667) cites him as maestro di cappella of Viterbo Cathedral he must have studied with Scacchi at some time between ...

Article

Jerome Roche

revised by Elizabeth Roche

[Steffano]

(b Verona, c1585; d ?Salzburg, 1636). Italian composer and theorist. In his early years he sang under Baccusi at Verona Cathedral and was a chaplain there in 1603. He spent a period in Rome, where at least in 1610 he was maestro di cappella of the church of the Madonna dei Monti. He returned to Verona in April 1611 to take up a similar post at the cathedral and was also associated with the music at the Accademia Filarmonica there, at least in 1616. He left in 1622 to become a musician in the service of Archduke Carl Joseph, Bishop of Breslau and Bressanone, after whose death in 1624 he settled at Salzburg for at least ten years. He was involved in the music for the consecration of Salzburg Cathedral in 1628: he wrote a Te Deum for 12 choirs and a dramatic work, which does not survive. He became a Doctor of Law in ...

Article

Kerala J. Snyder

(b Kolberg, Pomerania [now Kołobrzeg, Poland], Jan 1, 1628; d Dresden, Nov 14, 1692). German music theorist, composer and singer. He is best known for his discussion of musical-rhetorical figures in Tractatus compositionis augmentatus.

The birthplace given above is documented in a funeral poem by Bernhard’s brother-in-law C.C. Dedekind and is confirmed by Walther; the birth date appears in Müller-Blattau (2/1963) without documentation. Mattheson states, no doubt erroneously, that Bernhard was born in Danzig in 1612. According to Dedekind, Bernhard studied in Danzig (probably with the elder Kaspar Förster and possibly Paul Siefert) and in Warsaw (very likely with Scacchi); Mattheson’s assertion that Bernhard studied in Danzig with Balthasar Erben must also be in error for Erben did not become Kapellmeister at the Marienkirche until 1658, well after Bernhard was established in Dresden. At some point Bernhard also studied law. He began singing as an alto at the electoral court in Dresden under Schütz probably in ...

Article

Graham Hooper

(b c1554; d Bristol, bur. Oct 19, 1638). Composer, theorist and organist of Welsh extraction. There seems to be no evidence for the alternative name ‘Ap Evan’. He is said to have been a pupil of Tallis. He was admitted a vicar-choral at Wells Cathedral on 10 May 1579, but on 2 January 1580, together with another vicar-choral, he was suspended ‘until they mend their ways’ for not having communicated for four years. He signed a Wells charter in 1584. At Michaelmas 1585 the dean and chapter of Bristol paid him six months’ salary, for he had become Master of the Choristers there at Lady Day; by 1589 he was described as organist. Between 1590 and 1603 the baptisms of six of his children were recorded in the parish registers of St Augustine-the-Less, Bristol. The date and place of his marriage are unknown but in 1611 he and his wife, Alice, were witnesses to the will of Nathaniell Pownell, registrar to the Bishop of Bristol....

Article

(b early 17th century; d London, bur. May 14, 1681). English theorist, composer and teacher. He seems to have been a younger son of Sir Ralph Birchensha, who in 1598 was sent to Ireland as Comptroller of the Musters and Cheques. According to Anthony Wood ( GB-Ob Wood D 19 [4], f.19) he resided in Ireland with the Earl of Kildare until the rebellion of 1641 forced him to quit Dublin for London. In A Musicall Banquet (1651) he is listed among teachers of the viol active in London; but it was as a teacher of the rudiments of composition that he made his name. He boasted that by means of his rules ‘not only those, who skillfully can sing or play on some Instrument, may learn to compose but also those, who can neither sing nor play’ (letter to the Royal Society, 26 April 1664...

Article

(b Gouda, 1654; d The Hague, May 12, 1739). Dutch composer, organist, theorist and poet. He was the son of Gerbrant Quirijnszoon van Blankenburg (c1620–1707), organist in Zevenbergen and Gouda. He probably received his first instruction in music from his father. He started his musical career at an early age, as an organist in Rotterdam (1670–75, at the Remonstrantse Kerk) and at Gorinchem (1675–9). For some years from 1679 he studied at the University of Leiden (he was registered under the name Gideon van Blankenburg). In the mid-1680s he settled at The Hague, where he stayed for the rest of his life. He was organist of the Walloon church from 1687 to 1702. In 1699 he was appointed to the Nieuwe Kerk but was active there only after the new organ had been completed in 1702. Because of his old age his pupil Frans Piton deputized for him from ...

Article

Biancamaria Brumana and Colin Timms

(b Perugia, Feb 21, 1625; d Brufa, nr Perugia, July 1, 1705). Italian composer, singer, librettist, historian, and architect. Born Angelini, he studied under Sozio Sozi, father superior of the Oratorio dei Filippini at Perugia, in 1635, continuing in Rome as a protégé of Cesare Bontempi, a nobleman whose name he adopted. There he studied singing under Virgilio Mazzocchi and won the patronage of Cardinal Francesco Barberini. From November 1640 to January 1641 he was a singer in S Lorenzo in Damaso. In 1641 he travelled to Florence, where he met Maximilian I of Bavaria, who brought him to Munich (he was in Maximilian’s service as a singer from July to December 1641, under the direction of Giovanni Giacomo Porro). From1643 to 1650 he was a singer at S Marco, Venice, under Monteverdi, Rovetta, and Cavalli, and in other churches. In 1651 he entered the service of the Prince Johann Georg II of Saxony in Dresden, where, after the death of Johann Georg I and the amalgamation of the two Kapellen in ...

Article

Adriano Cavicchi

(b Ferrara; fl 1614). Italian composer, theorist and organist. He was an Observant Franciscan friar and is known only by the first book of his Choro et organo … in cui con facil modo s’apprende in poco tempo un sicuro methodo per sonar su l’organo messe, antifone, & hinni sopra ogni maniera di canto fermo (Venice, 1614). It is a didactic work dealing with the liturgical duties of the choirmaster and organist. Under 18 headings Bottazzi set out the principal rules of counterpoint and provided guidance that would enable the organist to respond in the correct mode and with good counterpoint to the plainchant of the choir. The intabulations of the organ responses are printed. The volume includes several organ works by Bottazzi: three masses, two Credo settings, hymns for the whole year, Marian antiphons and a ricercare cromatico. Although clearly didactic in character, they are not lacking in a liveliness and musicality characteristic of the Ferrara organ school: the ricercare is a notably poetic and well-constructed piece and the hymns, which are among the last examples of the genre, are also interesting. Bottazzi was a minor representative of the Ferrara organ school, but his book is of particular interest for the light it sheds on the traditions, forms, and manner of performance of Italian organ music based on plainchant in the late 16th and early 17th centuries....

Article

Yolande de Brossard

(b Dompierre, bap. Sept 12, 1655; d Meaux, Aug 10, 1730). French priest, theorist, composer, lexicographer and bibliophile. He was descended from a family founded by Antoine de Brossard (b c1286), a natural son of Charles de Valois (son of Philip the Bold) and Hélène Broschart, daughter of the king's treasurer. Sébastien was the last of a family of glass-blowers from lower Normandy. He studied at the Jesuit college in Caen and then attended that city's famous university, studying philosophy for two years and theology for three. When he turned to music, therefore, he was self-taught; he studied the lute, copying and composing pieces for the instrument. He took minor orders in 1675 and became a sub-deacon the next year, but the date when he became a priest is not known, nor is the date of his arrival in Paris. He was living there in ...