(b Barcelona, March 27, 1862; d Barcelona, March 31, 1908). Spanish composer, folklorist and music critic. He studied composition with Antonio Nicolau and Anselmo Barba and piano with C.G. Vidiella in Barcelona and was music critic for various journals there, including La renaixensa, L'avenç and, from 1905 to 1908, El poble català. He published his Collecció de 6 melodies per a cant i piano and five Cansons per cant i piano (both Barcelona, 1887), which are settings of poems by Angel Guimerá, Francisco Matheu y Fornells, Apeles Mestres and Jacinto Verdaguer. He illustrated the latter volume himself, and some of his work was displayed at an exhibition of the Sociedad de Acuarelistas in Barcelona. A distinguished folklorist as well as a sensitive composer and skilful melodist, he collected Catalan folksongs and published arrangements of 23 of these in Cansons populars catalanas (Barcelona, 1891). He used native rhythms and melodies in his songs and piano pieces (among them ...
Larisa Georgievna Danko
(b St Petersburg, 17/July 29, 1884; d Moscow, Jan 27, 1949). Russian musicologist, composer and critic. He studied at the St Petersburg Conservatory from 1904 to 1910 with Rimsky-Korsakov and Lyadov, and graduated in 1908 from the faculty of history and philology of the University of St Petersburg. From 1910 he worked as a repetiteur; from 1916 edited and composed ballet music and from 1919 was a member of the board of directors and repertory consultant at the Mariinsky and Mikhaylovsky Theatres. In 1919 he became head of the Central Library for State Musical Theatres. In the same year, in association with Lyapunov and Bulich, he organized the music department at the Petrograd Institute for the History of the Arts (now the Zubov Institute for the History of the Arts); he was its director from 1921. Between 1922 and 1925 he was responsible for the organization there of concerts of contemporary music. He was made a professor at the Leningrad Conservatory in ...
(b Wiesbaden, July 20, 1923). Israeli critic, composer and musicologist. He moved to Mandatory Palestine in 1936. After studying composition with Paul Ben-Haim, his most influential teacher, Bar-Am attended the Ecole Normale de Paris (1949–51). He studied musicology at Tel-Aviv University (BA 1977), where he became the principal lecturer for courses on Jewish music and Israeli contemporary music (1973–96) and the first director of the Archive of Israeli Music. The secretary general of the Israeli League of Composers (1960–76, 1976–8), he became chair of the organizing committee of the ISCM in Israel in 1980. Though most influential as the music critic of the Jerusalem Post between 1958 and 1995, Bar-Am also wrote many essays on Israeli music in Hebrew, English and German, notably ‘A Musical Gateway between East and West’ (Jerusalem Post, 20 April 1988). He ceased composing in the early 1970s but resumed in ...
John Edwin Henken
(b Madrid, Aug 3, 1823; d Madrid, Feb 17, 1894). Spanish composer, musicologist, conductor and critic. Barbieri’s father died in 1823 and the composer used his matronym throughout his life although, in the heated polemic wars of the period, that was sometimes held against him as an Italianate pretence.
Barbieri received his early music training from his maternal grandfather and entered the fledgling Royal Conservatory in 1837, studying the clarinet with Ramón Broca, the piano with Albéniz y Basanta, singing with Saldoni and composition with Carnicer. In 1841 his family moved to Lucena, but Barbieri remained in Madrid, eking out a living as a clarinettist, pianist, teacher and copyist. His earliest compositions were songs and dances, and a paso doble for a militia band in which he played. He also sang baritone roles in Italian operas at the Conservatory and the Teatro del Circo. He wrote the libretto for a one-act zarzuela but did not complete the music in time for its scheduled première in ...
(b Turin, April 25, 1719; d Marylebone, London, May 5, 1789). Italian man of letters. His Fetonte sulle rive del Po was set by G.A. Giai (1750, Turin). In January 1751 he left Italy, where he had a considerable literary reputation, for an appointment at the Italian Opera in London. Shortly after his arrival he wrote two facetious pamphlets relating to a dispute between the actors and the lessee of the Opera. He adapted selected odes of Horace as a sort of Masonic oratorio. Seeking a composer able to avoid the vocal clichés and long ritornellos of Italian opera and ‘to temper alternately the solemnity of church music with the brilliancy of the theatrical’, Baretti chose Philidor, with whom he discussed ‘every syllable … with respect to the best way of expressing musically the meaning of Horace’. Carmen saeculare was performed in London in 1779 and in Paris the year after. Baretti wrote in his copy of Johnson’s ...
revised by Axel Helmer
(b Stockholm, June 6, 1804; d Stockholm, March 17, 1861). Swedish music critic, historian and composer. He was a pupil of Per Frigel. He earned his living as a clerk in the Swedish Customs and was for many years music critic for the Post och inrikes tidningar. In 1849 he was elected a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music, the library of which he helped to catalogue. In 1850 he translated Birch’s Darstellung der Bühnenkunst into Swedish. He lectured extensively on music history at the conservatory in 1852, and wrote articles for the Ny tidning för musik during the whole period of its existence (1853–7). The most important of these was ‘En blick på tonkonsten i Sverige’, a survey of Swedish music during the previous 50 years. Boman is considered one of the most reliable and important Swedish writers on music before Adolf Lindgren. (...
(b Lisbon, Oct 12, 1890; d Lisbon, Nov 27, 1955). Portuguese composer, teacher, musicologist and critic. He studied composition in Lisbon privately with Augusto Machado and Tomás Borba, then with Désiré Pâque and Luigi Mancinelli. He also studied the piano and the violin. He completed his studies in Berlin with Humperdinck and Pâque (1910) and in Paris with Grovlez (1911). After his marriage he lived on Madeira for two years, returning to Lisbon in 1914. He taught at the Lisbon Conservatory (1916–39), later becoming its assistant director (1919–24). There he worked with Mota in the major reforms which began in 1918. At the same time he established himself as a composer, musicologist, critic and lecturer and slowly rose to a position of fundamental importance in Portuguese musical life. As a teacher, he also played an important role in the preparation of a new generation of composers. In the 1930s, he began to have difficulties with the political authorities and in ...
(b Rome, 1465; d San Gimignano, 1510). Italian humanist. He was the son of Antonio Cortese, a papal abbreviator (i.e. a writer of papal briefs) and the pupil of Giulio Pomponio Leto and Bartolomeo Platina, both abbreviatores. In 1481 he was appointed to the papal chancery to the place vacated on Platina’s death. He was promoted to papal secretary in 1498, resigned in 1503 and spent the rest of his life in a family villa called Castel Cortesiano, near San Gimignano. There he was the host to such guests as Duke Ercole I of Ferrara, Duke Guidobaldo of Urbino and Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, later Pope Paul III. He must also have had a comfortable house in Rome in which in the early 1490s there were learned discussions, interspersed with strambotti sung by Serafino Aquilano. Cortese may have known Josquin, who was a papal singer at this time. He praised Josquin highly as a mass composer in his ...
(b Bad Kreuznach, April 8, 1897; d Cologne, Dec 15, 1972). German composer, theorist, and critic. He studied at the Cologne Conservatory with Bölsche, von Othegraven, and Abendroth (1919–24) and then undertook musicological studies with Bücken, Kahl, and Kinsky at Cologne University (1924-30), taking the doctorate in 1931. From 1925 to 1969 (except for the years 1933–44) he wrote programme notes for the Gurzenich concerts, from 1927 he worked with Westdeutscher Rundfunk, and from 1930 he served as music specialist on the Kölner Stadtanzeiger. During the period 1935–45 he lived in obscurity as an editor on the Kölnische Zeitung. He returned to Westdeutscher Rundfunk in 1945, becoming director of the late-night music programmes (1948–65) and of the Studio for Electronic Music, which he founded in 1951 and headed until 1962. From 1965 to 1971 he held a professorship at the Cologne Musikhochschule, where he directed the electronic music studio....
revised by Bret Werb
(b Berdyansk, Crimea, 4/April 16, 1868; d Tel-Aviv, Feb 11, 1927). Russian composer, critic, lexicographer and folklorist. He studied law at Kharkov University but soon turned to music, studying theory and composition with Taneyev and Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory (1893–7). From 1897 to 1919 he worked as a music critic for the newspaper Russkiye vedomosti. In 1901 his translation of Riemann’s Lexikon into Russian with newly written sections on Russian music was published in Moscow. Although an early opera, Esther, was performed in 1894, his work as a critic overshadowed that as a composer. Under the influence of the Russian nationalist music critic Vladimir Stasov, however, he turned his attention to Jewish folklore, collecting, arranging, performing and publishing the songs of eastern European Jews. In 1909 his first album of ten Jewish folksongs appeared in Moscow; a second volume followed later in the same year. Engel continued to promote his new interest with public lectures and a series of articles in ...
(b Kaluga, Nov 5, 1841; d Ligovo, nr St Petersburg, July 6, 1896). Russian music historian, critic and composer. He had well-to-do parents and studied natural sciences at St Petersburg University and music privately with M.L. Santis; from 1862 to 1864 he studied privately and at the Leipzig Conservatory with Moritz Hauptmann, E.F. Richter and Carl Riedel, and also (1864–5) studied instrumentation with Max Seifriz at Löwenberg. Returning to St Petersburg he was appointed professor of music history and aesthetics at the conservatory (1865–72); between 1869 and 1871 he edited the periodical Muzïkal′nïy sezon and later contributed to Bessel’s Muzïkal′nïy listok and other journals. From 1870 to 1880 he was secretary to the directorate of the Imperial Russian Musical Society. His four-act opera Sardanapal was produced in 1875 and the vocal score was published by Bessel, but it had so little success that his second opera, the four-act ...
revised by James Deaville
(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...
Don C. Gillespie
(b Dallas, Nov 21, 1955). American musicologist, composer and critic. He attended Oberlin Conservatory (BMus 1977) and Northwestern University (MMus 1981, DMus 1983), where he studied composition with Peter Gena, Morton Feldman and Ben Johnston. An early fascination with the music of Ives developed his interest in polyrhythmic music and led to study of the music of the Hopi, Zuni and Pueblo Indians, which in turn informed the rhythmic language of his own compositions (notably in Snake Dances, 1991–5). Further exploration of tempo structures came from his association with Nancarrow, about whom he wrote the first book (1995). Gann composed several canons extending Nancarrow’s techniques. His interest in polytempos, Amerindian music and just intonation (his electronic works employ scales of up to 37 pitches per octave) came together in his electronic opera, Custer and Sitting Bull (1995–8).
In 1986, after writing for several Chicago papers, Gann became contemporary music critic for the ...
Beatriz Martínez del Fresno
(b Madrid, Dec 20, 1886; d Madrid, Dec 22, 1973). Spanish composer, librarian, critic and musicologist. He studied with his father and Antonio Santamaría, and from 1899 at the Madrid Conservatory with Andrés Monge, Manuel Fernández Grajal, Pedro Fontanilla, Felipe Pedrell and Emilio Serrano. Gómez won first prizes in harmony (1902), piano (1904) and composition (1908). He also studied history at Madrid University, earning a first degree (1907) and a doctorate (1918). After working as an arranger at the Teatro Real (1908–11) he was director of the Toledo Archaeological Museum (1911–13), head of the music section of the National Library (1913–15) and librarian of the Madrid Conservatory (1915–56). Among the subjects he taught was composition, which he taught to the group of composers known as the Generation of ’51.
Backed by Bretón and Bartolomé Pérez Casas at the beginning of his composing career, Gómez composed more than 100 works, some of which won national awards. His music wavers between neo-Romanticism (...
George J. Buelow
(b Juditten, nr Königsberg [now Kaliningrad], Feb 2, 1700; d Leipzig, Dec 12, 1766). German dramatist, poet, literary critic and philosopher. He was a leading figure in the literary reform movement of the German Enlightenment before the mid-18th century. He received his early education from his father, a Protestant minister. On 19 March 1714, before he was 15, he entered Königsberg University to study theology and subsequently philosophy, mathematics and the natural sciences. After earning a master's degree in 1723 he fled his native land under threat of induction into the Prussian army, moving to Leipzig. Two years later he began his university career as a lecturer. In 1727 he headed the local Deutschübenden-poetischen Gesellschaft, which he reorganized as a national society, the Deutsche Gesellschaft. He hoped to model it on the Académie Française and to create a decisive influence for the reform of German as a single national language, but he did not succeed. At this time he founded two weekly journals, ...
(b Alūksne, Aug 30, 1926). Latvian musicologist, critic and composer. He studied at the Latvian Conservatory (later the Jāzeps Vītols Latvian Academy of Music) in Riga, graduating from the musicology department in 1952 and from Jānis Ivanov’s composition class in 1960. He was awarded the Kandidat degree (later upgraded to the doctorate) from the Leningrad Conservatory in 1969 for his book on Vītols. From 1961 he taught at the Latvian Conservatory; he was appointed associate professor in 1969 and professor in 1984. He was secretary of the Latvian Composers’ Union from 1959 to 1962 and again from 1968 to 1974. Grāvītis specializes in Latvian music history of the 19th and 20th centuries and has written extensive criticism and numerous essays, reviews, radio and television programmes and lectures. His most important contributions to Latvian musicology are his monographs on Latvian composers, and a volume of biographical studies of Soviet Latvian musicians which he edited (...
(b St Gilles, Brussels, April 16, 1897; d Paris, June 3, 1986). Belgian composer, critic and musicologist. He was the great-grandson of Jacobus Hoérée (1773–1859), maître de chapelle at St Walburge, Oudennarde. He studied the organ and music theory at the Brussels Conservatory (1908–12) and at the Institut Musical in Anderlecht (1914–16), then attended the Ecole Polytechnique in Brussels (1916–19) from which he graduated as a qualified engineer. At the same time he continued his musical studies, and in 1919 he settled in Paris where he completed his training at the Conservatoire (1919–26) with Paul Vidal (fugue and composition), Vincent d'Indy (conducting), Joseph Baggers (percussion) and Eugène Gigout (organ). In 1922 he won the Prix Halphen with his Heures claires, performed by the soprano Régine de Lormoy (who was later to become his wife) and in 1923 his ...
John S. Weissmann
revised by Melinda Berlász
(b Budapest, Jan 30, 1920; d Budapest, July 29, 1966). Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist and critic . He began his musical studies as a violinist in Rome at the age of eight and continued his lessons in Budapest with Ilona Votisky. In 1936 he entered the Liszt Academy of Music, where he studied the violin with Zathureczky until 1940. He studied composition privately with Bárdos (1934–8) and then with Kodály at the Academy of Music (until 1942). Concurrently he attended Budapest University, where he took the doctorate in 1943 with a dissertation on the secular music of the Kide Magyars.
A member of Kodály’s youngest generation of pupils, Járdányi was the last prominent figure to continue his teacher's programme for the development of music education in Hungary. He taught composition, theory, solfège and folk music at the Liszt Academy (1944–59), and in 1948 joined the folk music commission (headed by Kodály) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Taking as his starting-point the work of Bartók and Kodály, Járdányi developed a new system for classifying Hungarian folksongs, the method of which was first published in ...
Yelena Vladimirovna Orlova
revised by Iosif Genrikhovich Rayskin
(b Pavlovsk, 5/Sept 17, 1875; d Leningrad, Dec 23, 1925). Russian music critic, historian and composer. He graduated from the department of physics and mathematics at St Petersburg University in 1897, and then worked as a chemist for the naval department. However, his interest in music (which he had formed in early childhood) and his close friendship with the members of the Belyayev circle encouraged him to abandon this career in 1907 and to take up music criticism. From 1897 until 1902 he had studied composition with Nikolay Sokolov at the St Petersburg Conservatory, and by 1906 he was already publishing articles on music in various periodicals. He was one of the organizers of the Vechera Sovremennoy Muzïki (Evenings of Contemporary Music, 1910–12) and one of the founders (in 1923) of the Assotsiatsiya Sovremennoy Muzïki (Association for Contemporary Music). From 1916 until his death he lectured on music history and aesthetics at the Petrograd Conservatory, and also conducted courses in art criticism at the Institute for the History of the Arts. From ...
(b Weimar, May 3, 1761; d Mannheim, March 23, 1819). German dramatist, diplomat and man of letters. His adventurous career included appointments as lawyer and theatre secretary, Russian court councillor and editor, poet and Russian consul. His satires, his quarrels, and above all his duty to report to the Tsar of Russia on all affairs of interest in Germany and France, made him many enemies, and he was assassinated in 1819 by a student who suspected him of being a traitor and spy.
Kotzebue’s immense output of plays includes a majority of ephemera, yet he dominated the repertory of German and Austrian (and many foreign) theatres for a considerable part of the 19th century, and the best of his comedies (including Die deutschen Kleinstädter, the first of a prodigious number of plays set in the self-important country town of Krähwinkel, the German equivalent of Gotham) are still effective. Beethoven wrote music for his ...