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Article

Viorel Cosma

revised by Ruxandra Arzoiu

(b Bucharest, 2/Aug 14, 1893; d Bucharest, Feb 18, 1959). Romanian composer, pianist, conductor, teacher, music critic, and director of music programmes. A leading figure of the first half of the 20th century, he laid the foundation of the Romanian school in music, concert life, and musical journalism. He studied with A. Castaldi, D. Dinicu, D.G. Kiriac, and E. Saegiu at the Bucharest Conservatory (1903–11), completing his education with two periods of study in Paris (1913–14, 1923–4), where he studied with d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum and with Paul Vidal at the Conservatoire. A remarkable accompanist, he worked with Enescu, Thibaud, Mainardi, Moodie, and others during the period 1919–45. As a conductor he always achieved a soberly balanced performance; he conducted more than 1500 performances at the Romanian Opera in Bucharest (1921–59), where he specialized in the French repertory (Bizet, Massenet, and Gounod). In his capacities as conductor of the Romanian Philharmonic Society, and as conductor and artistic manager of the Romanian RSO, he did much to encourage Romanian composers. He was also active as a music critic for Romanian and French reviews. Much of his compositional work was done during his youth, including ...

Article

Nigel Simeone

( b London, June 5, 1914; d London, Jan 15, 2005). English critic, writer and concert organizer . In 1931 he was appointed assistant secretary of the Organ Music Society; he became secretary in 1935 and invited Marchal, Tournemire, Messiaen and Duruflé to perform in the society’s concerts. He was concert director of the LPO (1940–46) and from 1942 organizer of the Concerts de musique française for the Free French in London. Among the artists whom he invited to appear at these remarkable concerts were Teyte, Goodall, Pears, Britten and Tippett, and following the liberation of Paris many outstanding French musicians also performed in the series, including Poulenc, Bernac, Souzay, Neveu, Thibaud, Fournier, Gendron, Messiaen, Loriod and Dutilleux, several of whom established firm friendships with Aprahamian.

Aprahamian was deputy music critic of the Sunday Times (1948–89) and a regular contributor to Gramophone. Throughout his career he did much to foster French music in Britain; he was Messiaen’s earliest British advocate (they corresponded from ...

Article

Hans Åstrand and Bo Wallner

(Magnus)

(b Göteborg, Dec 12, 1887; d Stockholm, Feb 15, 1974). Swedish composer, administrator, conductor and critic. He studied the cello at school in Göteborg and then entered the Stockholm College of Technology. Having passed the examination in civil engineering in 1911, he spent his working life (1912–68) in the patent office. He was largely self-taught although he studied composition and instrumentation with Hallén at the Swedish Royal Academy of Music (1910–11), and partly used the state composer’s scholarships he received between 1911 and 1915 to study in Germany (1911 and 1913). He made his début as a conductor at Göteborg in 1912, when the programme included his First Symphony; thereafter (particularly during the 1920s) he often conducted his own music and that of contemporaries, both at home and abroad (where he promoted Swedish music). From 1916 to 1922 he was kapellmästare at the Royal Dramatic Theatre, Stockholm; he also worked enthusiastically as co-founder and president (...

Article

Daniel Zager

[Jones, (Everett) LeRoi]

(b Newark, NJ, Oct 7, 1934). American writer. He studied piano, drums, and trumpet privately and attended Howard University (BA 1954). In the early 1960s he achieved wide recognition for his poetry and plays and for his writings about jazz, which included articles for Down Beat, Jazz, and Jazz Review; a selection of his writings, many from Down Beat, was published in 1967 as Black Music. His book Blues People (1963), the first full-length study of jazz by a black writer, is both a sociological inquiry, using blues and jazz as a means of understanding how African Americans became assimilated into American culture, and a superb discussion of the cultural context of the music in the United States. Besides his activities as a writer, Baraka has been involved in many black cultural and community projects. He was a founder of the Black Arts Repertory Theater-School, which was in existence from ...

Article

Leonard Bernardo

(Andrejevich )

(b Novosibirsk, Russian SFSR [now Russia], March 16, 1947). Russian drummer, writer, broadcaster, and educator. He began playing jazz in 1962, and after graduating from the state medical institute in Novosibirsk in 1971 he pursued a dual career as a jazz musician and an obstetrician. In 1975 he established Tvorcheskoye Dhazovoye Ob’yedinenie (Creative Jazz Unity), the first association of musicians and jazz promoters east of the Urals. He performed with Vladimir Tolkachev in the Musical Improvising Trio (1975–9), with Igor Dmitriev in various groups (including, from 1977, Zolotoye Gody Dhaza (Golden Jazz Years), with Vytautas Labutis in the quartet SibLitMash (Siberian-Lithuanian Jazz Machine, 1980s), and with Vagif Sadykhov in another quartet (1998), while also working as a freelance with Vladimir Chekasin, Anatoly Vapirov, Igor Butman, Joe Locke, Paul Bollenback, and former members of Art Blakey’s Jazz Messengers, among others. In 1990 he began to broadcast on radio, and in ...

Article

H.L. Lindenmaier

(b Berlin, July 20, 1922; d Hamburg, Germany, Feb 4, 2000). German writer and record producer. Having first studied in Berlin he attended the University of Karlsruhe (1940–42). He was a founder in 1945 of the Südwestfunk Baden-Baden, where he led the jazz department until 1987, and in 1951 of the Deutsche Jazz Föderation. During the following decades he organized and directed many festivals and concert series (including Jazztime Baden-Baden, from 1947; the American Folk Blues Festival, 1962–8; the Berliner Jazztage, later known as the Jazzfest Berlin, 1964–72; the New Jazz Meeting Baden-Baden, which he founded in 1966; and the Olympic Games Jazz Festival in Munich, 1972) and was the producer and host of broadcasts both on radio (from the Baden-Baden festival) and television (“Jazz, gehört und gesehen,” 1954–72); he also organized an annual jazz concert at the Donaueschingen Festival for Contemporary Music (from ...

Article

John Edward Hasse

[Rudolph] (Pickett)

(b Guthrie, OK, Jan 21, 1899; d Gilmanton, NH, Aug 25, 1985). American writer on music. He attended Dartmouth College and earned the BS in architecture from the University of California, Berkeley. In the 1940s he served as jazz critic for the San Francisco Chronicle and the New York Herald Tribune. He wrote a pioneering serious history of jazz, Shining Trumpets (1946), and with Harriet Janis was co-author of the first history of ragtime, They All Played Ragtime (1950). The latter work established him as the leading authority in this field, and eventually prompted a revival of the music. Also with Janis, he founded Circle Records, a small but significant jazz label which became the first to issue the Library of Congress recordings of Jelly Roll Morton. In 1953 they sold Circle Records – apart from the Morton recordings – to Jazzology Records. From 1947 to 1950...

Article

Stanley Sadie

(Adam)

(b Loughton, Essex, June 8, 1926). English writer on music. He was educated at Winchester and Oxford (where he read history, 1945–8) and had a year's study (1950–51) at Princeton. In 1950, with Stephen Gray, he founded the Chelsea Opera Group and in 1983 he established an orchestra, the Thorington Players. He has held various appointments as music critic, notably for the Spectator (1958–62), the Financial Times (1962–7), the New Statesman (1967–70) and later the Sunday Times.

During the years 1967–72 Cairns worked for Philips Records, taking part in the planning of several substantial recordings, among them works by Mozart, Berlioz and Tippett. These composers, above all Berlioz, are at the centre of his interests; he contributed an introduction and notes to a translation of Berlioz's Les soirées de l'orchestre in 1963 as well as translating and editing his memoirs (London, ...

Article

Gerard Béhague

(b Havana, Dec 26, 1904; d Paris, April 24, 1980). Cuban writer. He worked as a journalist from 1922, writing not only political articles but also music and theatre criticism, and with Roldán he organized the first concerts of new music in Havana. After his imprisonment for having founded a minority party (1927), he turned his attention to the arts. He lived in Paris for a time, meeting Varèse and working with him on the abortive dramatic project The One-all-alone. On his return to Cuba in 1940 he was appointed director of the Cuban Broadcasting System and taught at the University of Havana. During the Batista period he lived in Venezuela, returning after the Revolution to serve as director of the Editora Nacional, and as cultural attaché and ambassador in Paris. As a writer on music he promoted the new trend of musical nationalism based on Afro-Cuban sources and the Cuban Grupo de Renovación Musical. His publications not only contributed greatly to the knowledge of Cuban musical traditions but also put forward an influential account of the true nature of Latin American and Caribbean musics. His novel ...

Article

Philip L. Miller

(b Vitebsk, Belorussia, July 4, 1889; d New York, Feb 9, 1964). American critic and administrator of Russian birth. He studied briefly at Columbia University with D.G. Mason, but left without graduating in 1911. He achieved early success as a piano accompanist and toured with Alma Gluck, Efrem Zimbalist and Jascha Heifetz. In 1925 he succeeded Deems Taylor as music critic on The World, a position he held until 1931. He was music critic on the New York Post (1934–41); among his projects for the promotion of music appreciation was a series of recordings made anonymously by well-known artists and organizations, distributed at cost by the newspaper. In 1936 he was appointed music consultant for NBC radio, and his first assignment was to induce Toscanini to organize and conduct the station's new symphony orchestra, which gave its first concert on Christmas Day 1937. Chotzinoff commissioned the first opera composed expressly for radio, Menotti's ...

Article

Rosemary Williamson

(Victor)

(b Leicester, Sept 14, 1919; d Thornton Heath, Oct 26, 1976). English writer on music. He studied the piano privately, and music with Patrick Hadley and Robin Orr at Selwyn College, Cambridge (1938–40, 1946–7; MA, MusB), and worked for the BBC as a music presentation assistant (1947–56), music producer (1956–7), music presentation writer (1957–9) and music presentation editor (from 1965); in the intervening years (1959–65) he was a freelance writer on music. His main areas of research were 19th-century music, especially that of Wagner, Mahler, Bruckner and Delius, and musical semantics.

In 1960 Cooke made a ‘performing version’ of Mahler’s Tenth Symphony, which was first performed at the Proms on 13 August 1964 and subsequently revised in the light of this and other performances; Cooke was always at pains to emphasize that this text did not represent a putative reconstruction of the symphony as Mahler might have completed it but rather a text that carefully followed precedents established in the sketches and thus allowed Mahler’s music to be heard at least in a form not foreign to the composer. His version has won considerable praise; it has been much performed and recorded, and was published in ...

Article

Alex Harris Stein

(b Toronto, ON, Feb 13, 1913; d Escondido, CA, May 27, 2001). American writer and record producer. In 1934 she settled in Chicago, where she became active as a jazz journalist and promoter, writing for the Chicago Herald-Examiner and Down Beat, founding the Chicago Rhythm Club, and promoting listening concerts featuring such performers as Earl Hines and Billie Holiday. At one such concert, Dance was responsible for bringing together Benny Goodman and Teddy Wilson in one of the first highly publicized interracial collaborations in jazz. She also produced her first recordings for the Okeh label (1935). In 1937 she relocated to New York, where she produced many of the legendary Duke Ellington small band recordings, collaborated with Red Norvo, Mildred Bailey, and Bob Crosby, and managed Chick Webb, organizing swing battles at the Savoy Ballroom in Harlem featuring the Webb Orchestra and Ella Fitzgerald. Among the many concerts that she organized was Benny Goodman’s historic ...

Article

Gerald Bordman

revised by Jonas Westover

(b New York, NY, Sept 8, 1896; d New York, NY, July 30, 1983). American lyricist and librettist. He studied at Columbia University, where he was a contemporary of Lorenz Hart and Oscar Hammerstein II, and served in the US Navy before becoming director of publicity and advertising in 1919 for the Goldwyn Pictures Corporation (from 1924 known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM). He wrote verse in his spare time, and was asked by Jerome Kern to supply the lyrics for Dear Sir (1924). He also worked with Vernon Duke, Jimmy McHugh, and Ralph Rainger. But he is best remembered for the numerous songs he wrote in collaboration with arthur Schwartz , beginning in 1929 with the revue The Little Show (with “I guess I’ll have to change my plan”). Other collaborations with Schwartz include Three’s a Crowd (1930) and The Band Wagon (1931, containing the hit “Dancing in the Dark”). Their professional relationship extended over a period of more than 30 years to the production of the musical ...

Article

Josef Bek

(b Opava, April 27, 1911; d Třebotov, July 20, 2000). Czech music critic and administrator. He studied law at Prague University (JUDr 1935) and learnt music privately. He was imprisoned during the German occupation (1941–5), and after the liberation worked as an organizer and popularizer in the secretariat of the Prague Spring Music Festival (1948–52). As a member of the Union of Czechoslovak Composers he was secretary of the secretariat (1952–71) and also directed the foreign section for many years; he did much for the growth of wider international cooperation and for the cause of Czech music abroad. He has written many informative articles about contemporary and older Czech music for various periodicals, including Opera, Musical America, Opera News, Opernwelt, Oper und Konzert and Musik und Gesellschaft. In Hudební rozhledy, of which he was an editor (1950–56), he published articles about important premières abroad and gave regular accounts of the domestic musical scene, especially opera. He was a member of the ISCM presidential committee and secretary of the national committee of the International Music Council (...

Article

Craig Resta

(b Peekskill, NY, May 12, 1931; d Washington, DC, June 11, 1995). American writer, educator, spokesman, and advocate for arts education. He graduated from the State University of New York at Potsdam (BME 1952), Northwestern University (MME 1957), and Boston University (DMA 1964). Fowler taught public school music in Rochester, New York (1952–6), was a music supervisor in Mansfield, Pennsylvania (1957–62), and served on the faculties of Mansfield State College (now University) (1957–62) and Northern Illinois University (1964–5). He was an editor for the Music Educators Journal (1965–71) and Musical America (1974–89) and an independent arts consultant (1971–95). An extraordinarily active scholar, he wrote and edited over 230 articles and authored and contributed to several books, most notably Can We Rescue the Arts for America’s Children? Coming to Our Senses—10 Years Later...

Article

Paula Morgan

(Donald)

(b Chicago, Dec 27, 1928). American critic and music administrator. He studied at the University of Chicago (Bachelor of Philosophy 1947). After working as an assistant to Irving Kolodin at the Saturday Review (1962–3) and as a staff critic for the New York Times (1965–6), he was assistant to the director of the Eastman School (1966–70) and director of public relations for the St Louis SO (1971–2). He was executive director of the Music Critics Association, 1974–90, and served as a contributing editor of Stereo Review (from 1973), record critic for the Washington Star (1972–5) and the Washington Post (1976–84) and consultant to the music director of the National SO (from 1981). Freed is the author of numerous articles and reviews for newspapers in New York, Washington, Chicago, Minneapolis and St Louis, and has written for such journals as ...

Article

John Snelson

(Friedrich) [Gallas, Brian Roy]

(b Wellington, New Zealand, Feb 15, 1946). New Zealand writer on musical theatre. He studied law and classics at Canterbury University, New Zealand, subsequently joining the New Zealand Opera company as a bass singer. After moving to London he became a casting director and then a theatrical agent in musical theatre; from 1990 he devoted himself to writing and broadcasting on this subject. His pioneering two-volume study The British Musical Theatre (London, 1986), won several awards: its thorough survey of performances has ensured its place as an essential reference work. His later Encyclopedia of Musical Theatre (Oxford, 1994) is ambitious in its scope, displaying both the breadth of Gänzl’s interest and, through its selections and judgments, his characteristically personal view of the subject. His other books include Gänzl’s Book of the Musical Theatre (with Andrew Lamb; London, 1988), a companion guide in the manner of Kobbé, ...

Article

Daniel Zager

(b New York, Dec 18, 1928; d Feb 23, 2019). American writer. After attending the University of Missouri (1946–50) and Columbia University (1950) he worked for Prestige Records (1950–55). With Leonard Feather he collaborated on The Encyclopedia of Jazz (1955), for which he was an assistant writer and editor, and The Encyclopedia of Jazz in the Sixties (1966), and he was an author with Feather of The Encyclopedia of Jazz in the Seventies (1976) and the Biographical Encyclopedia of Jazz (1999). Gitler wrote for such periodicals as Metronome, Jazz Magazine, Down Beat (of which he was an associate editor), and Jazz Times, produced film scripts on Louis Armstrong and Lionel Hampton for the US Information Service, and was a commentator for radio station WBAI, New York; he also taught at CUNY. Among his more notable writings is ...

Article

Peter Heyworth

(b London, May 3, 1908; d Oxford, June 28, 2000). English music administrator, pianist, educationist and critic. He was educated at Christ’s Hospital and Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, where he was an organ scholar, and studied with Artur Schnabel in Berlin (1930–33). But though he developed into a fine pianist and made some successful concert appearances, notably in chamber music and in a series of Mozart concertos, which he performed with impeccable technique and style, he at first became a music critic. After a brief period on the Daily Telegraph he joined The Observer (1934–45), succeeding A.H. Fox Strangways as chief critic (1939). He began a new phase of his career as a musical educationist in 1948, when he founded the Summer School of Music at Bryanston, Dorset; it moved in 1953 to Dartington Hall, Devon, and Glock remained its music director until ...

Article

Howard Rye

(b Ohain, Belgium, May 21, 1898; d Brussels, June 27, 1984). Belgian writer. He first encountered syncopated music in 1918 as a civilian interpreter for a Canadian army unit. In 1919 he heard (Louis) Mitchell’s Jazz Kings in Brussels and thereafter sought out jazz wherever it was to be heard. In 1922–3 he led a band of Brussels University students called the Doctor’s Mysterious Six. In 1932 he published Aux frontières du jazz, dedicated to Louis Armstrong, and generally acknowledged as the first serious full-length book on jazz. He visited the USA in 1939 and the following year fled the Nazi occupation of Belgium, eventually reaching New York via Portugal. There he devoted himself to jazz, helping to organize the annual Esquire Jazz Concerts, and writing a number of books of enduring worth which make use of original interview material with New Orleans pioneers. After returning home in ...