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Article

Erkki Salmenhaara

[Erik]

(b Ilmajoki, Feb 2, 1911; d Tampere, Sept 2, 1996). Finnish musicologist and folklorist. He studied at Helsinki Conservatory (1929–36) and under A.O. Väisänen at Helsinki University (MA 1942), where he took the doctorate in 1956 with a dissertation on the polska in Finland. His extended fieldwork on folk music and instruments in Finland and Sweden resulted in a collection of over 10,000 melodies (now in Tampere University library). After teaching music at Helsinki Conservatory (1951–7) and lecturing at Helsinki University (1957–62) he held a research grant from the State Humanities Committee (1962–75). He was professor of folk research at Tampere University (1975–7) and director of the university folk research institute (1977–81). He was active in many folk music research organizations. A list of his writings is included in the Festschrift Kentältä kentälle: juhlakirja Erkki Ala-Könnin 70 - vuotispäiväksi 2.2.1981...

Article

Eric Blom

revised by Malcolm Turner

(b Magdeburg, March 31, 1902; d Kiel, Jan 20, 1961). German musicologist. He studied at the Essen Conservatory (1913–21), at the University of Münster and (1921–5) at Berlin with Wolf, Abert, Sachs and von Hornbostel. From 1925 to 1937 he held various teaching posts, organized music festivals in Bremen (1929), Essen (1931) and Aachen (1933), and was active in the Reichsverband Deutscher Tonkünstler und Musiklehrer. After a short period as choral adviser to the Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda, he joined the Staatliche Institut für Deutsche Musikforschung, Berlin, in 1939, becoming professor there in 1940 and director in 1941. In 1942 he was elected a member of the Senate of the Preussische Akademie der Künste, representing on that body the interests of musicology.

After the war he became director of the Landesinstitut für Musikforschung, Kiel, in 1947, where he remained until his death, becoming professor at the University of Kiel in ...

Article

Juan Orrego-Salas

(b Santiago, June 29, 1885; d Santiago, Aug 17, 1959). Chilean composer and ethnomusicologist. He studied the violin, music theory and composition at the Santiago Conservatorio National de Música (1899–1908). The Chilean government then sent him to France and Spain for further study (1910–11). On returning to Chile he was elected to the Folklore Society and worked for the Ministry of Education in improving the teaching of music in the state schools (1924–8). He travelled again to Europe in 1922 and was one of the founders of the International Academy of Fine Arts in Paris (1923). In 1928 he was appointed professor of composition at the Conservatorio National, which had recently become part of the arts faculty of the University of Chile. There, until his retirement in 1946, he taught many Chilean composers who later came to international prominence. On another visit to Europe, also in ...

Article

Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Neuss, July 6, 1899; d Lüdenscheid, Sept 1, 1994). German musicologist and choir director. He studied musicology with Ludwig at Göttingen University (1919–21) and subsequently with Gurlitt at Freiburg University, where he received the doctorate in 1924 with a dissertation on the melodies Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen and Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh' darein. He was a lecturer at the Bauernhochschule in Rendsburg (1924–5) and at the Volkshochschule in Kassel (1925–6). He then acted as music consultant to the Central Office for General Librarianship in Leipzig (1926–8) and lectured in Protestant church music at the University of Münster (1930–39). After the war he lectured at the Landeskirchenmusikschulen of Hanover (1947–8) and the Rhineland (1949–57).

In the early 1920s Ameln embarked on a fruitful career as a choral and orchestral conductor and director of choral courses. His object was the authentic performance of old music, and this was coupled with considerable editorial work. He edited the journal of the Finkenstein League, ...

Article

John Edward Hasse

[Rudolph] (Pickett)

(b Guthrie, OK, Jan 21, 1899; d Gilmanton, NH, Aug 25, 1985). American writer on music. He attended Dartmouth College and earned the BS in architecture from the University of California, Berkeley. In the 1940s he served as jazz critic for the San Francisco Chronicle and the New York Herald Tribune. He wrote a pioneering serious history of jazz, Shining Trumpets (1946), and with Harriet Janis was co-author of the first history of ragtime, They All Played Ragtime (1950). The latter work established him as the leading authority in this field, and eventually prompted a revival of the music. Also with Janis, he founded Circle Records, a small but significant jazz label which became the first to issue the Library of Congress recordings of Jelly Roll Morton. In 1953 they sold Circle Records – apart from the Morton recordings – to Jazzology Records. From 1947 to 1950...

Article

Paula Morgan

revised by Jere T. Humphreys

(b Elgin, IL, May 25, 1914; d DeKalb, IL, Feb 17, 2003). American music educator, scholar, and administrator. He obtained degrees in instrumental music (BS 1937) and in education and English (MA 1939) from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, and in musicology from University of Michigan (PhD 1950). He taught music and English in the public schools of Griffith, Illinois (1938–41), and in the laboratory school at Eastern Illinois State Teachers College (1941–3). After serving in the US Army during World War II (1943–6), he completed his doctoral studies and joined the music faculty at the University of Michigan (1949), where he established a leading doctoral program in music education and directed 51 doctoral dissertations. He served as dean of the School of Music (1969–79) and retired from the faculty in 1984. Britton was president of the Music Educators National Conference (MENC) (...

Article

Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...

Article

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...

Article

Jere T. Humphreys

(b Wylie, TX, Oct 17, 1913; d Tallahassee, FL, Dec 13, 2004). American Music educator, conductor, scholar, and administrator. He earned degrees from North Texas State College (BS 1934), Teachers College, Columbia University (MA 1938), and New York University (EdD 1943). He was director of music for public schools in Texas (1934–7) and New York (1938–41), and taught at New York University (1941–3) and the University of Texas (1946–7). He served as an Executive Officer in the US Army Medical Administrative Corps in the United States and Philippines (1943–6). He then taught at Florida State University (1947–66), where he was named Distinguished Professor (1961). During those years he held a Fulbright Fellowship to Japan (1956–7) and summer appointments at North Texas State University, University of Michigan, and Indiana University. He served on committees and advisory boards for the US Department of State International Cultural Presentations Program (...

Article

Victoria Eli Rodríguez

(b Cienfuegos, Oct 6, 1915; d Havana, May 16, 2004). Cuban composer, musicologist, teacher, and administrator. One of the most important, senior figures in Cuban music, he began his musical studies at the age of seven with his aunt, Aurea Suárez (a native of Madrid). He went on to study with Jascha Fischermann in Havana (1936–7) and with Ardévol at the Havana Conservatory (1939–46), whose example in particular led him to become part of Cuba’s outward-looking artistic avant garde. As a teacher of history and aesthetics he worked at the Havana Conservatory (1945–68), the National School of Arts (1968–9), and the university summer courses (1945–70). He also worked as a music critic for various newspapers between 1943 and 1967. He belonged to the progressive associations Grupo de Renovación Musical (1942–48) and Nuestro Tiempo (1950–59). He served on numerous committees set up to reform music teaching in the country, worked in aid of various provincial music societies and in ...

Article

Anastasia Siopsi

(b Piraeus, 1897; d Piraeus, 1981). Greek composer, music teacher, conductor, music manager, and historian.

He studied music theory with Geōrgios Lampelet and Armando Marsik at Athens Conservatory, and continued his studies in Leipzig with Fritz Benesevic and Max Steinizer. From 1914, and for several years, he was a teacher of vocal training in several schools and a professor in the Academy of Film Studies, of the Higher School of Cinema. He was a member of the board of the organization ‘Ellēnikon Melodrama’ [Greek Melodrama] and directing advisor; founder and conductor of the choir in the church of the Greek community in Leipzig; and founding member of the board of the Union of the Critics of the Theatre and Music, the organization ‘Arxaion Drama’ [Ancient Drama], the Greek Society of composers, writers, and publishers, among others. He was the director of the journal Mousika Chronika [Musical Chronicles] (...

Article

John Tyrrell and Geoffrey Chew

(b Staré Město u Frýdku [now Frýdek-Místek], Moravia, April 12, 1931; d Brno, Dec 16, 2008). Czech musicologist and administrator. He studied musicology under Racek and Štědroň, and aesthetics under Mirko Novák at Brno University (1950–55), graduating in 1955 and taking the doctorate in 1967 with a dissertation on Slavonic elements in Beethoven's works and the CSc in 1968 with a dissertation on Mysliveček. He was awarded the DSc in 1989 for his dissertation on Beethoven's stage works. He was appointed assistant lecturer at Brno University in 1955 but although a highly productive scholar, editor, and administrator (head of musicology department from 1972 to 1989), he was barred, as a non-communist, from promotion until 1984, when he became lecturer. After the Velvet Revolution he was made vice-dean of the Arts Faculty (1989–91) and was appointed professor of musicology in 1990; he continued to teach at Brno University as an ‘external’ lecturer from ...

Article

Rudolf Klein

( b Stolp [now Słupsk], May 22, 1899; d Salzburg, Aug 15, 1964). German educationist and writer on music . He studied at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik and concurrently studied musicology with Johannes Wolf, Schünemann and Hermann Abert at Berlin University. He took the doctorate in 1924 with a dissertation on singing in Protestant Lateinschulen in the 17th century. He then worked under Leo Kestenberg at the Berlin Central Institute for Education until 1934, when he took over the organization of German choral singing, for which he was responsible until 1938. He was subsequently (1939) appointed executive director and lecturer in music education at the Salzburg Mozarteum, succeeding Paumgartner as its president (1959); he revived and directed its annual summer academy held at the time of the Salzburg Festival. He was a member of the directorate of the Salzburg Festival and of many international committees, and was a visiting professor at the University of Michigan (...

Article

Gerard Béhague

(b Mexico City, Nov 11, 1932). Mexican ethnomusicologist, singer, percussionist and music administrator. She studied at the Colegio Juan de Dios Peza in San Luis Potosí (BA in philosophy and letters), the National Conservatory of Music in Mexico City (singing and percussion, 1959–67) and the Idyllwild School of Music of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles (1965–70). Concurrently she lectured extensively on Mexican folk music in the USA and Europe and pursued a career as a performer. In 1966 she became head of the Sección de Investigaciones Musicales and in 1974 director of the Centro Nacional de Investigación, Documentación e Información Musical of the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes and of the instrument museum of the same institute, where she also inaugurated the annual courses in ethnomusicology (1967–72). As an official researcher of the institute, she has studied and published in the areas of Mexican music history, folklore, dance, and ethnomusicology....

Article

George Leotsakos

(b Përmet, Albania, Nov 22, 1963). Albanian composer, ethnomusicologist, and administrator. After early musical training in Përmet and Korça, he studied at the Tirana Conservatory (1984–7), where his teachers included Gaqi, Kushta, Lara, Simoni, and Shupo. Between 1988 and 1991 he worked in Përmet as music director at the Naïm Frashëri Palace of Culture and as artistic director of the Elena Gjika ensemble. He was appointed to teach ethnomusicology and composition at the Tirana Conservatory (now the music faculty of the Academy of Arts) in 1991. In 1993 he founded the New Albanian Music association and in 1997 the Ton de Leeuw International Competition for New Music in Tirana. After receiving the doctorate in ethnomusicology in 1994, he undertook further composition studies with Hufschmidt at the Folkwang Hochschule, Essen (1994–5), followed by postdoctoral studies at Athens University (1996). In 1997 he was appointed director of the Theatre of Opera and Ballet, Tirana, and of the State Ensemble of Folk Songs and Dances. He resigned in ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Patton, PA, April 2, 1927). American liturgiologist . He took two BA degrees at St Vincent College (1949 and 1952) and the MS in piano at the Juilliard School (1954), and then took further graduate courses at Columbia University. From 1957 to 1967 he was associated with St Vincent College, first as a music teacher and later in administrative positions, including those of chancellor and chairman of the board of directors. He was a member of the university seminar in medieval studies at Columbia, 1957–66. In 1967 he was appointed abbot primate of the Benedictine Confederation and in 1977 he became the Archbishop of Milwaukee. He was also music editor of the New Catholic Encyclopedia. His principal interests are medieval Latin drama and music theorists, and Ambrosian chant. He studied the compositions and theoretical writings of Hucbald, and his transcription of the Play of Daniel...

Article

Clement A. Miller

[Jobst ]

(b Resel, Värmland, c1486; d Frankfurt an der Oder, Nov 12, 1552). German humanist, physician, writer and musician . The generally accepted birthdate for him is about 1486, but according to Pietzsch it is 1501. In 1516 he entered the University of Frankfurt an der Oder, where he probably studied music under Johann Volckmar. After graduating he taught music from 1522 to 1539. In 1524 Willich became professor of Greek and in 1540 professor of medicine. Although he retained his connection with the university until his death, he was frequently called to other countries (such as Poland and Hungary) because of his renown as a physician. He corresponded with Erasmus and was personally acquainted with Luther, Melanchthon and Glarean. More than 60 writings on philology, antiquity, philosophy, theology, law, medicine, mathematics and music, some of which remained current into the 18th century, gave Willich a position as one of the outstanding German humanists of his time. An ardent lutenist, he founded about ...

Article

David Scott

(b Northwich, Cheshire, May 17, 1912; d York, May 9, 2004). English writer on music and music educationist . He was educated at Christ’s Hospital (1924–30) and read English, music and history as an organ scholar at Selwyn College, Cambridge (1930–34; MusB 1933). He was director of music at Stranmillis Teachers Training College, Belfast, from 1934 until 1937, when he took the MusD at Trinity College, Dublin. From 1937 to 1944 he was music adviser to the city of Stoke on Trent. In 1944 he became director of music at Wolverhampton College of Technology; there he also formed a choir which gave many performances, particularly of lesser-known works by Handel. Since 1970 he has been a visiting scholar and lecturer at numerous colleges in the USA.

Young was an exceptionally fluent and prolific writer. His books include short popular biographies and several volumes for younger readers. Many of his more substantial writings are based on a lively, fresh and industrious, if not always highly discriminating, examination of source material; these include original research on Elgar and useful surveys of the British choral tradition and British music generally. As a composer Young was equally prolific: his works include a Fugal Concerto for two pianos and strings (...