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Article

Karol Berger

(b Genoa, c1600; d after 1640). Italian theorist. A Franciscan, he was chaplain and musician to Cardinal Franz von Dietrichstein, Prince-Bishop of Olomouc and governor of Moravia. Before 1629 he probably taught music at the seminary at St Oslowan and from 1629 at the newly established Loretan seminary at Nikolsburg (now Mikulov), the cardinal’s principal residence. He returned to Italy in 1632. His treatise Regulae contrapuncti excerptae ex operibus Zerlini et aliorum ad breviorem tyronum instructionem accommodate (St Oslowan, 1629/R), which in spite of its Latin title and dedicatory letter is written in Italian, was conceived as a textbook of counterpoint for his seminarians. It is an entirely unoriginal and conservative compendium of the most elementary rules concerning the use of consonances and dissonances, derived, according to the title, ‘from the works of Zarlino and others’.

ČSHS EitnerQ E. Bohn: Die musikalischen Handschriften des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts in der Stadtbibliothek zu Breslau...

Article

Margaret Murata

(b Città di Castello, Jan 26, 1595; d Città di Castello, ? after March 15, 1679). Italian composer and teacher. He travelled to Rome with his brother Guidobaldo, an artist, in 1623 and 1625 (Andrae, 17–19), and was employed at S Giovanni in Laterano from January 1627 to May 1629. According to his verse autobiography (in I-Rvat ) he served there ‘seven years and some months’, or from 1622, but neither this nor his statement that he held earlier positions in Città di Castello and at the Gesù in Rome have been confirmed. He subsequently served as maestro di cappella at the cathedrals of Città di Castello (June 1629 to May 1632, December 1635 to November 1640 and May 1677 to March 1679) and Orvieto (December 1632 to 1635). In Rome his principal tenures were at S Maria Maggiore, where he trained boy sopranos (...

Article

John Whenham

(b 1623–8; d Bologna, 1699, before 28 Jan). Italian singer, composer and instrument maker. He was an Augustinian monk who was employed from about 1649 as a soprano castrato at the Este court at Modena. On 13 November 1660 he was appointed to the choir of S Petronio, Bologna, with a stipend of 50 lire a month; he was discharged on 24 April 1662 but rejoined on 25 July 1663. In October 1665 he returned to Modena, where he succeeded Marco Uccellini as choirmaster of the cathedral. He vacated this post in November 1673 and by early 1674 was again living at Bologna. Between 1677 and 1681 he served as a singer in the cappella of Duke Francesco II of Modena. In 1685 he was made a member of the Accademia Filarmonica, Bologna, and seems to have spent his last years in or near that city. He wrote to the Duke of Modena in ...

Article

Colleen Reardon

(b c1580; d Siena, Jan 1642). Italian composer and theorist.

Agazzari’s parents were evidently of Sienese origin, and he himself settled in Siena as a boy and received his training there, perhaps from Francesco Bianciardi. He was organist at Siena Cathedral from 1597 to 1602, when he left to direct the music at the Collegio Germanico, Rome (1602–3). In 1604 he attended the celebrations marking the centenary of Siena’s Accademia degli Intronati. By 1606 he was maestro di cappella at the Seminario Romano, but returned to Siena in 1607 after being blacklisted by the Cappella Sistina. In the following years he was organist at Siena Cathedral on three different occasions: in 1609, 1611–17, and 1629–33; he also served for two short periods as music director at S Maria di Provenzano, Siena, 1617–19 and 1620–?1622. Not until February 1641 was he appointed maestro di cappella...

Article

(fl 1599–1621). Italian composer. A monk, he is described on title-pages as ‘of Spoltore, Abruzzo’. Apart from eight motets (in RISM 1627²) all his music is either lost or incomplete. Into the latter category fall the Canzonette spirituali for three voices (Venice, 1599) and Il quinto libro dei motetti a 1–4 voci con una messa e vespero...

Article

Jerome Roche

revised by Elizabeth Roche

(b March 25, 1610; d 1674). Italian composer. The title-page of his Salmi e Messa (Venice, 1637) describes him as an Olivetan monk who worked in Bologna. This publication includes vesper psalms and a mass, all for four voices and organ continuo, and places Agnelli among the many north Italian composers of unambitious liturgical music at this period. Although he still used outdated falsobordone chanting in some psalm settings, others are interesting for their use of structural devices aimed at unifying long pieces: one has a straightforward chaconne pattern in the continuo part, another is based on a complex variation scheme in the bass in the manner of some of Monteverdi's later psalms. Melodious solos are offset by tuttis with imaginative harmonies. The mass is bound together by a recurring motif in the voice parts, an unusual formal device at this time, and has interesting and varied melodic lines with much syllabic writing. The volume also includes some motets, and Agnelli published his ...

Article

Klaus Fischer

(b Vallerano, nr Viterbo, c1583; d Rome, Oct 3, 1629). Italian composer and organist. At the age of eight, at the choir school at S Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, he became a pupil of Nanino, whose daughter he later married. He completed his musical studies in 1607 and his first appointment was as organist and maestro di cappella of the Madonna del Ruscello, Vallerano. He later returned to Rome and became organist of S Maria in Trastevere, a post he held for six months from April 1615. He then worked simultaneously as vicemaestro di cappella there and as maestro di cappella of SS Trinità dei Pellegrini. From 26 May 1618 he was vicemaestro of S Lorenzo in Damaso. On 17 February 1626 he succeeded Vincenzo Ugolini as maestro di cappella of the Cappella Giulia at S Pietro and held the position until his death.

Agostini's output consists entirely of church music. He was a highly skilled contrapuntist. The five books of masses published in ...

Article

Hans-Christian Müller

(b 1600–10; d c1659). German composer and organist. It is possible that he is the same person as the Christoph Bauer who entered the University of Würzburg in 1625. From 1632 to 1642 he was at Neustadt an der Saale, from 1642 to 1644 at Bodenlauben and Ebenhausen and from 1645 to 1659 at Münnerstadt. In each place he was town clerk and notary; at Neustadt he was organist as well, and at the last three, which are near Würzburg, he was also an official of the Archbishop of Würzburg. He may have been a pupil of the Würzburg court composer Heinrich Pfendner, on works by whom he based eight eight-part masses (1647). His Geistliches Waldvöglein is a large collection of sacred songs in four parts, artless settings of popular, simple, often clumsy verses, in which, however, ‘the beginnings of the Singmesse’ are discernible (see Ursprung)....

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Mühlhausen, Dec 24, 1625; d Mühlhausen, July 9, 1673). German composer, organist, writer on music and poet, father of Johann Georg Ahle. He was a prolific composer of popular sacred music, notably songs, in central Germany a generation before J.S. Bach.

The date of Ahle’s birth derives from a report published in the Neues Mühlhäusisches Wochenblatt (1798, no.31; see Wolf). He was educated first at the local Gymnasium and then, from about 1643, at the Gymnasium at Göttingen. In the spring of 1645 he entered Erfurt University as a student of theology. Nothing is known of his musical training, though in 1646, while enrolled at the university, he was appointed Kantor at the elementary school and church of St Andreas, Erfurt, and at this period he became well known for his ability as an organist. He returned to Mühlhausen to marry in 1650, but only at the end of ...

Article

H. Wiley Hitchcock

revised by Nicholas Temperley

(b Swanton Morley, Norfolk, bap. Jan 15, 1571; d Amsterdam, ?1622–3). English minister and psalmodist. He attended Cambridge University from 1586 to 1591, leaving without a degree. He was expatriated as a ‘Brownist’ in 1593 and settled in Amsterdam, where he became ‘teacher’ of the Ancient Separatist Church in 1596; in 1610 he founded an Independent church, becoming minister of it himself. He took the Calvinist position on predestination. He was the author of a number of controversial religious tracts, annotations, and translations of scripture. Many consider him one of the finest Hebrew scholars of his day. His Book of Psalmes: Englished both in Prose and Metre, with Annotations (Amsterdam, 1612, 4/1644; music ed. in ISAMm, xv, Brooklyn, NY, 1981) contains all 150 psalms in a new metrical version, together with prose translations and annotations. 48 are provided with monophonic tunes (six melodies are used twice and one three times). 21 of the 40 tunes are drawn from the Continental Reformed tradition, and 16 are from English sources (including three of the newer, short variety such as ...

Article

Mariangela Donà

(b Monza, nr Milan, c1598; d Milan, c1630). Italian composer and organist. All that is known of his life derives from the title-pages of his publications and from Picinelli. In 1618 he was organist of the collegiate church in Desio and in 1621 of S Maria dei Servi, Milan. He died at the age of 32. Picinelli praised him as an excellent organist and a wonderful (‘stupendo’) composer. He was an adherent of the monodic and concertato style of, among others, Monteverdi, whose duet Sancta Maria he published for the first time in his Primo libro di concerti ecclesiastici.

Article

Barton Hudson

(b late 16th century; d probably Barcelona, mid-17th century). Spanish composer. He was appointed maestro de capilla of La Seu d'Urgell Cathedral on 15 January 1622. In 1626 he followed Joan Pau Pujol in the same capacity at Barcelona Cathedral, where he probably stayed for the remainder of his life. Only a few of his works survive: masses, motets, villancicos and unaccompanied romances, for four, six and eight voices. They lack Pujol's creative ingenuity and technical brilliance. Albareda's music is all in manuscript in the Cathedral, Barcelona, except the following four pieces, which are in manuscript at the Biblioteca de Cataluña there: responsión, A la media noche, 6vv; Alma, llegad al convite, 6vv; romance, Convidando está a su mesa, 4vv; villancico for the Holy Sacrament, Hoy deste pan consagrado pienso comer un bocado, 8vv. (J. Wolf: Historia de la música, con un estudio critico de historia de la música española por Higinio Anglés...

Article

Robert Shay

(b Westminster, London, Jan 1648; d Oxford, Dec 14, 1710). English scholar, composer and music collector. He matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford (after early training in mathematics at Westminster School), in 1662, receiving the BA, MA and DD degrees in 1666, 1669 and 1682 respectively. He took holy orders and was assigned the rectorate at Wem, Shropshire, but chose to remain at Christ Church, becoming a canon in 1681 and dean (a unique position in Oxford as head of both college and cathedral) in 1689, also serving as vice-chancellor of the University of Oxford, 1692–5. He was a leader of the Oxford resistance to James II's Catholic advances, and under William III he became one of the chief defenders of High Church practices, publicly opposing both the comprehension of non-Anglicans and revisions to the prayer book. He was an industrious and practically minded scholar, producing books on logic, heraldry and architecture, designing a number of Oxford buildings, serving as draftsman and engraver for the Oxford Almanacks, and producing a sizable body of compositions for the English cathedral service. His account of Greek music survives in manuscript (...

Article

Suzanne G. Cusick

(b Ferrara, c1570; d after 1646). Italian composer and organist. One of the five daughters the Ferrarese court architect Giovanni Battista Aleotti acknowledged in his 1631 will, she was prioress of the musically renowned Augustinian convent of S Vito, Ferrara, from 1636 to 1639. A 1621 guide to Ferrara’s churches by M.A. Guarini describes her as ‘most knowledgeable about music’ and alludes to her well-received publication of motets and madrigals. A collection of her motets for five, seven, eight and nine voices and instruments was published by Amadino in 1593. Its dedication to Ippolito Bentivoglio is thought by Bowers to imply that she would willingly have left S Vito to enter Bentivoglio’s service. Her motets show a thorough mastery of contrapuntal technique, rhythmic vitality and sensitivity to the meaning of the texts.

Aleotti last appears in a document of S Vito on 2 August 1640, but according to Gasparo Sardi she was still alive in ...

Article

Suzanne G. Cusick

(b Ferrara, c1575; d after 1620). Italian composer, possibly identical with Raffaella Aleotti. Daughter of Ferrarese architect Giovanni Battista Aleotti, she first learned music by overhearing lessons intended for an older sister. Astonishing her parents and her sister’s teacher, Alessandro Milleville, by her harpsichord performance at about age six, she was taught directly by Milleville for at least two years before he recommended that she be educated at the musically renowned convent of S Vito, Ferrara. According to her father, Vittoria ‘chose to dedicate herself … to the service of God’ when she was 14. Sometime after that her father obtained madrigals from G.B. Guarini for her to set to music. He gave the results to Count del Zaffo, who had the music printed by Vincenti in Venice, as Ghirlanda de madrigali a quattro voci, in 1593. They represent a range of late 16th-century styles, from simple canzonettas to serious efforts at exploiting dissonance to express images of amorous longing or distress. Occasional awkward handlings of imitation or of text declamation suggest that the madrigals of ...

Article

Jerome Roche

revised by Noel O’Regan

(b Rome, 1582; d Rome, Feb 7, 1652). Italian composer and singer, brother of Domenico Allegri. From 1591 to 1596 he was a boy chorister and from 1601 to 1604 a tenor at S Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, where the maestro di cappella was G.B. Nanino. According to Allegri’s obituary he studied with G.M. Nanino (see Lionnet). He was active as a singer and composer at the cathedrals of Fermo (1607–21) and Tivoli, and by August 1628 he was maestro di cappella of Santo Spirito in Sassia, Rome. He joined the papal choir as an alto on 6 December 1629, under Urban VIII, and was elected its maestro di cappella for the jubilee year of 1650. In 1640 his fellow singers elected him to revise Palestrina’s hymns (necessitated by Urban VIII’s revision of the texts), which were published in Antwerp in 1644. His contemporaries clearly saw him as a worthy successor to Palestrina and a guardian of the ...

Article

Brian Crosby

(bap. Durham, Jan 16, 1670; bur. Lincoln, Feb 11, 1705). English composer and cathedral musician. Allinson was first a chorister (c1682–6) and then a lay-clerk (1689–93) at Durham Cathedral, where his musical ability was nurtured by William Greggs. He was admitted as organist of Lincoln Cathedral on 5 May 1693 and held that position until his death. Parts of five anthems survive, four being represented at both Durham (where one had been transcribed by 1693 and all four by 1699) and Lincoln. Only his full anthem O give thanks unto the Lord is complete. In his verse anthems, two of which lack only their treble part, he displays ability whether writing a declamatory solo or for small groups of voices.

B. Crosby: A Catalogue of Durham Cathedral Music Manuscripts (Oxford, 1986) H.W. Shaw: The Succession of Organists of the Chapel Royal and the Cathedrals of England and Wales from c1538...

Article

Robert Stevenson

(b Lisbon, c1600; d Tomar, March 21, 1660). Portuguese composer. He studied with Duarte Lobo. In 1638 he professed as a friar in the military Order of Christ at the royal monastery at Tomar, where he was mestre de capela. He was elected visitor of his order in ...

Article

Nigel Fortune

(b Senigallia, Aug 17, 1629; d after 1689). Italian composer. In 1654 he was maestro di camera to the papal nuncio to Venice, in 1689 canon and maestro di cappella of Senigallia Cathedral. He published two volumes of motets for small groups. The first (Venice, 1654) consists of 17 pieces for solo voice and continuo distinguished by expansive melodies. The second, ...

Article

Jerome Roche

(b Bologna; fl1628–44). Italian composer. He became a Franciscan friar and a doctor of theology; he was also maestro di cappella of the Cathedral of Sacile, near Udine, and later, in 1628, at the Franciscan friary in Bologna. With several other Italian musicians, he was active in the establishment of Cardinal Franz von Dietrichstein, Prince-Bishop of Olomouc, from 1631 until the cardinal's death in 1636, and in 1637 he wrote the dedication of his Contextus musicarum in Vienna. His output, entirely of church music, is mostly up to date in style and competently written. The masses of 1628 do, however, contain works in the stile antico as well, mellifluous and harmonically unadventurous compared to the music in the then modern manner, which is based more on contrasts. The Coelestis Parnassus, published in the same year, includes two motets with violins, which are used in delicate interplay with tenor voices. Aloisi's expressive technique includes chromaticism, used with telling effect in the third setting of ...