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Article

Dimitri Conomos

revised by George Leotsakos

(b Piraeus, May 19, 1929). Greek composer and musicologist. He graduated in theology from Athens University (1954), in neo-Byzantine music (1955) and harmony (1956) from the Piraeus League Conservatory, and in counterpoint, fugue and composition (1959) from the Hellenic Conservatory, where he studied with Yannis A. Papaïannou. At Brandeis University (1962–5) he studied composition (with Arthur Berger), Byzantine music palaeography and electronic music. In 1950 he revived the boys' choir of the Greek Royal Palace, which he directed until 1967. He also established and conducted the Athens Chamber Chorus (1958–61). Between 1961 and 1963 he taught Byzantine music at the Holy Cross Theological Academy, Boston, Massachusetts. In 1965 he established the first electronic music studio in Athens. He was a founder-member (1965) and later president (1975–85) of both the Hellenic Association for Contemporary Music and the Greek section of the ISCM. In ...

Article

John C.G. Waterhouse

[Ottavio Felice Gaspare Maria]

(b Montegiorgio, Ascoli Piceno, Nov 16, 1881; d Montegiorgio, Dec 28, 1928). Italian musicologist, conductor and composer. He studied the piano, organ and composition at the Liceo Musicale di S Cecilia, Rome, where he gained his diploma in 1906 and was from 1912 professor of aesthetics and music history. He also graduated in 1907 from Rome University with a thesis on the Italian oratorio, subsequently expanded into an important book. His scholarly writings – notably those on Italian laudi spirituali and on Carissimi – in general helped to lay the foundations of modern Italian musicology. As a conductor he specialized in choral music, and in 1926 he founded the Madrigalisti Romani. He also fought hard for the improvement of Italian music education. His most ambitious composition, the opera Mirra, is eclectic and uneven, but shows technical enterprise – not least in the brief use of a specially constructed ‘pentaphonic harmonium’, in which the octave was divided into five equal parts (cf Indonesian ...

Article

Howard Serwer

(b Görmar, nr Mühlhausen, Jan 8, 1732; d Mühlhausen, 1773). German writer on music and composer. He was a magister of philosophy, an honorary member of the German Society of Altdorf University, and an imperial poet laureate. His writings include an original work on theory, contributions to the current discussions of Rameau's theories which he favoured, and translations and editions of works of others. In addition, he published an important article on the state of music in Mühlhausen, two in defence of music in the church, and one on the German language. His compositions, consisting largely of sacred vocal works to his own texts, were mostly written for the Marienkirche in Mühlhausen, where he was Kantor and music director. They include a setting of the Passion and a yearly cycle of cantatas (texts published in 1764), as well as two published collections of keyboard and vocal pieces intended for students. Only a sacred song ...

Article

Rreze Kryeziu

(b Skopje, Macedonia, Sept 23, 1909; d Pristina, Kosovo, Oct 21, 1991). Albanian composer, music pedagogue, conductor, and ethnomusicologist. He learned music by analysing the works of other composers and by attending private lessons with professors in Belgrade. During his secondary education he learned to play the violin, the cello, and the piano. He arrived in Kosovo to pursue a career as a music pedagogue. He spent a decade in Prizren (1946–56), which was typified by intense musical activity and during which time he directed the choir SH.K.A. ‘Agimi’ (1944) and was a professor and director of the School of Music (1948). (See E. Berisha: Studime dhe vështrime për muzikën, Pristina, 2004, 209–14).

His familiarity with folk music is evidenced by his analyses of Albanian folk songs, which he summarized in a seven volume work called Albanian Folk Music. As a result of this work, he became known as the first ethnomusicologist specializing in Albanian folklore....

Article

Kyle Gann

(b Radekhov, Oct 21, 1938). American composer and conductor of Ukrainian birth. He studied at the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music and Art (BA 1960, MM 1962; later the California Institute of the Arts), where his teachers included Earle Voorhies and Morris Ruger; he also studied the piano with Rosina Lhevine and composition with Donald Erb and Mario Davidovsky. He joined the music department at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas in 1970. He has also served as founder-conductor of the Nevada SO (1980–95), music director of the Las Vegas Opera Company (1983–8) and principal guest conductor and music advisor of the Kiev Camerata (from 1995). His scholarly work has established him as an authority on Soviet music.

Although Baley's music frequently refers to Ukrainian sources, his style became increasingly Americanized after 1980. The First Violin Concerto (1987) includes Ukrainian folk elements and exhibits a European polish and mood, but its unusual orchestral textures, rippling with celeste, vibraphone and harpsichord, seem American, as does the energetic drumming of the second movement ‘Dies irae’ and the muted jazz trumpet of the final ‘Agon’. His gradual move away from a mournful, Eastern European, somewhat neo-classical idiom climaxed in ...

Article

John Edwin Henken

(b Madrid, Aug 3, 1823; d Madrid, Feb 17, 1894). Spanish composer, musicologist, conductor and critic. Barbieri’s father died in 1823 and the composer used his matronym throughout his life although, in the heated polemic wars of the period, that was sometimes held against him as an Italianate pretence.

Barbieri received his early music training from his maternal grandfather and entered the fledgling Royal Conservatory in 1837, studying the clarinet with Ramón Broca, the piano with Albéniz y Basanta, singing with Saldoni and composition with Carnicer. In 1841 his family moved to Lucena, but Barbieri remained in Madrid, eking out a living as a clarinettist, pianist, teacher and copyist. His earliest compositions were songs and dances, and a paso doble for a militia band in which he played. He also sang baritone roles in Italian operas at the Conservatory and the Teatro del Circo. He wrote the libretto for a one-act zarzuela but did not complete the music in time for its scheduled première in ...

Article

Melinda Berlász

(b Budapest, Oct 1, 1899; d Budapest, Nov 18, 1986). Hungarian composer, musicologist and conductor. Together with Kodály, he laid the foundations of 20th-century Hungarian choral music-making. He studied the violin and the viola as a boy. After a year (1918–19) at the technical university he entered the Budapest Academy of Music, where he studied composition with Siklós and then Kodály (1921–5). In 1925 he was engaged as choral conductor and music teacher in a secondary school and a teacher-training college; from 1928 to 1967 he was a professor at the academy, where he reformed the syllabus, emphasizing the training of choral conductors, the teaching of church music history and instruction in music theory and prosody. In 1931 he co-founded the publishing company Magyar Kórus, and served as editor of the music periodical of that name from then until 1950, when it was banned. From ...

Article

Ned Quist

revised by Linda L. Giedl

[Schlossberg, Artur ]

(b Hamm, Germany, Sept 27, 1909; d Aurora, CO, May 28, 2002). Composer, musicologist, conductor, and pianist of German birth; naturalized American. Born Artur Schlossberg, he grew up in an orthodox Jewish family. After the Schlossbergs moved to Mannheim in 1919, he was introduced to German organ and choral literature by Arno Landmann, first Kantor (1911–43) of Christuskirche, and received piano instruction from Landmann’s wife. With Mannheim’s proximity to Strasbourg and Alsace-Lorraine, Schlossberg became fluent in French. Shortly after entering the University of Heidelberg in 1928, he applied for musicological studies with medievalist Heinrich Besseler. At the end of three years of intensive work, he submitted his doctoral dissertation (Die italienische Sonate für mehrere Instrumente im 17ten Jahrhundert, diss., U. of Heidelberg, 1932). Later that year he was engaged as a coach and conducting assistant to Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt at the Darmstadt Opera.

Beaten with guns by Adolf Hitler’s Stormtroopers in early ...

Article

Nicolae Gheorghiță

(b Talea, Prahova, Romania, Feb 6, 1930). Romanian musicologist, professor, composer, psaltēs, and choir conductor. He studied at the University Theological Institute (1953–7), the Ciprian Porumbescu Conservatory of Music in Bucharest (1957–63), and the Macedonian Conservatory in Thessaloniki (1983–5); and in 1982 he was awarded the doctorate by the Gheorghe Dima Academy of Music in Cluj.

After a period as a church singer, professor, and choir conductor at various monasteries, schools, and colleges in Bucharest and at the Neamț Monastery, Bucur-Barbu held the position of Professor of Byzantine Musical Palaeography and Byzantine Chant at the Ciprian Porumbescu Conservatory of Music in Bucharest (1970–3, 1990–2006) and has been a doctoral supervisor at the Conservatory since 1996. He is the founder and conductor of the Psalmodia choir of Byzantine music of the Bucharest National University of Music (starting in 1988).

Byzantine chant remains central to his wide-ranging scholarly and research interests. His extensive research remains the most systematic scholarly treatment of the history of Byzantine ecclesiastical music in Romania, his chief contribution being the critical edition of the ...

Article

Irina Boga

(b Ploieşti, Romania May 18, 1916; d Bucharest, Romania, July 23, 1998). Romanian conductor, composer, musicologist, and professor. He began his studies at the Bucharest Conservatory (orchestra conducting with Ionel Perlea 1933–40). He specialized in Salzburg (1941–2 with Klemens Krauss), and also graduated from the Philosophy Department of the Bucharest University (1933–6). He was conductor (1957–76) and director (1957–9) of the Romanian Opera in Bucharest, and conductor at the Alhambra Theatre, at the Company for Comic Opera, and at the Bucharest Philharmonic (1947–62). He was also conductor and director at the Romanian Opera in Cluj (1948–52), professor at the Department of Music History and Orchestral Conducting (1952–76) at the Bucharest Conservatory, the first conductor and director of the Cinematography Orchestra in Bucharest (1953–68), and director of music and advisor in the Ministry of Culture (...

Article

Maria Kostakeva

(b Plevnya, nr Drama, Jan 31, 1870; d Plovdiv, Jan 3, 1950). Bulgarian composer, conductor, pianist, and ethnomusicologist, one of the pioneers of professional music in Bulgaria. He received his musical education at the Prague Organ School, where he graduated in 1890. From 1894 he worked as a teacher in the King Alexander high school in Plovdiv. In 1896 he founded the Singing Society in Plovdiv, which he directed about 50 years. Between 1892 and 1898 he undertook folklore expeditions in Rodopi, Mittelforest, and Macedonia and recorded 2500 songs. In 1902 he became editor of the monthly Musicanthology. In 1921 he founded the first private music school, called Rodna pesen (‘Heimat song’), in Plovdiv and was its first director. He was among the first musicians to work professionally after Bulgaria's liberation from the Ottoman Empire in 1876. Like Dobri Khristov and other composers he collected previously unresearched folksongs from various regions of the country; 461 of these songs were published in the Bulgarian folklore anthology ...

Article

Howard Schott

(b Denver, June 28, 1906; d Uccle, Brussels, March 26, 1973). American conductor, musicologist and composer. After early piano and composition studies in Denver, he went to Belgium in 1925 to study composition with Moulaert and musicology with Van den Borren, whose daughter he later married. During the period 1928–32 he concentrated on composition, producing a piano trio, a string trio, piano solos and songs. In 1933, however, he gave up all other activity to devote his time to the authentic realization in performance of medieval and Renaissance music. He formed the Pro Musica Antiqua of Brussels, a performing ensemble of singers and instrumentalists specializing in 13th- to 16th-century music. Van den Borren served as the group’s musical adviser. As its conductor Cape toured throughout Europe and North and South America, and made many recordings for such distinguished series as L’Anthologie Sonore, directed by Curt Sachs, and the History of European Music in Sound. After World War II he resumed conducting the Pro Musica Antiqua both on concert tours and in recordings, including several of documentary historical interest. With the aid of the Belgian Ministry of Education he established a European Seminar on Early Music at Bruges. Cape set up a similar project in Lisbon at the Gulbenkian Foundation in ...

Article

Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...

Article

Kristina Yapova

(b Varna, Dec 14, 1875; d Sofia, Jan 23, 1941). Eminent Bulgarian composer, music theorist, conductor, and pedagogue who left an immense creative heritage in music as well as in musicology. After completing his secondary education he became a primary school teacher in his native town Varna (1894). Co-founder and conductor of the Musical Society Gusla (1899), he was at the same time conductor of the choir at the church Sveto Uspenie Bogorodichno [The Assumption]. During the years 1900–03 he studied composition in the class of Antonin Dvořák at the Prague Conservatory. In 1907 he won a first prize in the contest dedicated to the opening of the National Theatre in Sofia, with the Festive Overture Ivailo. From that year on he set up in Sofia as a secondary school teacher, as a teacher in the Private Music School, a director of the State School of Music (...

Article

Stanislav Tuksar

(b Dubravka near Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 16, 1934). Croatian musicologist, composer, organist, and choir conductor. He started his theological studies in Split and graduated in 1961 from the Catholic Theological Faculty in Zagreb, where he also attended courses in music at the Institute for Church Music. He gained the PhD in musicology in 1978 at the University of Cologne. From 1959 to 1961, and again from 1970 to 1975, he served in Dubrovnik as organist and choir conductor at the local cathedral. From 1965 until 1969 and from 1980 on he was regens chori at the Zagreb Cathedral. In 1969 he helped in resuming the publication of the oldest Croatian church music journal Sv. Cecilija in Zagreb, which had been interrupted in 1944. His most important scholarly contributions consist of several modern facsimile editions and commentaries on medieval neumatic codices and of musicological activities dealing mostly with Dubrovnik musical history. Among the facsimile editions the most interesting is ...

Article

Svetlana Kujumdzieva

(b Kumanichevo, Macedonia, July 14, 1889; d Sofia, July 2, 1980). Bulgarian composer, teacher, conductor, and musicologist. He was born in the village of Kumanichevo (now in Greece). He graduated from the Theological Seminary in Istanbul and later from the Conservatory in St. Petersburg, where he studied composition and Eastern Orthodox music. Dinev also graduated from the University of St. Petersburg with a degree in Law. In 1919 he was appointed as a teacher of Eastern Orthodox music at the Conservatory of Kazan. In 1922 Dinev returned to Bulgaria and taught music in different high schools until 1924. From 1925 to 1934 he taught church music at the Sofia State Academy of Music. From 1926 to 1944, Dinev also taught church music at the Sofia Theological Academy. During this time he conducted the choir of the Theological Faculty and the choir at the church of Sts. Cyril and Methodios. After ...

Article

Séamas de Barra

(Georg) [Ó Rónáin, Muiris]

(b Munich, April 13, 1910; d Cork, July 21, 1992). Irish composer, conductor and musicologist of German birth. After completing the BMus (1931) and MA (1932) at University College, Cork, he studied composition and conducting at the Akademie für Tonkunst, Munich, and musicology at Munich University (1932–4). On returning to Cork in 1934, he was appointed professor of music at University College, where he remained until his retirement in 1980. Acutely aware of the obligation of his generation to create circumstances in which modern Irish music could flourish in a recently independent Ireland, his involvement in all aspects of musical life was deep and committed. He founded the Cork SO (1934), which he conducted for almost 60 years, and the Cork Music Teachers’ Association (1938), of which he remained chair for 50 years; he also co-founded the Cork Ballet Company (...

Article

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...

Article

Bonnie J. Blackburn

[Lanfranchinus][Gafori, Franchino]

(b Lodi, 14 Jan 1451; d Milan, 24 June 1522). Italian theorist, composer, and choirmaster. At home in both speculative and practical music, he was the first theorist to have a substantial number of his writings published, and his influence can be traced for more than a century, both in Italy and abroad.

Much of our knowledge stems from the contemporary biography by Pantaleone Malegolo, printed in the De harmonia: Gaffurius was born in Lodi to the soldier Bettino from Almenno in the territory of Bergamo and to Caterina Fissiraga of Lodi. He began theological studies early, at the Benedictine monastery of S. Pietro in Lodi Vecchio (where he was still present in September 1473) and was ordained priest in late 1473 or 1474. His first instructor in music was Johannes Bonadies (or Godendach); Malegolo implies that this was in Lodi, where he briefly returned to sing in the cathedral on Ascension Day, ...

Article

Etienne Darbellay

revised by Dorothea Baumann

(b Veytaux-Chillon, Montreux, April 26, 1922; d Pully, April 28, 1992). Swiss musicologist, conductor and composer. After his schooling at Montreux, Lausanne and Winterthur, where he learnt the violin and viola with Ernst Wolters, he studied literature and theology at Lausanne and took a course in conducting at Geneva with Baud-Bovy and Franz von Hösslin. He studied the violin at the Zürich Conservatory with Willem de Boer (diploma 1946) and musicology, church history and philosophy at the university. His principal teachers were Hindemith, Willy Burkhard, Willi Schuh and Antoine Cherbuliez. In 1947 he obtained the doctorat ès lettres from Zürich University with a dissertation on the Huguenot Psalter. He taught music history in Lausanne at the Conservatory and the Université Populaire (1956–87) and at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale (1973–9). Throughout his life he was active as a choral and orchestral conductor. At the Bayreuth Festival he directed the Wagner Seminar (...