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Article

Roger J.V. Cotte

[Ennal, Charles-Ernest]

(b Fockenhof, Kurland, Feb 14, 1722; d Paris, March 24, 1791). French dilettante, amateur violinist and composer, patron of the arts and instrument collector. A magnificent and very wealthy nobleman, he both amused and astounded his contemporaries. M. Audinot in his comic opera La musicomanie (1779), and possibly E.T.A. Hoffmann in his tale Die Serapionsbrüder (1819), attempted to evoke his strange personality, emphasizing its ridiculous nature.

At the death of his father, a landed nobleman, in 1747, Bagge inherited a large fortune which enabled him to study the violin in Italy with Tartini. By 1750 he had settled in Paris; in the following year he was awarded the title chambellan du Roi de Prusse (then Frederick II) and married the daughter of the Swiss banker Jacob Maudry. With Maudry's death in 1762 the very large inheritance proved a source of contention to the ill-matched couple and they soon separated. Bagge later attempted to gain possession of the inheritance of Mme Maudry, who had died in ...

Article

Ann Willison Lemke

[Bettine, Elisabeth]

(b Frankfurt, April 4, 1785; d Berlin, Jan 20, 1859). German writer, editor, publisher, composer, singer, visual artist and patron of young artists. Although known today primarily for her writing and her illustrious associates, Bettine was also a talented musician. She composed songs in a simple folk style, choosing texts by poets she knew and loved, including Goethe, Achim von Armin, and her brother, Clemens Brentano. She helped gather songs for Armin and Brentano’s influential collection Des Knaben Wunderhorn (1806–8) and decades later published a fourth volume based on their notes (ed. Ludwig Erk, 1854). From 1808 to 1809 she studied singing and composition with Peter von Winter and the piano with Sebastian Bopp in Munich. Her first two songs appeared under the pseudonym ‘Beans Beor’ (‘blessing I am blessed’) with Arnim’s literary works. After her crucial meeting with Beethoven in Vienna (May, 1810), she mediated between him and Goethe....

Article

Nicholas Temperley

[Fane, John; later 11th Earl of Westmorland]

(b London, Feb 3, 1784; d Wansford, Northants., Oct 16, 1859). English amateur musician. He was the eldest son of the 10th Earl of Westmorland, a Tory politician, and was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College, Cambridge (MA 1808), where he studied music under Charles Hague. His career was political, military and diplomatic. He was MP for Lyme Regis (1806–16). From 1803 to 1815 he served in various campaigns in the Napoleonic wars, at one time as aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington (his wife’s uncle). He became a privy councillor in 1822, a major-general in 1825, lieutenant-general in 1838 and full general in 1854. He was British envoy at Florence from 1814 to 1830, resident minister at Berlin from 1841 to 1851 (acting as mediator between Prussia and Denmark in the Schleswig-Holstein dispute), and ambassador to the imperial court at Vienna from 1851 to 1855...

Article

Kaleb J. Koslowski and Caryl Clark

(b Bad Iburg near Osnabrück, 30 Oct 1668; d Hanover, 1 Feb 1705). Princess of Hanover, Electress of Brandenburg, and Queen in Prussia. Musical culture in and around Berlin flourished at the turn of the 18th century as a direct result of her activities as a musical patron, performer, composer, and collector.

Sophie Charlotte was the only daughter of Ernst August of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Sophie of the Palatinate. She was thrust into a lifestyle of courtly competition from an early age. The court at Osnabrück was relatively obscure, overshadowed by the wealthier and more politically prominent seat at Hanover ruled by her father’s brother, Johann Friedrich. Her mother determined to overcome this by immersing Sophie Charlotte in the arts. As a child she received instruction in singing, courtly dance, and religion, and in French, Italian, English, and Latin. During the 1670s and into the 1680s, the family visited Versailles, Venice, Brussels, and The Hague. These visits included recurring attendance at opera and ballet performances, and provided the foundation for Sophie Charlotte’s cultivation of music as a courtly and sociopolitical tool later at Hanover and Berlin....

Article

Frank Howes and Christina Bashford

(b Blackheath, London, July 11, 1847; d London, Jan 22, 1937). English amateur violinist, patron and lexicographer. Cobbett's efforts in the field of chamber music were important to the development of the English musical renaissance and to the cultivation and appreciation of chamber music in Britain; he is noted in particular for editing Cobbett's Cyclopedic Survey of Chamber Music (2 vols., London, 1929–30; rev. 2/1963 by C. Mason). In an autobiographical article, ‘The Chamber Music Life’, published in this encyclopedia, he related how he studied the violin with Joseph Dando, received a Guadagnini violin from his father and was fired with a lifelong enthusiasm for chamber music after hearing Joachim play at St James's Hall. From that time he played chamber music regularly at home, and also led several amateur orchestras, including the Strolling Players Orchestral Society. He became a connoisseur of violins and delighted in lending instruments from his fine collection to suitable players....

Article

E. Eugene Helm

revised by Derek McCulloch

[Friedrich II; Frederick the Great]

(b Berlin, Jan 24, 1712; d Potsdam, Aug 17, 1786). German monarch, patron of the arts, flautist and composer. His father, Friedrich Wilhelm I, was alarmed at his son’s early preference for intellectual and artistic pursuits over the military and religious. In spite of being supervised day and night and in the face of his father’s rages and corporal punishments, Frederick managed, partly through the complicity of his mother and his older sister Wilhelmina, to read forbidden books, to affect French dress and manners and to play flute duets with his servant. As a seven-year-old he was permitted to study thoroughbass and four-part composition with the cathedral organist Gottlieb Hayne. Wilhelmina, also musically talented, joined him in impromptu concerts. On a visit to Dresden in 1728 the prince was overwhelmed at hearing his first opera, Hasse’s Cleofide; there he also first heard the playing of the flautist J.J. Quantz, who soon thereafter began making occasional visits to Berlin to give Frederick flute lessons. The king tolerated such amusements for a while, but by ...

Article

(b 8/Dec 19, 1794; d Bogorodskoye, Kursk govt., 22 Oct /Nov 3, 1866). Russian music patron and cellist, father of Yury Nikolayevich Golitsïn. He served in the army (1810–32), fought in the 1812 war and was wounded at the Battle of Borodino. In his youth he spent some time in Vienna, acquiring there a sound knowledge of the Viennese Classics, and becoming an ardent admirer and collector of Beethoven’s music. He carried on a fruitful correspondence with Beethoven, starting in 1822 when he wrote to ask if he would compose ‘one, two or three new quartets’ for him. Beethoven accepted the commission, and produced (eventually) the quartets op.127, op.132 and op.130, all of which are dedicated to Golitsïn, as is the overture Die Weihe des Hauses. In 1823 Golitsïn was elected an honorary member of the St Petersburg Philharmonic Society, and it was on his initiative that the society gave the first performance of Beethoven’s ...

Article

John Koegel

(b San Francisco, CA, Nov 7, 1875; d Flintridge, CA, Dec 25, 1954). American folklorist, writer, lecturer, music patron, and singer. Born into a wealthy family (her father James Hague was a prominent geologist and mining engineer), she used her inheritance to support her research into Latin American music, particularly Mexican American and Mexican folksong. Prior to moving to Pasadena, California, in 1920, she lived in New York and Stockbridge, Massachusetts. She studied music privately in France and Italy, was a member of the New York Oratorio Society, and directed church choirs in New York before she began work as a folklorist and folksinger by the early 1910s (she gave guitar-accompanied folksong recitals in that decade). Hague published numerous collections and studies of Mexican American, Mexican, and other Latin American folksongs; translated (with Marion Leffingwell) Julián Ribera y Tarragó’s Historia de la música árabe medieval y su influencia en la española...

Article

Gary Galván

(b San Francisco, CA, Oct 18, 1873; d New York, NY, May 31, 1939). American lawyer, pianist, and music patron. The son of a shoe and boot dealer, Leventritt graduated from the University of California (A.B. 1894) and the New York Law School and practiced in San Francisco briefly before entering practice with his uncle, future Supreme Court Justice David Leventritt. He gained a reputation as a high profile and highly successful real estate and corporate attorney.

He supported the foundation of the Perolé String Quartet that comprised Joseph Colma, Max Hollander, Lilian Fuchs, and Julius Kahn and was active between 1927 and 1942. The Edgar M. Leventritt Foundation, Inc., established by his widow in 1939 funds an annual international competition for piano and violin players who have not appeared with a major orchestra. Distinguished winners of this prestigious award include Itzhak Perlman, Pinchas Zukerman, and Van Cliburn....

Article

Peter Wollny

(b Berlin, June 19, 1761; d Berlin, May 11, 1854). German harpsichordist, music collector and patron. She was a daughter of the Jewish banker Daniel Itzig (1723–99) and great-aunt of Mendelssohn. On 2 July 1783 she married the banker Samuel Salomon Levy (1760–1806). With her siblings, of whom Fanny von Arnstein (1758–1818) and Zippora Wulff (later Cäcilie von Eskeles, 1760–1836) were particularly well known as musical amateurs, she received a thorough musical education. She is said to have been a pupil of W.F. Bach at a later date, and she was certainly in contact with C.P.E. Bach, from whom she commissioned a harpsichord concerto. A number of contemporary documents mention her activity as a harpsichordist in private musical circles, for instance in the house of her brother-in-law Joseph Fliess. Later she frequently performed with the Ripienschule of the Berlin Sing-Akademie founded by C.F. Zelter. She was particularly interested in the music of the Bach family as well as the works of other Berlin composers (J.G. and C.H. Graun, Janitsch and Quantz), and is therefore one of the figures central to the appreciation of Bach in Berlin in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. She gave the Sing-Akademie considerable parts of her extensive collection of music, including autograph manuscripts by W.F. and C.P.E. Bach; after her death, some of the remaining items apparently came into the possession of A.W. Bach, and is now dispersed among many European and North American libraries....

Article

(b New York, NY, Nov 22, 1857; d Los Angeles, CA, Aug 23, 1956). American arts patron and pianist. She exhibited precocious talent at the piano as a young girl and traveled to Frankfurt, Germany, in 1880 for formal musical instruction. There she became the student of a brilliant, young American, Edward MacDowell. Their relationship quickly deepened and in July 1884 they married.

Devoted to furthering her husband’s composing career, Marian MacDowell witnessed firsthand the struggle for recognition that American composers faced at the turn of the 20th century. The couple believed in the creative potential of their homeland, and discussed turning their farm in Peterborough, New Hampshire, into a gathering place for creative artists, where others could enjoy the ideal working conditions that had inspired the composer’s own best work. Edward MacDowell fell ill before the vague plan could be realized. In 1907, the year before his death, Marian MacDowell founded the ...

Article

Michel Le Moël

(b c1650; d Paris, March 30, 1706). French musical amateur . The son of a Parisian doctor, Mathieu was inducted into the living of Saint-André-des-Arts, Paris, in 1678. In 1685 he commissioned Alexandre Thierry to improve the church organ; the organist was Claude Rachel de Montalan, Molière’s son-in-law. For several years Mathieu presided over weekly concerts which took place in his presbytry in rue du Cimetière-Saint-André (now rue Suger) and were attended by his parishioners, many of whom belonged to the famous families of the parlement. The spacious room on the first floor contained a chamber organ, a harpsichord by Philippe Denis, viols and violins. According to Jean de Serre de Rieux the only vocal music at the concerts was ‘Latin music composed in Italy by the greatest masters since 1650’ (Les dons des enfans de Latone, 1734). Italian composers represented in Mathieu’s 200-item library were G.B. Bassani, Melani, Lorenzani, G.P. Colonna and Foggia. French vocal music included works by Lully, Du Mont, Robert, M.-A. Charpentier, Nicolas Bernier, André Campra and J.-B. Morin. The library also contained instrumental music by Rebel and ‘Italian symphonies’ which may have included sonatas by Corelli. (M. Le Moël: ‘Un foyer d'italianisme à la fin du XVIIe siècle’, ...

Article

Gary Galván

(b Madera, CA, March 15, 1895; d New York, NY, Jan 24, 1971). American concert pianist and philanthropist. The daughter of merchant William Baird and music teacher Mina A. Smith, she studied with Morton Mason and made her debut on stage in 1903 at the University of California’s College of Music. She attended Occidental College in Los Angeles and the New England Conservatory of Music. She won the annual piano competition at the conservatory her senior year and embarked on a solo career with a repertoire comprising a mix of older works by Johannes Brahms, Fryderyk Chopin, Jean-Philippe Rameau, and Alessandro Scarlatti and modern works by Claude Debussy, Manuel de Falla, Vincent d’Indy, Charles Griffes, and Erik Satie. She toured the United States and Europe under her maiden name, despite a brief marriage to importer Adrian van Laar (whom she divorced). In 1930 she married Arthur M. Allen, a Rhode Island attorney, and soon retired from the stage. In ...

Article

Charles Barber

revised by José A. Bowen

(b Basle, April 28, 1906; d Basle, May 26, 1999). Swiss conductor, archivist and musical patron. He studied conducting with Weingartner and Moser at the Basle Conservatory and musicology with Karl Nef at the University of Basle. In 1926 he founded the Basle Chamber Orchestra, to which the affiliated Basle Chamber Choir was added in 1928. Both were organized for the exploration of unusual music from the pre-Classical and modern periods. Five years later he created the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis as an institute for research into early music. His explorations of little-known repertory went as far as early Mozart and Haydn and his Basle première of Idomeneo in 1931 helped restore this Mozart opera to the canon. In 1954 he combined the Schola Cantorum with both the conservatory and Musikschule to create the Musikakademie der Stadt Basel, a group that has since become a major centre of musicological and performance research. Sacher served as the Musikakademie’s first director, from ...

Article

William Weber

[Montagu, John ]

(b Lackham, Wilts., Nov 3, 1718; d London, April 30, 1792). English statesman and amateur musician . He followed a naval career, served as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1748–51 and 1771–82 and significantly reorganized the administration of the navy; he became embroiled in political conflict as a spokesman for George III, especially during the prosecution of John Wilkes and the American War. After his first period in office, Sandwich turned his energies to the performance of ‘ancient’ music which under his leadership was redefined from music of the 16th century to that two or more decades old. In this he was supported by his secretary, the amateur musician Joah Bates, who was an avid Handelian. While he was patron to the violinist Giardini, Sandwich's main early pursuit was the founding in 1761 of the aristocratic Catch Club, where professional singers performed catches, madrigals and glees, both ancient and modern. In the same period he held regular performances of Handel's oratorios, odes and masques at his estate, Hinchingbrooke, near Huntingdon, and at the parish church in Leicester. Thomas Greatorex, who joined Sandwich's household after a chance meeting in Leicester, assisted at these concerts in ...

Article

Gary Galván

(Bigelow )

(b Corning, NY, Sept 11, 1902; d Greenwich, CT, Dec 10, 1993). American singer and music philanthropist. As an heiress to the Corning Glass fortune and daughter of the New York State senator William J. Tully, Alice Tully enjoyed a life of privilege and culture. She studied voice with Carolyn Torabotti in New York before moving to Paris in 1923 where she studied voice with Jean Périer and stage technique with Georges Wague. Her well received recitals typically included French-language works by Ernest Chausson, Henri Duparc, Claude Debussy, Gabriel Fauré, and Christoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck. Notably, she appeared in the first US opera performed in Paris, William Franke Harling’s Light from St. Agnes.

Tully served on the boards of the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center, the Juilliard School of Music, the Metropolitan Opera, the New York Philharmonic, and the Pierpont Morgan Library, as well as the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Museum of Modern Art. She personally funded and actively participated in the design of New York’s first major performance venue devoted to chamber music—the aptly named Alice Tully Hall at Lincoln Center. The hall’s pipe organ is dedicated to the memory of her lover Edward Graeffe. For her lifelong service to music, Tully was awarded New York’s Handel Medallion (...

Article

(b Munich, July 18, 1724; d Dresden, April 23, 1780). German princess, composer, singer and patron. The eldest daughter of the Elector Karl Albert of Bavaria (later Emperor Karl VII) and of Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria, she received her first musical training in Munich from Giovanni Ferrandini and Giovanni Porta. After her marriage in 1747 to Friedrich Christian, later Elector of Saxony, she continued her studies in Dresden with Nicola Porpora and J.A. Hasse. With the Seven Years War and the death of the elector in 1763 the cultural life at the Dresden court declined. Her lively exchange of letters with Frederick the Great of Prussia from 1763 to 1779 bears witness to her increasing sense of personal and artistic isolation; the musical ideals she had grown up with as a pupil and devotee of Hasse and a correspondent of Pietro Metastasio lost their validity, and new music, in particular the new Neapolitan operatic style, found no favour with her....

Article

[Matvey Yur′yevich ]

(b St Petersburg, 15/April 26, 1794; d Nice, March 5, 1866). Russian cellist and patron , brother of Michał Wielhorski. He pursued a military career, fought in the war of 1812, and retired in 1826 with the rank of colonel. He studied the cello with Adolph Meinhardt and Bernhard Romberg, and became well known as a performer both in Russia and abroad, partnering such eminent musicians as Liszt, Henselt and Vieuxtemps. From 1826 he lived with his brother in St Petersburg, maintaining the house as a centre of musical culture. A number of leading composers of the day dedicated works to him, including Anton Rubinstein (Third String Quartet), Mendelssohn (Second Cello Sonata) and Romberg (Seventh Cello Concerto). After his brother’s death in 1856 he continued his work as an impresario, and was instrumental in inaugurating the St Petersburg branch of the Russian Musical Society in 1859. His extensive music library and many of the important instruments in his private collection were donated to the St Petersburg conservatory....