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Miloš Velimirović

Semi-autonomous monastic ‘republic’ comprising numerous Greek and other Christian monastic communities. It is located on a peninsula of the same name, east of Thessaloniki in northern Greece; the peninsula is also known as the ‘Holy Mountain’ (Hagion oros) or the ‘Garden of the All-Holy Virgin’. Since the Middle Ages, and especially since the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Athos has been an important centre for Byzantine chant. A number of notable musicians and composers worked there, including Joannes Koukouzeles, who lived near Lavra in the 14th century, and many important manuscripts were produced in its monasteries. The Athonite monastic communities are now unusual in their adherence to the regular recitation of the Byzantine Offices.

Because of its isolation and semi-desert nature, Athos is an ideal monastic site. Monasteries were first established there in the 9th century (references to earlier foundations are unsubstantiated). Great Lavra, the oldest continuously inhabited monastery, was founded in 963 by St Athanasius of Athos with the support of the Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Phocas. The number of subsequent foundations grew rapidly; there are references (perhaps exaggerated) to some 180 monastic settlements in the 11th century and close to 300 by the early 13th century. Later, however, the number of monasteries diminished. In the early 13th century crusaders conquered Constantinople and many monasteries lost their property and suffered economic decline. In the early 14th century Athos was ravaged by Catalan soldiers, and for over 20 years in the middle of the century it was a part of the Serbian Empire. During this century, too, the monks were sharply divided by the theological controversy over the views of Gregory Palamas....


Christoph Wolff and Ulrich Leisinger

Member of Bach family

(46) (b Weimar, March 8, 1714; d Hamburg, Dec 14, 1788). Composer and church musician, the second surviving son of (7) Johann Sebastian Bach (24) and his first wife, Maria Barbara. He was the most important composer in Protestant Germany during the second half of the 18th century, and enjoyed unqualified admiration and recognition particularly as a teacher and keyboard composer.

He was baptized on 10 March 1714, with Telemann as one of his godfathers. In 1717 he moved with the family to Cöthen, where his father had been appointed Kapellmeister. His mother died in 1720, and in spring 1723 the family moved to Leipzig, where Emanuel began attending the Thomasschule as a day-boy on 14 June 1723. J.S. Bach said later that one of his reasons for accepting the post of Kantor at the Thomasschule was that his sons’ intellectual development suggested that they would benefit from a university education. Emanuel Bach received his musical training from his father, who gave him keyboard and organ lessons. There may once have been some kind of ...




Camillo Schoenbaum

revised by Clytus Gottwald

A Czech religious sect which originated in Bohemia around 1450. Based on the doctrine of Petr Chelčický (c1390 –1460), a radical Taborite and eminent writer, the Bohemian Brethren initially represented an extreme type of the official Utraquism and as such were at first tolerated. Their basic beliefs included Chelčický's thesis concerning the equality of all mankind, and the primacy of the Bible in every argument and in the moral life of mankind (for whom the exercise of any form of power was sinful). Thus they did not recognize class distinctions and were consequently regarded by their contemporaries as enemies of the existing class-bound society. From 1460 until their expulsion from Bohemia and Moravia after 1618, they were persecuted, imprisoned and executed, by Catholics and Utraquists alike, especially after they had established an independent church and lay priesthood, but they succeeded in winning over some of the most influential figures of the day. They attached great importance to correct translations of the Bible and sought as collaborators adherents with good Greek and Hebrew. They formed alliances with the Lutherans in Germany, sent missions far abroad, and led active intellectual lives; they established printing presses and created their own document archive....


Jan Stęszewski

revised by Zbigniew J. Przerembski

[mrëczk, mruczek] (Pol.: ‘grumble bass’)

Friction drum used in the Pomerania and Warmia regions of Poland. Formerly it was used in magic and annual folk rituals, mainly during Christmas and Shrovetide. Nowadays many folk ensembles use it to provide a rhythmic bass, and as a musical attribute of Kashubian cultural identity. The barrel-shaped body is about 25–30 cm tall and made of wooden staves, or sometimes a hollowed log. The bottom of the barrel is made of leather or wood with a centrally attached strand of horsehair or a metal chain that is rubbed rhythmically with wetted or rosined hands. A smaller version called the ...



Joseph Dyer

In antiquity and the Middle Ages ‘cantor’ (also psalmista) was the generic term for a singer of sacred or secular music (Greek, psaltēs; Slavonic, pievets). Unlike lectors, cantors were not normally listed among the lower clerical orders that might lead to diaconal or priestly ordination. Nevertheless, Isidore of Seville (c560–636) assigned the cantor a place between the porter and the lector (Etym. vii.12). The Council of Laodicaea (2nd half of 4th century) forbade any but a designated psaltēs to enter the ambo to sing, and although the council assigned the cantor a place in the ‘churchly order’, cantors were forbidden to wear the priestly stole (canons 15, 23, 24). According to a canon of the Fourth Council of Carthage (419) a priest could commission a cantor without the bishop’s approval, merely admonishing him to believe in his heart the words he sings (quod ore cantas, corde credas), a phrase repeated in later pontificals (...


Wolfgang Freis

[cantus melodicus; melodía]

The practice of plainchant embellishment used at Toledo Cathedral in Spain between the 15th and 19th centuries. Traditionally attributed to St Eugenius (d 657), Archbishop of Toledo, cantus eugenianus was performed with the versicles and responsories of the Office, and the gradual and antiphons of the Mass on ferias, as well as during the Christmas Eve liturgies of the Songs of the Sibyl and the Shepherds. A prebend for a claustrero and maestro de melodía in charge of cantus eugenianus and responsible for teaching it to the seises (choirboys) was established in 1448. Notated examples written by the 18th-century maestro de melodía Gerónimo Romero de Avila are extant; they consist of simple melodic and rhythmic formulae of divisions of chant notes in duple metre (for ferias) and in triple metre (for feasts).

L. Serrano: ‘Historia de la música en Toledo’, Revista de archivos, bibliotecas y museos, 11 (1907), 219–43...



Andrew Kirkman

The melisma on the final word, ‘caput’, of the antiphon Venit ad Petrum (ex.1), found in the Maundy Thursday ritual of the Washing of the Feet (the mandatum ceremony) in the English Use of Salisbury and other liturgical uses (Bukofzer, 1950) and used as a cantus firmus in three surviving masses and a Marian motet. The earliest work based on the melisma, a four-voice mass ascribed in the Trent codices to Du Fay, has been shown to be a misattributed work by an anonymous English composer. This mass was clearly one of the most revered compositions of the 15th century. It has survived in no fewer than seven manuscripts, more sources than any other mass cycle written before the 1480s. It may also have been the most influential English mass from a time when insular cycles were providing a model for cyclic mass composition across Europe. Its four-voice texture, using a low contratenor and long-note tenor cantus firmus, with the structural melody stated twice in each movement in so-called double-cursus format, is found also in a large number of similarly constructed masses composed on the Continent beginning in the late 1440s (Wegman, ...



John Stevens and Dennis Libby

During the Middle Ages, an English or Latin song of uniform stanzas beginning with a refrain called a ‘burden’ that is repeated after each stanza. Medieval carols could be on any subject, but were mostly about the Virgin or the Saints of Christmas. In recent centuries the word has usually referred to strophic songs (some with refrains) associated with Christmas, many of them with texts derived from medieval English carols.

The form of the medieval carol is related to continental refrain forms such as the rondeau, virelai and ballade, to the Italian lauda spirituale and to the processional hymn. The surviving music falls into several categories: (i) fragments of apparently popular carols, mostly monophonic; (ii) 15th-century polyphonic carols, represented by nearly 120 compositions; (iii) early Tudor carols by Fayrfax, Browne, Cornysh etc; (iv) courtly-popular carols by Henry VIII and his contemporaries.

The strictly formal definition of the carol needs supplementing, partly because a definition by musico-poetical form inadequately describes a social phenomenon such as the medieval carol. From a social point of view there are at least four major types of carol to be considered: (...


Bert F. Polman

revised by John D. Witvliet

[Christian Reformed Church in North America; CRC; CRCNA]

One of several small denominations in North America with origins in the Dutch Reformed (Calvinist) tradition, each of which initially inherited Genevan psalmody as their only form of music in worship. The denomination was formed in 1857 by immigrants from the Netherlands who had seceded from the Reformed Church of the Netherlands over various theological issues. Initially isolating themselves from American culture, these settlers sang exclusively Dutch psalms using a 1773 Dutch Psalter which featured tonal, isorhythmic versions of the Genevan tunes. Later in the 19th century, some German-speaking Reformed congregations in Iowa and some English-speaking Reformed congregations in New Jersey merged with the CRC. These unions brought some marginal use of hymns into the denomination, though the CRC largely remained committed to Dutch metrical psalmody until just before World War I. In 1914 it adopted the Presbyterian Psalter (1912) as its first English-language worship book. This collection had 413 settings of British and American psalm and hymn tunes for the 150 psalms and included an appendix with the texts for catechism hymns from the Reformed Church in America, but all of these could be sung only by the English-speaking CRC congregations in New Jersey. Only four (altered) Genevan tunes appear in the book. This psalter thus signaled a significant break for the CRC from its Dutch roots....


Nicholas Temperley

(b Gloucester, Dec 13, 1770; d Holmer, nr Hereford, Feb 22, 1836). English organist and composer. He was the son of John Clarke of Malmesbury, Wiltshire (d. 1802) and Amphillis Whitfeld (d. 1813). He studied music at Oxford (against his family's wishes) under Philip Hayes. He was organist at Ludlow parish church, 1789, then at Armagh Cathedral, 1794, where his ‘irresponsibility and extravagance’ got him into bad odour with the authorities. Next he was Master of the Choristers at St Patrick's and Christ Church cathedrals, Dublin, 1798; organist of Trinity and St John's colleges, Cambridge, 1799; and organist of Hereford Cathedral, 1820. He was pensioned off by the Hereford chapter in 1833, having become incapacitated by paralysis. He took the BMus degree at Oxford (1793), honorary MusD at Dublin (1795) and MusD at Cambridge (1799, incorporated at Oxford, 1810). In ...


Nicholas Temperley

The two halves of the choir (in an architectural sense) in an English cathedral or a large church or chapel: decani is the south side, cantoris the north. The names mean ‘dean’s [side]’, ‘cantor’s [side]’, and refer to the two highest officials of the chapter of a medieval cathedral. The Cantor, or precentor, ranked immediately after the dean in secular cathedral establishments. The dean’s stall was at the west end of the choir, facing east, just to the south of the central aisle; the cantor’s was opposite, north of the aisle. For certain duties the choir (in a musical sense) was also divided into two equal halves. The singers on the dean’s side – decani – took the leading part one week, those on the cantor’s side – cantoris – the next; during the seasons of the three great festivals the alternation was daily. Psalms, canticles and hymns were sung in alternation between the two halves. Together with much other Latin terminology, the names survived the Reformation, and have been used ever since in cathedral music to signify the two halves of the choir....


Kenneth Levy

revised by Christian Troelsgård

(Byzantine) (Gk. hē theia leitourgia)

The Eucharist in the Eastern Christian rites, corresponding to the Mass of the Roman rite. In the strict sense the term ‘liturgy’ is confined to the anaphora, or consecration prayers, followed by the communion and dismissal rites. The Greek rite, unlike the Roman, has three liturgies in normal use; other Eastern rites, especially the Syriac, use dozens of early anaphoras. Of the three Byzantine liturgies, two are regularly used and contain anaphoral prayers attributed to St Basil and St John Chrysostom respectively; the St Basil liturgy was predominant until about 1000, after which it was celebrated only at major feasts. Except for their anaphoras, these two rites are practically identical in content and structure; they are thus treated together in this article. The third liturgy, that of the Presanctified (‘previously consecrated’) Host, represents the ceremonial for days in Lent when no consecration takes place.

Most of the music for these liturgies is transmitted in the ...


Hana Vlhová-Wörner

[Domazlaus Predicator]

(b Bohemia, c. 1300; d c. 1350). Dominican friar and a leading author of liturgical poetry during the period of rising patriotic feelings in Bohemia. Several sequences to Bohemian patron saints appearing after 1300 are attributed to his authorship, among them De superna hierarchia to Corpus Christi (with acrostic ...


Margaret Cayward

(b Castellón de Ampurias [now Empúries], Catalonia, Spain, Dec 16, 1776; d Santa Barbara, CA, June 1, 1846). Spanish musician and Franciscan missionary to Alta California. He entered the Franciscan order in Girona in 1792 and was ordained a priest in Barcelona in 1800. He traveled to New Spain in 1803 and was assigned to the College of San Fernando, the Franciscan missionary college in Mexico City that established and served the Alta California missions. He left Mexico City in February 1806, arriving at Mission San José (near present-day Fremont, California) a few months later. For the dedication in 1809 of the new Mission San José church, he rehearsed daily and directed an ensemble of 30 musicians from the local missions. He served at Mission San José until 1833, when all the northern Alta California missions were transferred to the Franciscan friars of the Colegio de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de Zacatecas. He served thereafter at Mission Santa Bárbara until his death in ...


Carol A. Doran

Following the Revolutionary War, the Protestant Episcopal Church was established by English clergy and lay people living in the newly independent United States. From its earliest days, the wealth and beauty of English psalmody and cathedral music have been foundational to the liturgical tradition of the Episcopal Church. The mid-20th century brought an enrichment of that tradition through the addition of music adapted from cultures and practices of the worldwide Anglican Communion, of which the Episcopal Church is a member.

The Episcopal Church in the pioneer society of North America during the late 18th century had no cathedrals, choir schools, or organized systems to train musicians for leadership of church music. Even English professionals who had received their musical education in cathedrals before traveling to the American colonies were forced by the circumstances they encountered to practice their art at a much reduced level of excellence. There was no strong unity of liturgical practice among Episcopal churches during this early period. The influence of Puritanism in the young country discouraged many from building pipe organs in their churches. But a letter written before ...



The term refers to a Protestant Christian movement that began in Great Britain in the early 18th century and subsequently spread throughout the United States via a series of revivalist Great Awakenings. It also refers to the belief in a certain set of Protestant tenets as well as evangelical efforts involving religious activism and conversion of new members....


Jonas Westover

(b Kitzingen, Bavaria, Germany, Feb 23, 1905; d Brookline, MA, March 10, 1995). Composer, organist, conductor, and writer on music, of German birth. After attending the State Academy of Music in Munich, Germany (1925–9), he worked as a conductor in both Bielefeld and Würzburg in the early 1930s. Because his Jewish background prevented him from holding a state position under the Nazis, he became enmeshed in Jewish musical life in Frankfurt, where he was a member of the Jüdischer Kulturbund and a musician for the West End Synagogue. He immigrated to the United States in 1937 and took up a position as organist for Temple Beth Zion in Buffalo, New York, until 1941. Between 1940 and 1941 he studied with paul Hindemith , and was influenced to adopt modernist techniques in setting Jewish subjects and texts. He moved to Boston, where he worked at Temple Israel from ...