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Article

Jeannie Campbell

(bap. Edinburgh, Scotland, Dec 5, 1680; d Edinburgh, Sept 1753). Highland Scottish turner, evidently a bagpipe maker. In 1712 he made billiard balls for the officer in charge of Edinburgh Castle. On all the birth records of children born to Barclay and his wife Elizabeth Arbuthnet in Edinburgh parish, 1712–24, he was described as a turner. He does not appear in any apprentice rolls or in the Edinburgh burgess rolls. In 1744 ‘Adam Barclay turner’ was listed with several other Edinburgh burgesses appointed as an assize for a trial. No instruments of his are known and nothing is known about his pipe making apart from the information contained in a receipt of 1748 found among the Clan Donald papers. This is a payment from Sir James McDonald to Adam Barclay of £3—3 on 19 Sept 1748 ‘To a sett of Hyland Pipes of cocawood mounted with ivory’.

J. Campbell...

Article

James B. Kopp

(b London, UK, July 17, 1946). Conservator of musical instruments and maker of brasses, based in Ottawa, Canada. After studying fine arts and English at the University of Toronto, he joined the Canadian Conservation Institute, Ottawa, in 1975 as a conservator of furniture and wooden objects. He was trained in instrument conservation at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, and received a PhD from the Open University in 1999. He has undertaken wide-ranging projects in the conservation, display, and use of historical instruments in European and North American museums. He has received awards from the American Musical Instrument Society, the Galpin Society, and the Historic Brass Society for his numerous writings. He was named senior conservator at the Canadian Conservation Institute in 1991 and retired in 2007.

Barclay began in 1976 to make reproduction trumpets after models by Johann Carl Kodisch, Johann Leonhard Ehe (iii), and Hanns Hainlein. His book ...

Article

Niall O’Loughlin

revised by Denis Watel

(fl Paris, France, c1791–1827). French woodwind instrument maker. In 1803–4 he worked at 282 rue St Honoré, Paris, and from 1809 to 1827 at 23 rue de la Bibliothèque. Surviving instruments include flageolets, flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, and a bass horn. Baumann reportedly advertised contrabassoons and bass serpents in 1825, and his keyed serpent was praised in 1835 in Hermenges’s serpent tutor. He is particularly notable for his varied range of clarinets (in E♭, C, B♭, A, and high F), with five to 12 square keys. Pillar-mounted, the sixth key was a closed key for c′/g′′, as required by the player Jean Xavier Lefèvre in his clarinet tutor. Sets of six-key clarinets in B♭ and C with corps de rechange for A and B♮, and two early Muller-system clarinets survive in private collections. Jean Jacques Baumann is often confused with the horn player Joseph Baumann....

Article

Heike Fricke

(bc1708; d Vienna, Austria, July 17, 1775). Austrian woodwind maker. Variant spellings such as R. Paur, Rockobauer, Rockopauer, Ruckebauer, and Rochebaur presumably refer to the same person. In the parish books of St Michael’s Church in Vienna he is listed as a civic wind player (1741) and an oboist and violinist (1742–51), as well as an instrument maker (from 1753). After 1758 the family moved to Schoennbrunn am Neubau.

In 1762 Graf Philipp Karl zu Oettingen-Wallerstein instructed his Viennese court agent von Seeger to order from Baur four pairs of clarinets with cases and corps de rechange ‘as you sent to Mannheim’. Baur responded that the clarinets could be delivered with silver keys and ebony rings like the Mannheim clarinets, or with brass keys and horn rings, priced 25% less. The clarinets were delivered in January 1763, and the Graf ordered more wind instruments from him in ...

Article

Darcy Kuronen

(b Boston, MA, March 29, 1798; d Canton, MA, Jan 5, 1883). American inventor, designer, and maker of free-reed instruments. He was a son of French Huguenot parents who came to Boston in 1788; his father, trained as a watchmaker, made and sold hardware, and no doubt Bazin gained from his father an interest in mechanics. His instruments had limited influence on later manufacturers, but are among the earliest of their type made in the USA. About 1821, Bazin developed an adjustable pitch pipe (US.B.mfa) with a sliding bar that presses against the reed to create multiple pitches; he sold these through Boston music stores. Soon afterwards he began to create various mouth-blown instruments with multiple reeds. The most elaborate, made in 1824, is a ‘reed trumpet’ with a chromatic range of three octaves, the reeds radiating from the centre of a disc and rotating past a stationary tubular mouthpiece; the sound emerges through a flared copper bell opposite the mouthpiece. He developed a diatonic harmonica by about ...

Article

James B. Kopp

(b Heidenheim, Germany, March 16, 1944). German maker of early wind instruments. He played the flute from age 11. In 1961 he passed the journeyman’s examination as a precision mechanic and worked until 1965 in industry (for Carl Zeiss, Telefunken/AEG, and ELDATA). He passed the Abitur in 1971 and from 1973 to 1980 studied systematic musicology and Germanic linguistics at the Technische Universität Berlin under Carl Dahlhaus and Fritz Winckel. In 1973 he met Günther Körber, who had a workshop making early woodwinds in Berlin-Steglitz. Beck made tools for Körber, for whom he worked intermittently, and ran Körber’s workshop for a six-month period before establishing his own workshop in Berlin-Charlottenburg in 1977. He began by making Baroque flutes and later made a wide range of wind instruments from the Renaissance (serpents, shawms, rackets, crumhorns, cornamuses, recorders, mirlitons, and transverse flutes) and Baroque eras (oboes, oboes d’amore, oboes da caccia, recorders, chalumeaux, clarinets, clarinets d’amour, and cornettos)....

Article

James B. Kopp

(b Apeldoorn, Netherlands, Oct 8, 1945). Dutch maker of bagpipes and other historical woodwind instruments. Largely self-taught as a maker, he fashioned instruments from household objects (cigar-box lutes, flutes from electrical conduit, etc.) from the age of six. His parents sent him at the age of ten to a course of the Dutch Pipers Guild, whose members made simple flutes of natural cane (Arundo donax). Beekhuizen worked as a printer for six years and trained to be a social worker. At the age of 30 he decided to become a professional woodwind maker and in 1977 established a workshop in The Hague. Here he makes a wide variety of bagpipes, including a Baroque musette and petite cornemuse after extant historical models, a Hümmelchen and early musette after Praetorius, and other pipes after Brueghel and medieval illustrations. He also makes shawms, pommers, rackets, bassanelli, kortholts, and cornamuses. He credits the stability and light response of his bagpipes to his skill as a reed maker. From ...

Article

Robert E. Eliason

(b Germany, 1826 or 1827; d New York, 1889). American maker of flutes, clarinets, and oboes, of German birth. He began his career in Boston with E.G. Wright in 1849. During the next few years he worked successively with Graves & Co. and J. Lathrop Allen, setting up in business for himself in 1855. In 1857 he moved to New York City, where after his death his business was continued by his widow, Sophia, and her successors until 1915. Theodore was a member of the original Liederkranz Orchestra and of the Aschenbroedel Verein in New York.

In 1850 and 1856 Berteling’s instruments won silver medals in exhibitions of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association in Boston. He patented mechanical improvements to his flutes in 1868 (pat. no.76,389) and 1882 (pat. no.264,611). His flutes are made of wood but make extensive use of metal linings, metal reinforcement at joints, and metal coverings. A brass-lined piccolo (at ...

Article

Eric Hoeprich

German family of wind instrument makers, active in Speyer 1849–1937. The workshop was founded in 1849 by Georg Jakob (b Speyer, 15 May 1824; d Speyer, 20 Sept 1904); he apprenticed 1843–6 in Bayreuth under Stengel, and also worked in Paris, Munich, and Vienna. After 1883 he entered in partnership as Berthold & Söhne with his sons Friedrich Wilhelm (b Speyer, 27 July 1854; d Speyer, 10 May 1937), who specialized in making flutes; Johann Wilhelm (b Speyer, 18 Aug 1855; d Speyer, 21 Aug 1937), whose specialty was clarinets and oboes; and Georg Daniel (b Speyer 7 July 1857; d Speyer, 21 May 1937), a bassoon specialist. Although Georg Jakob and Georg Daniel made some brass instruments, the production of all types of woodwinds, for both military and orchestral use, was the specialty of the partnership. The Bertholds kept to a small workforce with a relatively modest output, which provided the flexibility to make new models, such as an alto flute designed by Theobald Boehm, a contra-bassoon/contrabassophon made to Heinrich Joseph Haseneier’s specifications in papier mâché, a ‘combination clarinet’ in A/B♭ designed by Theodor Lässig, and various instruments in ivory. Their display at the ...

Article

Beyde  

Beatrix Darmstädter

[Beide, Bayde]

Family of wind instrument makers, active in Leipzig and Vienna. Johann Gottlob (b 1762; d Leipzig, Saxony, 1814), son of the tenant farmer Christoph Beyde, married in 1785 in Leipzig, where he worked as a woodwind and brass instrument maker in the Quergasse. His son, August Johann Friedrich Sr (b Leipzig, 22 Feb 1789; d Vienna, Austria, 3 Oct 1869), settled in Vienna at Neu-Lerchenfeld shortly before 1818. He married in 1812 in Ofen (Budapest). During his early years in Vienna Beyde made keyed trumpets and keyed horns based on the original plans of the court trumpeter Anton Weidinger. In 1823 the price of these instruments was between 25 and 90 florins. Beyde’s application for the license to produce these was refused in 1826, but the second request was approved in January 1827. In June 1832 the government of Lower Austria entitled him to train apprentices. At that time he owned a house at Kaiserstraße 209, Schottenfeld. Together with his wife, Theresia (née Kerml), he had two sons: Joseph Ferdinand (...

Article

David Lasocki

(b Haddington, Scotland, July 3, 1943). French recorder maker. He settled with his English father and French mother in France in 1960. He graduated with a gold medal from the recorder class at Lille Conservatoire in 1975, then taught himself recorder making with help from Friedrich von Huene and Claude Monin as well as woodworkers near Lille. In 1978 he moved his workshop to Villes-sur-Auzon, near Avignon. He has concentrated on solo instruments, including medieval double pipes and recorders (based on instruments in paintings), ‘transitional’ recorders (after a Haka descant in GB.E.u, modern ‘Ganassi’ recorders (freely based on an alto recorder in A.W.km) and a modern tenor of his own design. Composers including Donald Bousted and François Rossé have written pieces for his electroacoustic recorder, developed in 1995; its microphone, screwed into the side of the head joint, can be connected to an amplifier, effects processor, or other electronic equipment. Bolton also makes a copy of a flute-like tenor recorder by Thomas Stanesby Jr (in ...

Article

Geoffrey Burgess

American makers of historic oboes. The craftsman Jonathan Bosworth (b Ithaca, NY, 18 June 1938) and oboist Stephen Hammer (b Rochester, NY, 14 April 1951) worked in partnership copying historical double-reed instruments from 1975 to 2002. Their first copy was of an oboe by Thomas Stanesby Sr, then in the possession of Dr Robert M. Rosenbaum. This was followed by copies of oboes by various 18th-century makers, including Thomas Stanesby Jr, J. Denner, Charles Bizey, William Milhouse, C.A., Heinrich Grenser, and J.F. Floth; oboes d’amore by Denner and J.H. Eichentopf; an oboe da caccia by Eichentopf; a tenor oboe by J.C. Denner; and shawms after anonymous specimens (in B.B.mim and CZ.P.nm). Working out of Acton, Massachusetts, they also began designing their own hybrid ‘Saxon’ model patterned after several original oboes from Dresden and Leipzig makers. Production of this model was subsequently transferred to Joel Robinson of New York. By the time their partnership ceased, Bosworth & Hammer had made more than 300 instruments....

Article

Maurice Byrne

revised by David Lasocki

(b Bourg en Bresse, France, May 27, 1663; d Tournai, Belgium, April 21, 1731). French wind instrument maker. He was baptized Pierre Jaillard but later took the name Bressan (‘from Bresse’). His father (a waggoner) died when he was four. In 1678 he was apprenticed for two years to Jean Boysser, a wood turner in Bourg. He probably trained in instrument making and in performance with one of the Hotteterres, in Paris. His treble recorders are similar to those of his contemporary Jean-Jacques Rippert, and the hollow foot of his basset recorders is similar to those of Rippert and the Hotteterres. Bressan came to England in 1688, and is first mentioned, as ‘Brazong’ or ‘Bresong’, in English archives in 1691 as one of the ‘hautboys’ who accompanied William III to Holland. James Talbot’s manuscript (Christ Church Library Music MS 1187, c1695) gives measurements for five instruments by Bressan—tenor and basset recorder, flute, oboe, and tenor oboe—showing that his reputation had already been established....

Article

David Lasocki

(b Rotterdam, Netherlands, May 27, 1957). Dutch recorder maker. She studied the recorder in Rotterdam and The Hague with Frans Brüggen and Ricardo Kanji from 1976 to 1980. From 1979 to 1980 she learned recorder making with Frederick Morgan while he was a visiting teacher in The Hague. Breukink opened her own workshop in 1980. Until 1990 she made exclusively ‘Ganassi’ and Baroque models, then increasingly concentrated on consort instruments. In 1997 she made the first of three sub-contrabass recorders for low consorts, based on a HIER.S instrument in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. For Moeck she began to develop the slide recorder, a wide-bore ‘Ganassi’ model with a special mouthpiece allowing greater control of dynamics: the player’s lower lip operates a spring-loaded pad that moves a plunger to open a hole in the face of the block. The instrument was intended to compete in volume with modern orchestras, but Breukink stopped the project before completion. From ...

Article

David Lasocki

(b Thornton Heath, Greater London, England, June 5, 1959). English recorder maker. A teenage friendship with the lute-maker Malcolm Prior, then an apprentice at Arnold Dolmetsch Ltd, in Haslemere, Surrey, led to a fascination with instruments. He studied instrument-making at the London College of Furniture in the early 1980s, specializing in recorders under the supervision of the former Dolmetsch maker Kenneth Collins. Since 1982, Brown has been an independent recorder maker, working in Reykjavík, Iceland (1982–9), Cluny, France (1989–97), and Amsterdam, Netherlands (since 1997). He began by making Baroque-style instruments, then copies of Renaissance consort recorders, which have brought him an international reputation. Since 1995 he has conducted extensive research on Renaissance recorders, traveling throughout Europe to measure and catalogue most of those that have survived. In 2003, with the Belgian performer and musicologist Peter Van Heyghen, Brown founded the ensemble Mezzaluna as a vehicle for their combined research into the performance, practice, and organology of the 16th century. He has written widely on early recorders, including a book on their care and maintenance; he also collaborated with the Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum on a new catalogue of their recorder collection....

Article

Bruder  

Arthur W.J.G. Ord-Hume

German family of organ builders which specialized in mechanical instruments. Ignaz Blasius Bruder (1780–1845) was the founder of the organ-building industry in Waldkirch. He had five sons, those of greatest significance being Wilhelm (1819–82) and Ignaz (1825–91). Each of these in turn produced three sons who ultimately formed three partnerships – Wilhelm Bruder Söhne, Gebrüder Bruder and Ignaz Bruder Söhne. The precise output of each partnership is hard to identify but they all produced work of outstanding quality starting with organ-playing clocks, progressing through portable street organs and ending with showground and dance organs. The Bruders kept to the forefront of technical and musical development and were among the first to apply music programmes in the form of perforated paper rolls to the fairground organ, using a keyless pneumatic system. They also fitted Swell shutters to these instruments. Bruder enjoyed a worldwide reputation and until the outbreak of World War I they supplied organs to the Wurlitzer company in America....

Article

Albert R. Rice

American firm of band instrument manufacturers . It was founded in Elkart, Indiana by Ferdinand August ‘Gus’ Buescher (b Elk Township, Noble County, OH, 26 April 1861; d Elkhart, 29 Nov 1937). Buescher worked first for Conn from 1876, becoming foreman in 1888. In 1894 he established the Buescher Manufacturing Co. to make band instruments and metal tools in partnership with John L. Collins, a clothing merchant and Harry L. Young, a salesman. In 1904 the firm was reorganized as the Buescher Band Instrument Co. and in 1916 Buescher sold the company to five Elkhart businessmen, remaining as the manager and later as an engineer. In 1928 the Elkhart Band Instrument Co. bought the Buescher firm and continued manufacturing under the Buescher name until 1963 when it was sold to H. & A. Selmer. From 1932 to 1937 Buescher was a partner with Harry Pedler (1872–1950) of Art Musical Instruments Inc. of Elkhart, a manufacturing company which supplied brass instruments and parts to other businesses....

Article

Anthony Béthune and William McBride

French firm of woodwind instrument makers. It was founded by Denis Buffet [Buffet-Auger] (b La Couture, 28 July 1783; d Paris, 24 Sept 1841), elder brother of Louis-Auguste Buffet [Buffet jeune] (whose own business was wholly independent). After his marriage to Marie-Anne Auger, Denis became known as Buffet-Auger. In 1825 he set up a workshop at 22 passage du Grand Cerf, Paris, where he made both string and wind instruments. Later 19th-century advertising states that the business was founded in 1830, not 1825, and this probably signifies that from 1830 onwards, Buffet-Auger’s son Jean-Louis (b La Couture, 18 July 1813; d Paris, 17 April 1865) gradually took over the running of the firm. In 1836, Jean-Louis married Zoë Crampon. At the Paris Exposition three years later, the business obtained a mention honorable. When Buffet-Auger died, Jean-Louis was left in charge of the business, taking the name Buffet-Crampon by ...

Article

René Pierre

Wind instrument makers of Strasbourg. [Life data refer to Strasbourg unless noted.] Jean (Johannes) II Keller (1710–78) was admitted as a turner in the corporation of carpenters in 1736. His three sons were woodwind makers. Jean III Keller (b 14 Dec 1737; d 1785), his first son, was described as ‘Instrumentenmacher’ at his marriage in 1765 and upon the births of his four children. He used the mark ‘[fleur de lis] / KELLER / A STRASBOURG’. Isaac Keller (b 26 Jan 1740; d 11 June 1802), the second son, was received into the corporation of carpenters in 1785, at the death of his brother Jean III. He joined the third son, Jean Philippe Keller (b 10 Nov 1743; d 1 July 1794) by 1790 to create a new partnership, marking their instruments ‘[angel trumpeter] / LES / FRERES/ KELLER’. Etienne Ozi (...

Article

John M. Schecter

[capa puercas, capador]

Panpipe of Spain and the New World, also called flauta de Pan or siringa. It is mentioned in Sebastián de Covarrubias Horozco’s Tesoro de la Lengua Castellana o Española (1611) as an instrument carried by the Spanish pig gelder (capa puercas), whence its name. Nowadays in Spain, the sound signals the approach of knife grinders as well as pig gelders. In Spain and Portugal it is made from a single flat piece of wood about 1.5 cm thick; the end with the shortest pipe is about 8 cm long and the opposite end 15 cm long; eight to ten stopped bores are drilled in the board, which at one corner is carved like a horse’s head looking back over the body.

In Antioquia, Colombia, the castrapuercas (castruera, castrera), played by Mestizos, has two ranks of five cane (Arundo donax) pipes. In the 19th century it was described as having 15 to 20 cane pipes. The term most widely used in Colombia for the panpipes in general is ...