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Article

Academy  

Howard Mayer Brown

revised by Iain Fenlon

At various times in musical history, the word ‘academy’ has meant diverse things, including (i) a formal association of people interested in mutually communicating their opinions on various philosophical, intellectual or cultural issues (most such academies sponsored theatrical events with music and some included discussions of musical questions on their regular agenda), or even, in some few cases, a formal association devoting itself primarily to the study of music; (ii) a more loosely formed circle of intellectuals interested in holding lively discussions on various topics; (iii) an official national society that serves as an arbiter of tastes and standards; (iv) a society formed specifically to sponsor musical performances (including opera); (v) a single concert, either public or private; or (vi) an institution for the training of musicians.

The first of these definitions must be considered the original and therefore the primary meaning. The word itself derives from the mythological character Akademos, after whom a garden or grove in Athens was named, where it is said that the Greek philosopher Plato met his students to discuss philosophy, although recent scholarship has shown that exclusive reference to Plato was never intended by users of the word (Chambers, ...

Article

Gregory F. Barz

The now defunct African Music Society was founded in 1948 by Hugh Tracey and anthropologist Winifred Hoernle, whose principal objective was to encourage research in traditional and popular musics in Africa. The society emphasized the importance of recordings to document the range and character of African indigenous music, much of which has been extremely localized due to barriers of distance and language, and through dependence on oral tradition. The society also encouraged the dissemination of musical styles through education and radio programmes. It developed into the ...

Article

[ACDA]

Professional organization founded in 1959. A group of 35 attendees at the biennial conference of the Music Teachers National Association in Kansas City, Missouri, formed this organization. A steering committee consisting of J. Clark Rhodes, Elwood Keister, Curt Hansen, Harry Robert Wilson, R. Wayne Hugoboom, Warner Imig, and Archie N. Jones created a working philosophy called the original ten purposes. The first purpose states: “To foster and promote choral singing which will provide artistic, cultural, and spiritual experiences for the participants.” The first national convention, held the following year in Atlantic City, New Jersey, in conjunction with a convention of the Music Educators National Conference (MENC), featured five concerts, reading and interest sessions, and panel discussions, a model that continues to the present day. During its first decade the ACDA formed division and state chapters following the MENC model. R. Wayne Hugoboom was appointed the first executive secretary (1964...

Article

Rita H. Mead

revised by N. Lee Orr

An American educational and service organization for organists, clergy, and choral conductors. The guild was founded in New York in 1896 by over 100 of the leading organists and clergy, including John Knowles Paine and George Chadwick, and chartered by the New York State Board of Regents. Dudley Buck served as the first honorary president. Its goals are to promote the organ, encourage excellence in the performance of organ and choral music, to support education and certification of Guild members, and to set and maintain standards of artistic excellence among its members. The Guild sponsors competitions in organ performance, improvisation, and in organ and choral composition, as well as national and regional conventions. The Guild also conducts examinations in organ playing and choir training, awarding successful candidates certificates and designating them as fellows, associates, or choirmasters. Monthly since 1967 it has published the American Organist, the most widely read journal devoted to organ and choral music in the world. With some 20,000 members in 322 chapters in all 50 states, Panama, and Europe, the Guild is one of the world’s largest organizations of musicians specializing in a single instrument....

Article

Organization founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts, by Armen Carapetyan in 1944 as the Institute of Renaissance and Baroque Music. The primary purpose of the institute is to publish scholarly editions of compositions and theoretical works, chiefly those of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, and thus to promote the study of these sources in the humanistic disciplines in institutions of higher education. In 1946 the new name was adopted, and headquarters were moved to Rome (though offices were maintained in Cambridge and in Dallas, the latter’s circulation office moving to the firm of Hänssler-Verlag in Stuttgart in 1974). A group of eminent scholars served as an advisory board until 1949, when Carapetyan became the sole director. A choir was established in 1947, and summer sessions featuring advanced studies in medieval and Renaissance music history were held in 1947 and 1948; both were soon discontinued.

In its range of publications the institute has always aimed at high standards of scholarship and book production; following Carapetyan’s death in ...

Article

[AOSA]

Professional organization for Orff Schulwerk teachers. The organization promotes the artistic and pedagogical principles of Bavarian composer and educator Carl Orff (1895–82) and his colleague Gunild Keetman (1904–90). Orff Schulwerk (schoolwork) uses children’s poems, rhymes, games, songs, and dances as examples and basic materials. The non-competitive approach emphasizes creativity through music and movement. Specially designed Orff instruments are a part of the approach. The American Orff-Schulwerk Association was founded in Muncie, Indiana, in 1968 when educators who had studied Orff Schulwerk convened a meeting. The organization holds annual conferences and oversees guidelines for Orff teacher training courses. There are almost 120 regional chapters that sponsor teacher education workshops. The organization’s journal, the Orff Echo, is published quarterly. The membership elects a board of directors representing each region of the country. AOSA is the largest of many Orff organizations internationally that look to the Orff Institute of the University Mozarteum in Salzburg as the center of the Orff movement. AOSA members and other Orff-trained teachers use various materials published by Orff and Keetman, most prominently the multi-volume set ...

Article

(ASBDA)

Professional association of band directors teaching at the elementary- or secondary-school level. Established in 1953, its objectives were to represent school band directors in the academic and business communities; to foster the exchange of ideas and methods that will advance the standards of musical and educational achievement; to stress the importance of the school band in the educational process and establish bands as a basic course in the school curriculum; to maintain a program for the improvement of school bands through research and experimentation; and to cooperate with existing associations that share the aim of promoting the band as a worthwhile medium of musical expression. Membership (by invitation) is open to active school band directors with a minimum of five years’ teaching experience who command the respect of their colleagues for the standard of performance and musicianship achieved by their bands. The association presents two biennial awards, the A. Austin Harding Award to individuals for valuable and dedicated service to the bands of America, and the Edwin Franko Goldman Award as a measure of appreciation for outstanding personal contributions to the school band movement....

Article

American organization founded in New York in 1974, a successor to the Mailamm (active 1931–9), the Jewish Music Forum (1939–63), and the Jewish Liturgical Music Society of America (1963–74). Membership includes libraries, synagogues, cantors, composers, educators, musicologists, ethnologists, historians, performers, and lay members who are active or interested in Jewish liturgical and secular music. The society maintains relationships with similar organizations throughout the world. It presents a variety of public programs each season, often with the American Jewish Historical Society, its host at the Center for Jewish History. The organization publishes scholarly works relevant to Jewish music, notably the multilingual journal Musica judaica (since 1975). It also sponsors the Jewish Music Forum, which hosts academic seminars, events, and forums to promote awareness and dialogue about Jewish music. It awards prizes for new Jewish works and schedules to have them performed. Albert Weisser served as its first president....

Article

[ASTA]

National professional organization for string music education. ASTA was founded in 1946 to encourage student performance of bowed instruments; to foster study and research on the pedagogy of string playing; and to facilitate the continuing education of string teachers. It was organized partly in reaction to the proliferation of wind bands in the public schools. The association’s activities have included special study of violin pedagogy (beginning in 1966), workshops for school orchestra directors who are not string specialists (1971–), and an international workshop with the European String Teachers Association held in Exeter, Great Britain (1975). ASTA also grants annual awards to artist-teachers and for distinguished service to the string teaching profession. In addition to various monographs and bulletins, the association has published the (now quarterly) American String Teacher since 1951. Its 11,500 members are string teachers and performers from all 50 states. Its current headquarters opened in Reston, Virginia, in ...

Article

An educational and service organization for organists and theater organ enthusiasts, founded in 1955. Its goals are to preserve and promote the organs that were originally designed to accompany silent movies in the motion picture palaces of the 1920s. In addition, the society works to preserve, restore, maintain, and promote the theater pipe organ in places ranging from original motion picture palaces to skating rinks, schools, colleges and universities, pizza restaurants, and even private homes. To encourage young musicians to become proficient theater organists the ATOS sponsors an annual Young Organist Competition as well as annual scholarships for aspiring young organ students. The society has more than 3500 members in approximately 75 chapters across the United States, Great Britain, and Australia. The organization and the various chapters sponsor an annual convention, concerts, screening of silent films, and educational and technical programs (including a youth camp for young organists), and publish a bimonthly journal, ...

Article

Sarah Adams

Archives and manuscripts constitute the “raw materials” of music history, since the foundation of much humanistic scholarship is based on the interpretation and re-interpretation of primary and secondary sources. Music archival collections and manuscripts may be found both within and outside musical organizations, such as conservatories, academic institutions, libraries, historical societies, museums, businesses, performing arts organizations, research centers, radio and television stations, government archives, and church archives.

This article will cover the single manuscript and paper-based archival traditions in the USA. For media-based archives, see Archives, sound recording and moving image. For details of specific collections see Libraries and collections; for jazz archives see Libraries and archives in GroveJ.

Archives are defined as groups of documents produced by an institution, an organization, an individual, or a family in the course of daily activity, and preserved for enduring value. They are typically kept together as organized bodies of records and are maintained in their original order. The term archive also refers to the repository where archives are located; it is often also used to describe a specialized collection....

Article

Michael Mauskapf

[AE]

Nonprofit organization dedicated to educating, promoting, and supporting emerging leaders by exploring the intersection between the arts and business to promote social growth and entrepreneurial thinking. The organization was founded in 2006 at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, by an interdisciplinary team of students and faculty, including Chris Genteel, Kelly Dylla, Nathaniel Zeisler, and Mark Clague. Operating first as a student group, AE soon expanded to other colleges and universities, including Bowling Green State University, University of Wisconsin, University of Missouri at Kansas City, University of Iowa, and Claremont Graduate University. Chapters operate independently, advocating on behalf of AE’s mission while engaging the broader student body through skills-based workshops, performances, consulting projects, and service programs. To account for the movement’s continued growth, a national support organization was formed in 2008 to offer professional development resources and empower student leadership through action-based learning. Since 2009 Arts Enterprise has produced an annual summit, which includes keynote addresses from industry leaders and a case competition for new student businesses....

Article

British institution which conducts examinations in practical and theoretical musical subjects; it is also a significant publisher of music and related pedagogical materials. The Associated Board is a London-based charitable company, established in 1889 by the Royal Academy of Music and the Royal College of Music, later joined by the other two ‘royal’ conservatories, the Royal Northern College of Music (Manchester) and the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama (Glasgow). A.C. Mackenzie, the then Principal of the Royal Academy, provided a colourful account of the circumstances surrounding the foundation of the Associated Board in A Musician’s Narrative (London, 1927). Its central activity is the provision of a scheme of graded practical examinations for instrumentalists and singers: candidates at each of the eight ascending levels of difficulty must perform set pieces, play scales and arpeggios and pass sight-reading and aural tests. The examinations are held at local centres in Britain and in about 85 other countries, with a high proportion of overseas candidates living in the countries of the Commonwealth, especially New Zealand, South Africa, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore. During the late 1990s about 570,000 candidates were examined annually, 350,000 of these in Britain. The assessments are administered by a pool of about 530 touring examiners, almost all of whom are based in Britain. They are subject to regular compulsory training and elaborate moderation procedures....

Article

Raoul F. Camus

(ACB)

American professional organization designed to serve the particular interests of adult band musicians, rather than those of school or college groups. Founded in 1977, its purpose is to encourage and foster adult concert community, municipal, and civic bands and to promote the performance of the highest quality traditional and contemporary literature for band. It holds annual conventions where directors, band members, managers, industry leaders, administrators, and board members assemble to exchange personal views, share experiences, and benefit from educational seminars and musical performances. The ...

Article

John Shepard

revised by Karen M. Bryan

A society founded by Owen C. Cash in Oklahoma in 1938 as the Society for the Preservation and Encouragement of Barber Shop Quartet Singing in America (SPEBSQSA). The organization was the first to promote and preserve barbershop as an art form. Its goal was to promote barbershop singing among men of all ages. The society “perpetuates and celebrates harmony in the barbershop style; promotes fellowship and friendship among men of good will; provides the opportunity to experience the joy of four-part a cappella singing; and introduces and sustains music in the lives of people everywhere.” In ...

Article

Maureen Mahon

[BRC]

American arts organization founded in New York in October 1985 and in Los Angeles in 1989. It was formed by African American musicians, artists, and music industry professionals based in New York in response to the race-based assumptions about music-making that dominated the 1980s. The BRC addresses the racial segregation of music in the recording industry and provides an outlet for African American rock musicians to develop and promote their craft. Its co-founders were the guitarist Vernon Reid, the writer Greg Tate, and the artist manager Konda Mason. A non-profit organization run by volunteers, it stages concerts, sponsors panel discussions, produces recordings, and hosts a radio show in order to draw attention to the breadth of musical sounds and styles engaged by African American musicians.

The BRC argues against the recording industry’s practice of limiting African American musicians to rhythm-and-blues and dance music. A primary reason for the formation of the BRC was to support Reid’s efforts to win a recording contract for his hard-rock band Living Colour. To address the common view held by black and white recording industry executives and music fans that black people were not interested in rock and that rock was white music, BRC members invoked a historical argument that recalled the African American roots of rock and roll. Articulating their position in the ...

Article

The music department is a part of the Research Institute of the Arts, which also includes Fine Art Studies, Theatre Studies, Screen Arts Studies (after 1988), and Architectural Studies (since 2010). The music department existed independently until 1988 as an Institute of Music. The Institute of Music was established in 1948 as the Research Institute of Music with the Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two staff members: Petko Staynov (director) and Andrey Stoyanov. The task of the Institute of Music is to collect, preserve, and publish the Bulgarian folksong heritage. Subsequently the collectors and researchers of folk songs and traditions Ivan Kachulev, Andrey Andreev (1950), Rayna Katsarova, and Elena Stoin (1951) were appointed at the Institute. A separate section for folk music was established at the Institute, led by Rayna Katsarova (1952–67) and, since 1967, Prof. Kaufmann. In 1952 the first volume of the first research journal of the Institute, ...

Article

Suzanne Flandreau

[CBMR]

The Center for Black Music Research (CBMR) was founded in 1983 at Columbia College Chicago by Samuel A. Floyd, Jr. Its mission has remained the same since its inception: to document, preserve, and promote the music of the African Diaspora. This mission is accomplished through publications, conferences and symposia, performances, research fellowships, and the Library and Archives, housing books and research collections.

The Center’s flagship publication, Black Music Research Journal (1980–), antedates Floyd’s move to Columbia College. The Center has also published Lenox Avenue (1995–1999), the scholarly journal for a grant-funded project which explored music’s role in the arts of the African Diaspora. Various newsletters, including Black Music Research Newsletter/CBMR Bulletin (1977–1990), and CBMR Digest (1990–) informed members about the Center’s activities. Kalinda! (1994–1997), Stop-Time (1998–2000), and Cariso! (2003–2006) were published for specific grant-funded projects. The Center’s publications also include a bibliographic and reference series consisting of five CBMR monographs, ...

Article

John M. Geringer

Article

John Shepard

Organization founded in 1954 by Eleanor Belmont and sponsored by the Metropolitan Opera National Council. Its 2000 members included opera companies and workshops, professionals involved with opera, and interested individuals. It provided information about performance material and repertory, and offered a wide range of services including advising on organization, public relations, and fund-raising techniques. From 1959 it published a bulletin (quarterly from 1971–2), several complete issues of which consist of important directories: Opera Companies and Workshops in the United States and Canada (annually from 1962), Directory of American Contemporary Operas (1967 and supplements), Directory of English Opera Translations (3/1974 and supplements), Directory of Operas and Publishers (1976), Career Guide for the Young American Singer (3/1978 and quarterly addenda), and Directory of Sets and Costumes for Rent: OperasOperettas—Musicals (3/1979 and annual addenda). The service ceased operations in October 1990; its information and research functions are continued by ...