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John Kmetz

(b Basle, Oct 11, 1495; d Basle, April 1562). Swiss humanist, musician and lawyer. The son of the printer Johannes Amerbach, he began studying the classics in Engental (near Basle) as the private pupil of Conrad Leontorius, who in 1507 described him as ‘both talented and lazy’. Between 1507 and 1509 he continued his education in Schlettstadt at the distinguished humanist school run by Hieronymus Gebwiler and by 1510 had matriculated at the University of Basle. In 1513 he was awarded the degree of baccalaureus artium, and upon graduation moved to Freiburg im Breisgau, where as a candidate for the degree of magister artium he specialized in ethics, physics and grammar. While in Freiburg he also began studying law under Ulrich Zasius and later continued these studies with Andrea Alciati in Avignon where, in 1525, he was awarded the degree of doctor juris. It was during his student days that Amerbach’s close relationship with Erasmus began; when the Dutch humanist died in Basle in ...

Article

José López-Calo

[Hernán] [Columbus, Ferdinand]

(b Córdoba, 1488; d Seville, Sept 12, 1539). Spanish bibliophile and music collector. The illegitimate son of Christopher Columbus, he received a thorough education at the court of the Catholic Monarchs. From his earliest years he had a great passion for travel and accompanied his father on a journey to America. Later he made several extensive journeys through Europe, at first with Charles V and later on his own account. He took advantage of his journeys to acquire the best books he could find on many subjects, including music. He kept an exact account of all his acquisitions, with details of the most important ones; in each volume he noted the place and date of purchase and the price. He also compiled careful lists of his library. By the end of his life he had an extremely important library of more than 15,000 items, including numerous manuscripts; on his death he left the whole collection to Seville Cathedral. Regrettably, nearly three-quarters of the books have been lost; only some 4000 volumes remain. Among them, nevertheless, there are some very valuable items, ranging from medieval manuscripts to unique prints of Petrucci and theoretical works. His catalogues also largely survive and provide details of early printed music which has since been lost. In ...

Article

Franz Krautwurst

[Hans]

(b Ansbach, 1493; d Heilsbronn, Oct 15, 1554). German music collector and composer. He studied at the University of Leipzig from 1511, and in 1514 took the bachelor's degree. Even before he matriculated he seems to have known the university deacon Nikolas Apel, whose love of music may have stimulated Hartung's interest in collecting musical works. He was one of Luther's early adherents and from 1517 was the lawyer and imperial notary of the Cistercian monastery at Heilsbronn which had embraced the Reformed faith; in 1523 he became its chief magistrate and first secular official. Between 1538 and 1548 he compiled the seven volumes known as the Heilsbronner Chorbücher (the four surviving volumes are now in D-ERu 473, 1–4) which contained the complete repertory of an early Lutheran church choir. Although nearly four-fifths of the contents are from contemporary printed volumes, the four surviving volumes constitute the unique or primary source of a large number of compositions; for this reason they are among the most important south German sources of the Reformation period. In ...

Article

(b Augsburg, 1520; d Augsburg, July 28, 1583). German collector of music. He came from one of the oldest patrician families of Augsburg, where his father Georg was mayor. As a judge and a member of the higher and lower councils he was one of the most influential men in Augsburg public life. Through large-scale commercial and banking businesses, partly in collaboration with the house of Habsburg and with Anton Fugger, he and his brother Johann Paul amassed a considerable fortune. In 1548 they were ennobled, along with another brother, Johann Jakob. Herwart’s descendants lived in Augsburg until 1801 and the male line continued uninterrupted in Prussia until the early 20th century. The Herwart brothers used part of their wealth to acquire works of art, books and musicalia. After his death Johann Heinrich’s valuable collections passed to Duke Wilhelm V of Bavaria in 1585 and 1594; they included over 400 items of printed and manuscript music (the nucleus of the collection in ...

Article

Walter Blankenburg

(b Schneeberg, Saxony, April 4, 1515; d Königsberg, Nov 27, 1585). German jurist and humanist. He was one of the children of a Saxon mine inspector. In 1527 he went to school and later to university in Leipzig; in 1535 he took the Master of Arts degree and remained as a teacher at the university until 1550, when he became Hofmeister (private tutor) to two noble students at Leuven University and, from 1551, at the University of Paris. On returning to Leipzig in 1556, he was appointed councillor and chancellor to the Prince of Meissen (Saxony). In 1562 he went to Bologna to study at the university, taking the degree of Doctor of Laws, and in 1563 he was called by Duke Albrecht of Prussia to the chair of law at Königsberg University, where he stayed until his retirement in 1580.

Lobwasser's great achievement was the translation of the Genevan (or Huguenot) Psalter into German, following the original verse forms exactly, in the years immediately after its completion in ...

Article

Philip Brett

(b? Norwich, ?1550; d Norfolk, 1630). English music collector and amateur musician . He was the second son of Sir Thomas Paston and the head of a junior branch of the Norfolk family that wrote the ‘Paston’ letters. A Roman Catholic country gentleman who, in the words of his epitaph in Blofield church, was ‘most skillfull of liberall Sciences especially musicke and Poetry as also strange languages’, he played the lute, translated Spanish poetry, and probably wrote the English verses set to Italian madrigals in some manuscripts of his collection (e.g. GB-Lbl Eg.2009–12). In his will (PCC, Scroope 43) his library, divided between his three Norfolk houses, is described in some detail. The surviving music manuscripts are in English and North American libraries. Some have his name stamped on their bindings (e.g. Lbl Add.31992, Lcm 2089 and Ob Tenbury 340–44); others have been identified by their contents, bindings and scribes. Many of the books are devoted to continental music, sacred and secular, from Gombert to Giovanni Gabrieli. Paston’s taste in English music extended backwards even to Fayrfax and Taverner. His collection is most important, however, as the sole source of many compositions by Byrd, who appears moreover to have written songs celebrating events in the Paston family life (see Brett, ...

Article

(d Zürich, 1587 ). Swiss burgomaster and musician. He is listed as a citizen of Zürich in 1558, a guild master (Zunftmeister) of Meisen between 1574 and 1583, a head governor (Obervogt) to the villages of Wettswil and Bonstetten during the period 1575–82, and a provincial governor (Landvogt) in Andelfingen between 1583 and 1587. Johannes is the first member of this prominent Zürich family for whom an interest in music can be documented. His musical activities, when taken together with other members of the Schannis family, reveal the types of music that were collected, copied, sung and played by several generations of this family between 1578 and 1630.

On 12 November 1578 in Speyer, Johannes purchased for 14 batzen a second edition copy of George Forster’s Frische teutsche Liedlin (RISM 1549³5). To this collection of German Tenorlied ( CH-Zz T410–13) he added a manuscript appendix, in which he copied songs and motets by Clemens non Papa, Jean Mouton, Stephan Zirler, Nikolaus Selnecker, and Cosmas Alder. The partbooks remained in the possession of the Schannis family until ...

Article

[Gilg]

(b Glarus, Feb 5, 1505; d Glarus, Feb 28, 1572). Swiss statesman, historian and collector of music. From his studies with Zwingli and with Glarean in Basle (1516–17) he developed a special enthusiasm for music. With Glarean’s help he studied the theorist's system of 12 modes and analysed a large repertory of the period 1460–1520, which included the work of Glarean and others. (He may not, however, have seen a completed draft of Glarean's Dodekachordon, as has sometimes been suggested.) After Tschudi had classified the repertory, grouping compositions together by genre, number of voice parts and the mode of their tenors, he began (probably after 1540) to assemble his own songbook ( CH-SGs 463). The extant discantus and altus partbooks include 87 Latin pieces, 49 lieder, 30 chansons, 16 canzonas, four pieces without title and one pavan. Tschudi attributed 94 of the works to 37 composers, citing in an index the national and sometimes regional origins of 25 contributors. Concordances identifying 19 other composers raise the number of attributable compositions to 122. Tschudi's attributions to composers attached to the French court during the second decade of the 16th century probably came from Glarean, who lived in Paris from ...

Article

Kenneth Elliott

(fl 1560–92). Scottish clergyman . He compiled an important set of partbooks, sometimes known as the St Andrews Psalter or ‘Thomas Wode’s Partbooks’, containing Scottish (and other) music of the 16th century. A canon of Lindores Abbey before the Reformation (1560), Wood joined the reformers, settled in St Andrews in 1562, became vicar there in 1575, and is frequently mentioned in Kirk Session Registers until 1592. His duplicate sets of partbooks (EIRE-Dtc, GB-Eu , Lbl , US-Wgu ) contain the 106 four-voice psalm settings by David Peebles (1562–6), canticles by Angus, Kemp and Blackhall (1566–9), and motets, anthems, psalms, songs and instrumental pieces – Scottish, English and continental (copied from 1569 to 1592) – together with illuminating and entertaining comments by Wood on many of the items. Between 1606 and about 1625 further additions to the partbooks were made by other hands.

H. Scott, ed: ...