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Article

Niall O’Loughlin

revised by Robert Bigio

(b Dublin, Ireland, 1809; d London, England, May 7, 1864). Irish flutist, composer, flute designer, and manufacturer. He became professor of flute at the Royal Academy of Music in the 1840s, and was an enthusiastic player of Boehm’s 1832 conical flute as made by Rudall & Rose from 1843. He published the first English-language tutor for the instrument, followed by further editions. However, Clinton appears to have fallen out with Boehm after failing to persuade him to allow Clinton to produce Boehm’s newly invented (1847) cylindrical flute in London (Boehm sold the rights to Rudall & Rose instead). Clinton then denounced Boehm’s work, declaring his opposition to Boehm’s open-standing (fully vented) key system (the virtues of which he had previously extolled) as well as to Boehm’s cylindrical bore and his use of metal for the body.

In 1848 Clinton registered the first of his four patents for flutes, to which he gave the name Equisonant. These use a fingering system similar to that of the eight-keyed flute, on a conical bore but with a mechanism that allows the tone holes to be better placed. After ...

Article

Melanie Piddocke

(b Kirchheim, Germany, Feb 21, 1746; d Vienna, Austria, June 25, 1792). German musician, composer, and woodwind instrument maker active in Pressburg and Vienna. Lotz is first documented as a clarinettist: on 17 Dec 1772 he performed a clarinet concerto in a Tonkünstlersocietät concert in Vienna, and in 1775 performed his own clarinet concerto in Pressburg. About this time Lotz became of a member of Cardinal Batthyány’s orchestra in Pressburg, where he served as first clarinettist, played viola when necessary, and directed rehearsals. Lotz remained a member of this orchestra until it disbanded in 1783. It has been suggested, without evidence, that Lotz was a member of the orchestras of Cardinal de Rohan (until 1774) and Prince (Johann?) Esterházy.

Lotz is remembered primarily as an innovative instrument maker. He made for Anton Stadler the basset clarinet for which Mozart wrote his concerto k622. C.F. Cramer (Magazin der Musik...

Article

Patrizio Barbieri

(b Amatrice, Rieti, Italy, 17??; d Amatrice, Italy, 16–17 March 1804). Italian amateur flutist, composer, and developer of the flute. Orazi served as an army lieutenant in Naples and Spain and on retirement returned to Amatrice, on the northern border of the Kingdom of Naples. In 1797 he published a short treatise illustrating his invention and fabrication of a new type of transverse flute; printed separately at the same time were two ‘enharmonic’ trios he wrote especially for this instrument, incorporating themes by other composers. His aim was to make the flute more competitive with the violin by extending its range down to g; increasing the upper range and facilitating emission of high notes; and enabling it to perform quarter-tones so that portamento effects could enhance its expressive potential.

The instrument was essentially a normal concert flute in D (‘flauto corista’) equipped with four closed-standing keys (E♭, F, G#, B♭). To it was added an extension partly bent back on itself for more convenient positioning of the keys, allowing one to play chromatically from ...