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Article

Saul Novack

(Ludwig)

(b Cologne, Nov 17, 1902; d Basle, Oct 19, 1996). American musicologist and pianist of German origin. After schooling in Cologne he was awarded a music teacher's diploma by the Austrian State Commission in 1930. He studied musicology at the University of Vienna (1933–8), and took the doctorate in 1938 with a dissertation on acoustical psychology. He also studied privately with Schenker. In 1940 he emigrated to the USA, later becoming an American citizen, and was active as a conductor, teacher, accompanist and répétiteur. He held teaching posts at the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music and Art (1947–53) and the University of California at Los Angeles (1953–6) before his appointment in 1956 as professor of music at the California State University at Los Angeles, where he taught until his retirement in 1970 as professor emeritus. He frequently served as accompanist to distinguished singers such as Elisabeth Schumann, Pinza and Fischer-Dieskau, and assisted Lotte Lehmann in her art-song courses. Albersheim was one of the first to write on the importance of the theories of Heinrich Schenker, whose influence is occasionally reflected in his writings. He wrote mainly on acoustics and the psychology of hearing, as well as its relationship to musical aesthetics....

Article

Viorel Cosma

revised by Ruxandra Arzoiu

(b Bucharest, 2/Aug 14, 1893; d Bucharest, Feb 18, 1959). Romanian composer, pianist, conductor, teacher, music critic, and director of music programmes. A leading figure of the first half of the 20th century, he laid the foundation of the Romanian school in music, concert life, and musical journalism. He studied with A. Castaldi, D. Dinicu, D.G. Kiriac, and E. Saegiu at the Bucharest Conservatory (1903–11), completing his education with two periods of study in Paris (1913–14, 1923–4), where he studied with d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum and with Paul Vidal at the Conservatoire. A remarkable accompanist, he worked with Enescu, Thibaud, Mainardi, Moodie, and others during the period 1919–45. As a conductor he always achieved a soberly balanced performance; he conducted more than 1500 performances at the Romanian Opera in Bucharest (1921–59), where he specialized in the French repertory (Bizet, Massenet, and Gounod). In his capacities as conductor of the Romanian Philharmonic Society, and as conductor and artistic manager of the Romanian RSO, he did much to encourage Romanian composers. He was also active as a music critic for Romanian and French reviews. Much of his compositional work was done during his youth, including ...

Article

Rudolf Lück

(b Zürich, Sept 14, 1917; d March 22, 2002). Swiss violinist, conductor and teacher. He studied music at Zürich University and under Stefi Geyer and Paul Müller at the conservatory there, and continued his violin studies in Paris with Flesch and in Vienna with Schneiderhan. He then embarked on a concert career that took him to most European countries as a soloist, and in chamber music as a member of the Stefi Geyer Quartet and later of the Zürich String Trio and the Zürich Chamber Trio. He was also leader of various chamber orchestras. In 1956, with Schneiderhan, he founded the Lucerne Festival Strings, an ensemble of soloists which he continued to direct. With it he toured widely and made numerous successful recordings, many in association with leading soloists, including Fournier, Haskil, Holliger and David Oistrakh. He made arrangements for the ensemble of Bach's Art of Fugue and ...

Article

Viorel Cosma

(b Iaşi, 9/May 21, 1899; d Sinaia, May 26, 1992). Romanian composer, violinist, teacher and conductor. He studied the violin in Iaşi (1908–12) with Eduard Caudella and in Craiova (1912–16) with Jean Bobescu and then entered the Schola Cantorum in Paris (1920–24, 1926–7) where he studied with Nestor Lejeune (violin), d’Indy (composition) and Paul le Flem (harmony). After starting his career as a solo violinist he became professor of violin at the conservatories of Cernăuţi and Braşov. In 1935 he was appointed conductor of the Radio Symphony Orchestra in Bucharest where he remained until 1972. Bobescu’s compositions range in theme from historical and biblical subjects to satirical comedy. Though post-Romantic in structure, his music has a pronounced lyrical character: the melodic writing is essentially Romanian but it is clothed in a traditional European harmonic language. His lively orchestration displays a perfect handling of timbres, especially of strings, which he used to achieve impressionistic shading in the operas....

Article

Steven Strunk

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(Richard )

(b Framingham, MA, Dec 21, 1920; d New York, Dec 13, 1983). American teacher, bandleader, and trombonist. He taught himself to play various instruments at an early age. After gaining a BS degree in music from New York University (1949) he directed high-school bands in the New York area (1949–57) while pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University (MA music, 1953). His dance band from Farmingdale, the Dalers, played at the Newport Jazz Festival in 1957 to unprecedented acclaim, winning Brown international fame and an appointment to the Newport Festival board. He then toured Europe with George Wein to select members for the International Youth Band, which performed at the Brussels World’s Fair and at Newport in 1958. In New York he organized the Newport Youth Band, which played at Newport and other festivals (1959–60). Many members of Brown’s groups, such as Dusko Goykovic, Albert Mangelsdorff, George Gruntz, Gábor Szabó, Gil Cuppini, Eddie Gomez, Jimmy Owens, Mike Abene, and Ronnie Cuber, became well-known jazz artists. After the dissolution of the Newport Festival Corporation (...

Article

Keith Moore

(b Memphis, Jan 21, 1944). American composer, pianist, conductor and musicologist. He studied the piano with Roy McAllister at the University of Alabama (BM 1965), with Sophia Rosoff, and with Soulima Stravinsky at the University of Illinois (MM 1966), where he also studied composition with Ben Johnson (DMA, 1971) and had contact with Hamm, Hiller, Kessler and Brün. He served on the music faculty at Illinois (1968–74) before joining the staff at Wesleyan University. He was a member of the editorial committee of New World Records (1974–8), founding chairman of New England Sacred Harp Singing (1976) and has held visiting professorships at Middlebury College, Bucknell University and the University of Michigan. In 1980 he was Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Studies in American Music at Brooklyn College.

In 1968 Bruce founded the American Music Group (AMG), an ensemble innovative in its dedication to American music of all eras. AMG recorded the music of Anthony Philip Heinrich for Vanguard, toured widely in the United States and, under Bruce’s direction, gave the 20th-century première of Bristow’s ...

Article

Malcolm Turner

(b Wigan, Sept 15, 1890; d Aylesbury, May 24, 1979). English organist and educationist. He was a pupil of and assistant organist to Bairstow at Leeds (1907–12), and took the BMus (1908) and DMus (1914) degrees at Durham University, becoming a Fellow of the Royal College of Organists in 1909. His first important post, suborganist at Manchester Cathedral (1912–15), was interrupted by war service, after which he was organist at St Michael’s College, Tenbury (1919), and organist and choirmaster of Exeter Cathedral (1919–27). On Nicholson’s retirement from Westminster Abbey in 1928, Bullock succeeded him as organist and Master of the Choristers. In this post he was obliged to provide the music for several royal functions; for the coronation of King George VI (1937) he wrote the fanfares and conducted the choir and orchestra, in acknowledgment of which he was created CVO. He also provided all but one of the fanfares for the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II (...

Article

Boris Schwarz

(b Warsaw, Poland, Oct 11, 1892; d Gulfport, FL, April 29, 1981). American violinist and conductor of Polish birth. He made his first public appearance at the age of 11 with the Warsaw PO and toured the United States as a soloist in 1907. From 1908 to 1912 he was enrolled in Auer’s class at the St. Petersburg Conservatory; subsequently he was concertmaster of the Helsinki SO (1912–15) and the Oslo SO (1916–19). In 1920 he joined the Boston SO as concertmaster and remained in the post for 42 years, adding the duties of associate conductor in 1943 During his long tenure, he conducted over 300 concerts (including many premières and works by Mahler, Bruckner, Schoenberg, and Shostakovich), appeared as soloist, and led his own string quartet. He was head of the string department of the New England Conservatory of Music and in 1959...

Article

Stan Britt

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(b Dumfries, Scotland, April 21, 1933; d London, Feb 25, 2009). English trumpeter, flugelhorn player, bandleader, composer, writer, and teacher, brother of Mike Carr. His mother played ukulele and banjo. Carr grew up in northeast England, where he took piano lessons from the age of 12 and taught himself trumpet from 1950. After studying at King’s College, Newcastle upon Tyne (1952–60, degree, English literature, diploma, education) he served in the army (1956–8), then played with his brother in a band, the Emcee Five (1960 – August 1962). He briefly joined Don Rendell in November 1962 and, after recovering from illness, formed a long-lived quintet with Rendell from 1963 to July 1969; during this period he also worked with Joe Harriott (recording in 1969), Don Byas, and John McLaughlin. In September 1969 he formed his own band, Nucleus, which rapidly became recognized internationally for its experiments with jazz-rock. As a result of its performance at the Montreux International Jazz Festival in ...

Article

Gerald R. Benjamin

(Antonio)

(b Ahualulco, San Luis Potosí, Jan 28, 1875; d San Angél, Sept 9, 1965). Mexican composer, theorist, conductor, violinist, inventor and teacher. Born to an American family during a seemingly peaceful period of Mexico’s history, he received his early musical education at the National Conservatory in Mexico City, where he studied the violin with Pedro Manzano, composition with Melesio Morales and acoustics with Francisco Ortega y Fonseca. Between 1899 and 1905 he was in Europe, where he divided his time between the conservatories of Ghent and Leipzig; at Ghent he studied the violin with Albert Zimmer, and at Leipzig he was a pupil of Jadassohn (composition), Becker (violin) and Sitt (conducting), and led the Gewandhaus Orchestra under Nikisch. During these formative years he shaped his critical philosophy of the practical application and examination of all theoretical precepts. The results were revolutionary, and led him to a lifelong attempt at effecting greater accuracy among the discrepant postulates of physicists, mathematicians and music theorists, and at helping performers to apply, or at least understand, them (see his ...

Article

Steven Ledbetter and Victor Fell Yellin

(b Lowell, MA, Nov 13, 1854; d Boston, MA, April 4, 1931). American composer, teacher, conductor, pianist and organist. He was a leading figure of the Second School of New England composers. Highly regarded in his lifetime as a composer, he was also largely responsible for the effective reorganization of the New England Conservatory and was one of the most influential teachers in American music.

Steven Ledbetter and Victor Fell Yellin

Because of his mother’s early death and his father’s remarriage, Chadwick was left to his own resources at an early age. He thus developed the self-reliance and independence that were to characterize his music as well as his academic life. He learned music from his older brother and by the age of 15 was active as an organist. From this time on he had to pay for his own musical instruction, as his father, a businessman, was opposed to his pursuing a career in music. He did not complete high school, but went to work as a clerk in his father's insurance office. By ...

Article

Nicholas Tochka

(b Tirana, Albania, Dec 8, 1945). Albanian conductor and violinist. The son of vocalist Mihal Ciko and nephew of composer Nikolla Zoraqi, he was a leading member of the first generation of musicians to be trained by socialist-era Albania’s new music institutions. A virtuoso violinist, he graduated from the State Conservatory in 1967 and immediately assumed teaching duties and an appointment as concertmaster to the Theatre of Opera and Ballet’s Orchestra. Ciko was named artistic director of the same institution in 1970. Between 1973 and 1974, a number of musicians and artists came under attack for exhibiting so-called politically subversive attitudes. Caught up in this purge, Ciko was reassigned to Patos, a large village, where he remained effectively exiled until his rehabilitation a decade later. First reappointed to the faculty at the Arts Lyceum ‘Jordan Misja’ he then organized a successful string ensemble, Tirana’s Young Virtuosi, which toured and recorded in the country and abroad. Ciko was appointed director of the Radio-Television Orchestra in ...

Article

J.M. Thomson

(b Vienna, Feb 27, 1928). Austrian recorder player, conductor, teacher, and composer. He studied the recorder with Hans Ulrich Staeps, Johannes Collette and Linda Höffer von Winterfeld, and keyboard instruments with Eta Harich-Schneider. He took his doctorate in philosophy at Vienna University in 1956. He cultivates a lyrical style of playing and is much attracted by improvisatory techniques in both early and contemporary music. His instrument collection includes a tenor trombone by Georg Neuschel of Nuremberg (1557), one of the oldest surviving specimens.

In 1958 he founded Musica Antiqua, known as the Ensemble Musica Antiqua from 1959. This group performed music of the Middle Ages to the Baroque on authentic instruments. In 1968 Clemencic founded a group known, from 1969, as the Clemencic Consort, an ensemble for the performance of medieval, Renaissance, Baroque and avant-garde music. Based in Vienna, it is notable for its exploration and staging of little-known 17th-century operas (such as Antonio Draghi’s ...

Article

Lucrecia R. Kasilag

(b Manila, May 15, 1909; d Manila, August 11, 1991). Filipino composer, conductor and pianist. In 1930 he graduated from the Conservatory of the University of the Philippines with teacher’s diplomas in piano and in theory and composition; he then studied at the Chicago Musical College (BMus 1932, MMus 1933) and the Neotarian College of Philosophy, Kansas City (PhD 1947). He taught at the University of the Philippines Conservatory (1930–34) and was director and professor at the Manila (1934–9, 1949–52) and Cosmopolitan College (1948–9) conservatories. During World War II he appeared as a pianist and conductor in the USA, Canada, Europe and Hawaii. He was a state cultural adviser (1958–60) and founder-president of the National Federation of Music. He lectured in humanities at the University of the City of Manila (1968–75), and after 1978 worked mainly in the USA, appearing as a composer-conductor at the Seattle Opera House....

Article

Kurt Stone

revised by Gary L. Maas

(b Hamburg, June 9, 1912; d Frutigen, nr Berne, Aug 6, 1970). American composer, conductor and pianist of Swedish-German parentage. He began his formal musical education at the Cologne Hochschule für Musik, then fled the Nazi regime to continue his studies in Switzerland at the Zürich Conservatory and the University of Zürich. Later he studied composition with Boulanger in California. Dahl’s professional career began with coaching and conducting at the Zürich Stadttheater. In 1938 he left Europe for the USA and settled in Los Angeles. From then on the range of his musical activities and involvements was immense, including work for radio and film studios, composing, conducting, giving piano recitals and lecturing. He joined the faculty of the University of Southern California in 1945 and taught there until his death. Among his better-known former students is the conductor Michael Tilson Thomas.

In addition to teaching composition, conducting and music history, Dahl directed the university’s symphony orchestra (...

Article

J.M. Thomson

(b Dallas, TX, Jan 26, 1922; d Suffern, NY, Nov 4, 1999). American recorder player, editor, teacher, and conductor. His early musical experience included playing the trumpet in small jazz bands and in Broadway pit bands and arranging music for shows in New York. While studying with erich Katz at the New York College of Music he developed an interest in early music. He learned to play the recorder, crumhorn, sackbut, and viola da gamba and arranged and directed medieval and Renaissance music. He edited music for the American Recorder Society, which published several of his compositions, and later was general editor of the series Music for Recorders (Associated Music Publishers). He took part in the debut of the New York Pro Musica Antiqua under Noah Greenberg in 1953 and rejoined them from 1960 until 1970; during this time he became director of the instrumental consort and assistant director of the Renaissance band. He toured internationally with them and played on many recordings. In ...

Article

Gary Galván

(b Richmond, VA, May 7, 1957). American conductor, educator, and flutist. Karen Deal studied flute at Oral Roberts University (BMus 1980) and orchestral conducting at Virginia Commonwealth University (MM 1982). She made her European conducting debut in 1984 with the Pro Arte Orchestra in Vienna, Austria, while pursuing postgraduate studies at the Hochschule für Musik und Darnstellende Kunst. During coursework toward a DMA in orchestral conducting at the Peabody Conservatory of Music, Deal studied with Praul Vermel on an Aspen Music Festival Fellowship (1988) and won the National Repertory Orchestra Biennial Conducting Competition. She was the founding director for the Sinfonia Concertante in Maryland in 1988 and the Chesapeake Youth Symphony in 1990 while serving as Associate Conductor for the Annapolis Symphony Orchestra and teaching music history and flute at Loyola College.

After study with gustav Meier , Leonard Slatkin, and Leon Fleisher at the Tanglewood Music Festival in ...

Article

Victoria Eli Rodríguez

(Anastasio)

(b Havana, Oct 25, 1918). Cuban composer, teacher, conductor, and pianist. He studied music in Havana, where his teachers included Jaime Prats, Pedro Sanjuan, and Roldán, then in 1947 went to New York to the Juilliard School of Music and studied with Steuermann (piano), Bernard Wagenaar (composition) and Fritz Mahler (orchestral conducting). He began teaching in 1936 in the Havana conservatories; in 1959 he founded and directed the Alejandro García Caturla Conservatory, ran the School for Instructors in the Arts, and was responsible for organizing specialized teaching at the Seminary for Popular Music. He was professor of music for the Band of the Staff of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Cuba, at the National School for the Arts, and at the Higher Institute for the Arts. He has taught the piano, harmony, counterpoint, and fugue, composition, and orchestration, and his writings embrace music theory, harmony, and education. In ...

Article

Bálint Vázsonyi

[Ernst von]

(b Pozsony [now Bratislava], July 27, 1877; d New York, Feb 9, 1960). Hungarian pianist, composer, conductor, teacher and administrator. Next to Liszt he ranks as the most versatile Hungarian musician, whose influence reached generations in all spheres of musical life. He is considered the first architect of Hungary’s musical culture in the 20th century.

He received his early training in Pozsony. His father, an outstanding amateur cellist, and Károly Forstner, cathedral organist, gave him lessons in piano playing and theory. Despite the absence of professional training, he showed an extraordinary appetite for music and made rapid progress. Having finished at the Gymnasium, he decided to obtain his formal education in music at the Budapest Academy. He was the first Hungarian of significant talent to do so and his example, as well as his personal intervention, induced Bartók (his friend from early schooldays) to follow the same course. Dohnányi studied the piano with Thomán and composition with Koessler, and received his artist’s diploma in ...

Article

Rolf Haglund

(b Karlstad, Nov 6, 1922). Swedish composer, teacher, conductor and harpsichordist. After attending the Ingesund Music School and the Stockholm Musikhögskolan (1942–7) he went to study at the Basle Schola Cantorum and elsewhere. He was a church organist (1948–60) and was then appointed to the Stockholm Musikhögskolan as teacher of aural training, the subject of his internationally known Modus novus and Modus vetus. In 1967 he founded the Camerata Holmiae, an ensemble of vocal soloists, which he conducts.

Initially a composer only of liturgical music, after his move to Gotland in 1971 he produced a number of original and intense pieces, both sacred and secular. His melodic lines on carefully chosen texts are often built in long cantilenas, oscillating between Gregorian-inspired elements and early Baroque polyphony, and, in particular, taking inspiration from the music of Monteverdi, whom he reveres.

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