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Article

Erkki Salmenhaara

[Erik]

(b Ilmajoki, Feb 2, 1911; d Tampere, Sept 2, 1996). Finnish musicologist and folklorist. He studied at Helsinki Conservatory (1929–36) and under A.O. Väisänen at Helsinki University (MA 1942), where he took the doctorate in 1956 with a dissertation on the polska in Finland. His extended fieldwork on folk music and instruments in Finland and Sweden resulted in a collection of over 10,000 melodies (now in Tampere University library). After teaching music at Helsinki Conservatory (1951–7) and lecturing at Helsinki University (1957–62) he held a research grant from the State Humanities Committee (1962–75). He was professor of folk research at Tampere University (1975–7) and director of the university folk research institute (1977–81). He was active in many folk music research organizations. A list of his writings is included in the Festschrift Kentältä kentälle: juhlakirja Erkki Ala-Könnin 70 - vuotispäiväksi 2.2.1981...

Article

Norman Fraser

revised by Gerard Béhague

(b S Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Dec 6, 1895; d Rio de Janeiro, Jan 25, 1981). Brazilian musicologist and folklorist. After graduating from law school in Rio de Janeiro, he set out to be an author, journalist and critic. His first writings dealt with criticism and philosophy, but he also wrote important works on music, including the well-known História da música brasileira (Rio de Janeiro, 1926). The second edition (1942) contains over 150 musical examples and gives a chronological treatment to the art-music tradition as well as a detailed account of Brazilian folk and popular music. This was the standard Brazilian reference book for many years.

From 1947 Almeida turned his attention to folk music and folklore studies. For many years he was a member of the executive board of the International Folk Music Council. He was a founder-member of the Brazilian Academy of Music and chief of the information service of the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Relations. He was also the first chairman of the Comissão Nacional de Folclore, created in ...

Article

Gerard Béhague

(Paoliello de)

(b Varginha, Dec 6, 1911; d São Paolo, Feb 23, 1984). Brazilian folklorist and musicologist. At the São Paulo Conservatory of Drama and Music, Mário de Andrade directed her towards the study of Brazilian folk and popular musical traditions; she also studied ethnography and folklore with Dina Lévi-Strauss (1937). Her main areas of activity were sound archive organization, ethnomusicology and folklore: she organized and directed the Discoteca Pública Municipal de São Paulo from its foundation in 1935 until her retirement in 1968. The collection of historical recordings, the Discoteca Oneyda Alvarenga of the Centro Cultural São Paulo, was named after her to honour her contributions to the field. She was a founder-member of the Brazilian Academy of Music, a member of the Conselho Nacional de Folclore of the Ministry of Education and of the executive committee of the International Association of Music Libraries, a corresponding member of the International Folk Music Council, and a member of the Conselho de Música Popular Brasileira, do Museu da Imagem e do Som established at Rio de Janeiro. Her publications include editions of the volumes on music in the complete works of Mário de Andrade....

Article

Erkki Salmenhaara

(Emanuel)

(b Vårdö, April 27, 1879; d Turku, Dec 27, 1969). Finnish musicologist and folklorist. After qualifying as an organist and choirmaster (1900), he studied (1901–5) at the Helsinki Music Institute (later the Sibelius Academy) and Helsinki University (MA 1915), taking the doctorate there in 1923 with a dissertation on the bowed harp. In 1906 he was a co-founder of the Brage Society for the preservation of Swedish-Finnish culture and from its inception he was president of its music section and conductor of its choir. He taught music in Helsinki and then became a lecturer in Scandinavian music history at the university (1925) and professor of musicology and folk literature (1926–46) and rector (1929–36) at the Finland-Swedish University of Åbo (Turku). In 1926 he founded the latter's music history collection, which in 1950 became the basis of the Sibelius Museum. As a musicologist he made valuable contributions to the study of early music history in Finland; he also collected folk music and studied folk music instruments of Swedish-speaking regions in Finland....

Article

(b Buenos Aires, April 13, 1913; d Buenos Aires, June 2005). Venezuelan-Argentine ethnomusicologist, folklorist and composer, wife of Luis Felipe Ramón y Rivera. She studied the piano under Rafael González (1923–31) and composition with Athos Palma (1928–33) at the Buenos Aires National Conservatory of Music, instrumentation with Villa-Lobos in Brazil (1937), anthropology (1938–40) and, with Carlos Vega, folklore and musicology (1938–44) at the Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Buenos Aires. She took the doctorate in musicology in 1967 at the Argentine Catholic University with a dissertation on Argentine folk music. She was an associate member of the Instituto Argentino de Musicología from 1938 to 1950. After working as the first professor of ethnomusicology at the Escuela Nacional de Danzas de Argentina (1950–52) she moved to Caracas, Venezuela, where she has held appointments as research fellow in folklore and ethnomusicology at the Instituto Nacional de Folklore de Venezuela (...

Article

Svetlana Sarkisyan

(b Tehran, Nov 7, 1915; d Los Angeles, March 5, 1994). Armenian musicologist, folklorist and composer. After moving to Yerevan in 1923 he studied composition at the Yerevan Conservatory. From 1944 he taught harmony at the conservatory and completed a second degree at the Institute of Art of the Armenian Academy of Sciences with Kushnaryov, 1945–8. In 1951 he began taking part in folklore expeditions around Armenia and in 1955 he completed his dissertation at the conservatory on Armenian neumatic (khazer) notation. He joined the staff of the Institute of Arts in 1956 and was appointed professor in 1962 at the conservatory, where he also served intermittently as head of the music theory department until 1991. He was made an Honoured Representative of the Arts of Armenia in 1961. He participated in many congresses both within and outside the former Soviet Union, and was highly regarded as a teacher....

Article

Allison A. Alcorn

(b Kingston-on-Thames, Surrey, UK, March 14, 1940). English dealer in musical instruments, rare music books, music iconography, and related ephemera. After leaving school at the age of 16, Bingham trained as a quantity surveyor and opened his own surveying business in 1961, about the same time he began dealing in general antiques. He had a partnership in a musical instrument business for one year until 1966, when he opened his first independent shop at 247 Kings Road, London. Through extensive travels Bingham obtains and sells both Western and non-Western instruments. He specializes in assembling collections of European woodwinds, illustrating their development also with patent documents, methods, and other materials. His shop at 11 Pond Street features collections of metronomes, oil paintings of musicians, trade cards, tuning forks, and trade catalogues in addition to instruments. Major museum clients include the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York), the National Music Museum (South Dakota), the Musée de la Musique (Paris), and the Musashino Academia Musicae (Tokyo), while private collectors have included Joe R. Utley, Nicholas Shackleton, and H. Iino. Bingham has also published several important works on musical instruments, such as William Waterhouse’s ...

Article

Viorel Cosma

(b Lugoj, 20 March/April 2, 1877; d Bucharest, Dec 19, 1968). Romanian composer, folklorist and administrator. He studied privately in Lugoj with Josif Czegka and Sofia Vlad-Rădulescu, in Blaj with Iacob Mureşianu, in Sibiu with Hermann Kirchner and in Braşov with Paul Richter. Extremely active in the musical life of Romania, he participated in the foundation of the Romanian Opera, the Romanian National Theatre (1919), the Dima Conservatory, Cluj (1920), the Society of Romanian Composers (1920) and the Astra Conservatory, Braşov (1928); during this period he directed the opera houses in Cluj and Bucharest. He collected more than 2000 folksongs, recorded on 214 cylinders, and made use of them in his ten books of Doine şi cântece poporale (‘Doinas and Other Folksongs’) and in eight books of instrumental pieces published as Jocuri populare româneşti (‘Romanian Folkdances’); he also published a scholarly collection, ...

Article

Israel J. Katz

[Capmany Farrés, Aurelio]

(b Barcelona, Feb 26, 1868; d Barcelona, Oct 9, 1954). Catalan folklorist and authority on dance. He was educated in Barcelona and at an early age his interest centred on Catalan folklore and dance, to which he devoted his entire working life. With L. Millet and A. Vives he founded the choral society Orfeó Català (1891); he later established the folk dance society Esbart Catalá de Dansaires (1907) to popularize Catalan dance, which stimulated the foundation of similar societies throughout Spain. He continued to realize his pedagogical aims in primary and secondary Catalan schools; he was professor of folklore and dance at the Institut de Cultura i Biblioteca Popular per a la Dona, the Institut Feminal and the Casa Provincial de Maternidad (1916–47), a research assistant at the Centro de Estudios de Etnología Peninsular and the Instituto Español de Musicología, and librarian of the folklore section of the Archivo Municipal Histórico. In ...

Article

Lyndesay G. Langwill

revised by Rosemary Williamson

(von Ahn)

(b Newcastle upon Tyne, May 19, 1878; d Great Missenden, Nov 2, 1958). English collector and historian of instruments and composer. He was educated in Hanover (1892) and as a Macfarren scholar at the Royal Academy of Music (1893–1902, ARAM 1902), where he studied composition with Corder. After serving as assistant music master at Winchester College (1909–22), he returned to the RAM in 1922 as professor of harmony and counterpoint, becoming a Fellow of the RAM in the same year; he held the professorship until 1940.

Carse’s early compositions include an orchestral prelude to Byron’s Manfred, a dramatic cantata, The Lay of the Brown Rosary and two symphonies; his later works, for student orchestras and beginners, are light, tuneful and individual, and ideally suited to their purpose as teaching material. His reputation, however, rests on his study of the history of instruments and the orchestra, and on his collection of some 350 old wind instruments, which he gave to the Horniman Museum, London, in ...

Article

Gerard Béhague

(b Natal, Dec 30, 1898; d Natal, July 30, 1986). Brazilian folklorist, musicologist and writer. He studied medicine in Salvador and Rio de Janeiro, and social and juridical sciences in Recife (graduated 1928). Subsequently he was a professor of history and director of the Ateneu Norte Rio Grandense (1929–30) and professor of history of music at the Natal Instituto de Música, of which he was also a founder (1933). Besides being a state deputy and a practising attorney he directed the Natal Escola Normal and the State Department of Education. His contributions to Brazilian folklore studies were of paramount importance. With others he founded the Sociedade Brasileira de Folklore (1941), over which he presided for several years; he collected numerous repertories of folksongs and tales, compiled anthologies of folklore, contributed many articles to Revista brasileira de folclore and wrote an authoritative dictionary of Brazilian folklore....

Article

Taisiya Shcherbakova

(b Dzhalal-Oglï, nr Tbilisi, Georgia, 9/May 21, 1869; d Minsk, Dec 27, 1964). Belarusian folklorist and composer. He completed his studies in composition with Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Tbilisi Music College (1892), and then worked as a music teacher in Baku and from 1903 in the north-west region of Russia (in the towns of Kovno, Vil′no and Mstislavl′). He headed amateur societies and choirs, and began his work as a folklorist. His first volume of 53 Belarusian songs was published in Vil′no in 1910. His opera Osvobozhdyonnïy trud (‘Emancipated Labour’) was written in Mstislavl′ in 1922 and was staged there by amateurs in the same year.

After 1935 Churkin lived permanently in Minsk and devoted himself to folklore. He recorded around 3000 Belarusian, Lithuanian, Polish, Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaidjani folksongs. These served as sources for many of his instrumental works – three sinfoniettas (1925, 1949...

Article

Richard Will

(Harris )

(b New York, Aug 2, 1932). American folk musician, folklorist, filmmaker, and photographer. He studied painting and photography at the Yale School of Fine Arts (BFA 1955, MFA 1957), where his teachers included Joseph Albers and Herbert Matter. In 1958 he formed the New Lost City Ramblers with Seeger family, §4 and Tom Paley (later succeeded by Tracy Schwarz). Focusing on string band music and songs from rural Appalachia, they were among the most important groups of the folk revival of the 1950s and 60s, and a principal inspiration for the ongoing string band revival known as Old-Time Music. They made over 25 recordings, and Cohen and Seeger also edited a highly influential songbook. Much of Cohen’s fieldwork has concentrated on the same area, and his films and recordings of Roscoe Holcomb, Dillard Chandler, the Carter Family and others have decisively shaped modern perceptions of Appalachian music. As a co-founder of the Friends of Old-Time Music in ...

Article

Sally K. Sommers Smith Wells

(b New York, NY, Dec 13, 1936). American Folklorist and musicologist. Trained as a physical chemist, he is one of the foremost scholars of American traditional-music history, practice, and recording. In addition to holding faculty positions in chemistry at two undergraduate institutions in Portland, Oregon, he has taught undergraduate courses in folk song, bluegrass, country, and Jewish music in Portland and at UCLA. Cohen is perhaps best known for his long association with the John Edwards Memorial Foundation (now John Edwards Memorial Forum; JEMF). He served as the editor or co-editor of the JEMF Quarterly from its inception (as the JEMF Newsletter) in 1965 through 1988. He has lectured and written extensively on American folk song and is particularly well known for his study of the railroad as a theme in American folk music, published as Long Steel Rail: the Railroad in American Folksong. He has also compiled a two-volume regional encyclopedia of American folk music as well as a collection of case studies in folk music research, ...

Article

Charles Haywood

revised by Anne Dhu McLucas

(b New York, NY, April 26, 1875; d Paris, France, Oct 23, 1921). American Musician, transcriber, folksong collector, and folklorist. She studied music at the National Conservatory and the Paris Conservatoire. After visiting the Chicago World’s Fair and other expositions, she became intrigued with Native American music and abandoned plans for a career as a concert pianist in order to work among American Indians. She began in 1903 by recording Hopi songs on Edison wax cylinders and spent extensive time with other Southwestern tribes, as well as with the Plains Indians. Her transcriptions of the songs of 18 tribes resulted in the publication of The Indians’ Book (1907, 2/1923/R), a collection of 200 songs transcribed mainly from live performances. She included notes on the tribes and some contextual information on singers, as well as free translations of the texts. Most innovative was her approach to formatting the songs to reflect their formal structure. This book led to further opportunities for research, publications, and speaking engagements. Curtis inserted aspects of native cultures into the Arts and Crafts movement and worked for reform of Indian affairs....

Article

Gerard Béhague

(b Santiago, May 16, 1932). Chilean ethnomusicologist and folklorist. At the University of Chile he studied philosophy, specializing in Romance languages and Spanish education (1958–65); he also studied ethnomusicology and folklore privately with Carlos Lavín. He has held positions as professor of folklore at the Catholic University (1957–74), professor of ethnology and folklore at the University of Chile (appointed 1971), professor of ethnomusicology at the latter institution (appointed 1963), chairman of the art department of the Catholic University (1972–4) and president of the Research Committee of the University of Chile, northern campus (appointed 1974). In 1973 he visited the University of California at Los Angeles and Berkeley as a fellow of the University of Chile. He has lectured widely in Latin America and the USA, and participated in numerous international conventions and congresses. In his research he has concentrated on the study of Chilean folklore and folk music, devoting many years to field work; his extensive publications reveal a systematic and comprehensive approach to the subject....

Article

(b Havana, Cuba, June 20, 1930). Cuban musicologist, historical essayist, recorded-sound collector, and lawyer; immigrated to Puerto Rico in 1960. Díaz Ayala studied journalism and law at the Universidad de La Habana, and began his musical career as a radio host on a jazz program in Havana. Although he is not a formally trained musicologist, his impressive archival work and research in the field of recorded folk music established him as an authority on Cuban musical culture.

A prolific writer with publications spanning thirty years, Díaz Ayala has made an extremely significant contribution through his compilation and examination of early to mid twentieth-century Cuban musical recordings. Monumental in scope, this project represents the most exhaustive reference work for scholars of Cuban and Latin American music. Aspiring at discographical completeness, the work documents nearly every musical recording produced in Cuba or involving any genre of Cuban music. In 2001...

Article

Maria Domokos

(b Csíkvárdotfalva, June 28, 1901; d Budapest, Feb 18, 1992). Hungarian musicologist and folklorist. After taking a diploma in 1919 as a schoolmaster and music teacher in Csíksomlyó (now Şumuleu), he studied music and sciences at the Budapest Teachers' Training College (graduated 1926) and then worked as a music teacher and choirmaster in Csíkszereda (now Miercurea-Ciuc) from 1926 to 1929. Between 1926 and 1940 he played an important role in the cultural life of the Hungarian minority in Romania: he founded a newspaper, initiated a movement to revive popular customs and organized choral festivals to perform Kodály's works. Subsequently he was the principal of the teachers' college in Cluj (1940–44), taking the doctorate in 1943 at Cluj University. In 1944 he moved to Budapest.

Domokos began his research with pioneering fieldwork in Moldavia (1929, 1932), where he collected folksongs among the Csángó-Magyars, and in Bukovina (...

Article

Edith Gerson-Kiwi

revised by Bret Werb

[Yuly Dmitrevich]

(b Berdyansk, Crimea, 4/April 16, 1868; d Tel-Aviv, Feb 11, 1927). Russian composer, critic, lexicographer and folklorist. He studied law at Kharkov University but soon turned to music, studying theory and composition with Taneyev and Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory (1893–7). From 1897 to 1919 he worked as a music critic for the newspaper Russkiye vedomosti. In 1901 his translation of Riemann’s Lexikon into Russian with newly written sections on Russian music was published in Moscow. Although an early opera, Esther, was performed in 1894, his work as a critic overshadowed that as a composer. Under the influence of the Russian nationalist music critic Vladimir Stasov, however, he turned his attention to Jewish folklore, collecting, arranging, performing and publishing the songs of eastern European Jews. In 1909 his first album of ten Jewish folksongs appeared in Moscow; a second volume followed later in the same year. Engel continued to promote his new interest with public lectures and a series of articles in ...

Article

John Cline

(Aloysius )

(b Takoma Park, MD, Feb 28, 1939; d Salem, OR, Feb 22, 2001). American guitarist, folklorist, and record producer. As a teenager, Fahey’s early interest in country music was expanded to include bluegrass and country-blues due to a friendship with richard Spottswood , later a noted folk and ethnic music scholar. With Spottswood and famed collector Joe Bussard, Fahey sought out pre-war 78 r.p.m. records. After taking up the guitar, Fahey’s made his first recordings for Bussard’s private Fonotone label on 78 r.p.m. shellac discs, some of which Fahey claimed to have slipped into boxes of more “authentic,” vintage records at flea markets. In 1959 Fahey founded Takoma Records to distribute his own recordings, beginning with the LP Blind Joe Death; his liner notes also frequently mock the language of then-contemporary blues scholars, the very people he had hoped to fool with the Fonotone 78s.

Despite his sense of humor Fahey was a serious student of American vernacular music. He travelled long distances to find Bukka White and Skip James in the Mississippi Delta in the early 1960s; he relates these events in the memoir, ...