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Article

Viorel Cosma

revised by Ruxandra Arzoiu

(b Bucharest, 2/Aug 14, 1893; d Bucharest, Feb 18, 1959). Romanian composer, pianist, conductor, teacher, music critic, and director of music programmes. A leading figure of the first half of the 20th century, he laid the foundation of the Romanian school in music, concert life, and musical journalism. He studied with A. Castaldi, D. Dinicu, D.G. Kiriac, and E. Saegiu at the Bucharest Conservatory (1903–11), completing his education with two periods of study in Paris (1913–14, 1923–4), where he studied with d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum and with Paul Vidal at the Conservatoire. A remarkable accompanist, he worked with Enescu, Thibaud, Mainardi, Moodie, and others during the period 1919–45. As a conductor he always achieved a soberly balanced performance; he conducted more than 1500 performances at the Romanian Opera in Bucharest (1921–59), where he specialized in the French repertory (Bizet, Massenet, and Gounod). In his capacities as conductor of the Romanian Philharmonic Society, and as conductor and artistic manager of the Romanian RSO, he did much to encourage Romanian composers. He was also active as a music critic for Romanian and French reviews. Much of his compositional work was done during his youth, including ...

Article

Lennart Hedwall

(b Stockholm, Nov 28, 1793; d Bremen, Sept 26, 1866). Swedish author, pedagogue, journalist, and composer. After an education administered mainly by private tutors, Almqvist attended university in Uppsala and graduated in 1816. He then took a position as a government clerk in Stockholm, where he engaged in youthful and idealistic movements that worshiped Gothic ideals, the early German romanticism, and Swedenborg’s teachings. He was soon the leading spirit in these circles, and with his visionary religiosity he gained almost prophet-like status among them. In an attempt to realize his ideals, from 1823 to 1824 he lived as a farmer in the remote Wermland but soon returned to Stockholm where in 1827 he became a teacher at the Military Academy of Karlberg; he took an additional teaching post in 1829 at the recently founded experimental college Nya Elementarskolan. There he served as headmaster from 1829 to 1841 and wrote a dozen textbooks on different subjects from linguistics to mathematics....

Article

Viorel Cosma

revised by Ruxandra Arzoiu

(b Bucharest, Dec 22, 1894/Jan 5, 1895; d Bucharest, Feb 4, 1974). Romanian composer, pianist, teacher, and critic. An erudite personality of Romanian music, he contributed to the formation of a Romanian school of composition during the inter-war years. At the Bucharest Conservatory (1906–13) he studied with Kiriac-Georgescu, Castaldi, Klenck, and Dunicu. In 1919 he graduated law school in Bucharest and then took the PhD in 1922 in Paris. During his stay in France, he participated in the courses of composition of Vincent d’Indy and Gabriel Faure. In 1920, he founded the Society of Romanian composers with other important musicians. At the Bucharest Conservatory (now the National University of Music Bucharest) he taught chamber music (1926–48) and composition (1948–59). His students include Stefan Niculescu, Dumitru Capoianu, and Aurel Stroe. He was not only a partner at the chamber concerts of George Enescu, but also promoted together with Enescu the new Romanian and French chamber music. He wrote for numerous publications on subjects ranging from music aesthetics to jazz and folk music, for instance, ‘George Enescu the Way I Met Him’ in ...

Article

Larisa Georgievna Danko

[Glebov, Igor′]

(b St Petersburg, 17/July 29, 1884; d Moscow, Jan 27, 1949). Russian musicologist, composer and critic. He studied at the St Petersburg Conservatory from 1904 to 1910 with Rimsky-Korsakov and Lyadov, and graduated in 1908 from the faculty of history and philology of the University of St Petersburg. From 1910 he worked as a repetiteur; from 1916 edited and composed ballet music and from 1919 was a member of the board of directors and repertory consultant at the Mariinsky and Mikhaylovsky Theatres. In 1919 he became head of the Central Library for State Musical Theatres. In the same year, in association with Lyapunov and Bulich, he organized the music department at the Petrograd Institute for the History of the Arts (now the Zubov Institute for the History of the Arts); he was its director from 1921. Between 1922 and 1925 he was responsible for the organization there of concerts of contemporary music. He was made a professor at the Leningrad Conservatory in ...

Article

[Giorgos, Yorgos]

(b Mariupol, Ukraine, near the north coast of the Sea of Azov, Sept 27, 1875; d Athens, May 16, 1924). Greek composer, critic, and music educator. After the return of his family to Athens in 1887 he studied music privately with Loudovikos Spinellis, and later, in 1895, he went to Naples, Italy, to study composition at the Conservatory of San Pietro a Majella with Paolo Serrao. He came back to Athens in 1901, where he clashed with the representatives of the biggest music institution, the Athens Conservatory, due to the shift of the repertory towards German instead of Italian music, and the changing of the method of music education. He founded, along with Georgios Lambelet, one of the most important cultural magazines of the period, the journal Kritiki (1903–4), through which he expressed his ideas about the paths of music education and Greek music. During the period ...

Article

Tatjana Marković

(b Belgrade, Feb 10, 1927; d Belgrade, Oct 13, 2009). Serbian composer and music critic. He studied composition with Milenko Živković at the Academy of Music in Belgrade, graduating in 1955, and at the Accademia Nazionale di S. Cecilia in Rome (1967–8). He was a conductor of the choral society Napredak (1953–5), and then taught at Stanković music school (1955–66) and at the Music Academy (today Faculty of Music, 1966–96). As a music critic, he collaborated with various newspapers (Borba, Naša borba, Politika, Večernje novosti) and translated several books. He received awards from Udruženje kompozitora Srbije (‘the Association of Serbian composers’) and Yugoslav Radio, and received the Vukova nagrada. He followed the aesthetic of Stevan Mokranjac and his own professor Živković. His lyric music, predominantly choral, is distinguishable by his afinity for humour, both in his choice of lyrics and the musical means. He uses verbal punning (...

Article

Rose Mauro

(b Coburg, June 30, 1823; d Basle, July 16, 1896). German critic, teacher and composer. He studied the piano and cello at the Prague Conservatory and moved to Vienna in 1842, where he studied theory with Sechter and was active performing, teaching and composing. He was appointed to the Vienna Conservatory in 1852, but his high standards and outspoken critical stance led to his dismissal in 1855. In 1859 Bagge became the editor of a new journal, the Deutsche Musik-Zeitung, which opposed the ‘New German’ sympathies of Franz Brendel’s Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. He moved to Leipzig in 1863 to edit the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung (later the Leipziger allgemeine musikalische Zeitung); it closely reflected his conviction that composers should strive to imitate music of the past. Bagge’s own reviews praise music by such composers as Bargiel, Volkmann, Reinecke and Kirchner. He regarded much of Brahms’s music as undisciplined, contributing to a critical climate that may have prompted Brahms to adopt a more classically-oriented style....

Article

John Warrack

(b Manchester, April 27, 1803; d Vienna, Nov 23, 1848). German critic, composer and teacher. The son of a Hanau merchant who had settled in Manchester, he was taken as a child to Germany. He studied law in Jena, Berlin, Heidelberg and Leiden, taking a doctorate despite his prosecution for ‘demagogic activities’; his first compositions date from this time. Already an ardent revolutionary, in whom Wagner detected ‘a certain wildness and vehemence’ (Mein Leben), he held various posts in rapid succession, including those of lawyer in Elberfeld (c1830), editor of a Cologne commercial newspaper founded by his father, the Handelsblatt (1834), and critic for the Kölner Zeitung and Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. On the failure of the Handelsblatt, he devoted himself entirely to music. After the death of his father and his wife he moved to The Hague to teach theory and aesthetics at the Royal Music School (...

Article

Kathleen Dale

revised by Axel Helmer

(b Stockholm, June 6, 1804; d Stockholm, March 17, 1861). Swedish music critic, historian and composer. He was a pupil of Per Frigel. He earned his living as a clerk in the Swedish Customs and was for many years music critic for the Post och inrikes tidningar. In 1849 he was elected a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music, the library of which he helped to catalogue. In 1850 he translated Birch’s Darstellung der Bühnenkunst into Swedish. He lectured extensively on music history at the conservatory in 1852, and wrote articles for the Ny tidning för musik during the whole period of its existence (1853–7). The most important of these was ‘En blick på tonkonsten i Sverige’, a survey of Swedish music during the previous 50 years. Boman is considered one of the most reliable and important Swedish writers on music before Adolf Lindgren. (...

Article

(b Lisbon, Oct 12, 1890; d Lisbon, Nov 27, 1955). Portuguese composer, teacher, musicologist and critic. He studied composition in Lisbon privately with Augusto Machado and Tomás Borba, then with Désiré Pâque and Luigi Mancinelli. He also studied the piano and the violin. He completed his studies in Berlin with Humperdinck and Pâque (1910) and in Paris with Grovlez (1911). After his marriage he lived on Madeira for two years, returning to Lisbon in 1914. He taught at the Lisbon Conservatory (1916–39), later becoming its assistant director (1919–24). There he worked with Mota in the major reforms which began in 1918. At the same time he established himself as a composer, musicologist, critic and lecturer and slowly rose to a position of fundamental importance in Portuguese musical life. As a teacher, he also played an important role in the preparation of a new generation of composers. In the 1930s, he began to have difficulties with the political authorities and in ...

Article

Manuela Schwartz and G.W. Hopkins

(Abraham)

(b Paris, Oct 1, 1865; d Paris, May 17, 1935). French composer, critic and teacher. Dukas was not only an influence on many French 20th-century composers and others such as Zemlinsky and Berg, but also remains important in his own right. His reputation rests on only a small number of compositions, notably the Piano Sonata, Ariane et Barbe-bleue, the ballet La Péri and L'apprenti sorcier. Dukas's influence as a critic, from 1892 to 1932, can be compared with Debussy's; his informed opinions reveal great sensitivity to the musical and aesthetic changes that took place during the period. With his high ideal of craftsmanship, Dukas was extremely self-critical and he destroyed a number of his compositions.

Dukas was the second son in a family of three children. His mother was a fine pianist and had a strong influence on him in the early years of his life, but she died giving birth to his sister when he was only five years old. His father, Jules Dukas, remained a central figure until his death in ...

Article

Owain Edwards

revised by A.F. Leighton Thomas

(b Newcastle Emlyn, Dyfed, Sept 21, 1843; d London, April 19, 1913). Welsh music critic, teacher and composer. He earned his living as a draper and travelling salesman. Apart from taking lessons with John Roberts in 1858, he was self-taught in music, yet he became an influential figure in Welsh musical life. A prolific composer of vocal music, he was reputed to have won more than 60 prizes at eisteddfods but only his hymn tunes have lasted, notably ‘Glanceri’, ‘Eirinwg’, ‘Trewen’, ‘Gorffwysfa’ and ‘Bryndioddef’. In his 20s he began adjudicating in smaller eisteddfods and from 1879 appeared regularly at the National Eisteddfod of Wales, where his sound critical judgment and sincerity were valued by competitors. His concern to temper musical enthusiasm with a high standard of skill led him to produce an enormous number of articles aimed at educating his countrymen. Besides his weekly columns in the Cardiff Times...

Article

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...

Article

Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b Warsaw, Aug 18, 1856; d Lemberg, Oct 30, 1912). Polish composer, choral director, teacher and critic. After graduating in piano and music theory from the music school of the Muza music society in Kraków (after 1867), he subsequently studied composition with F. Krenn at the Vienna Conservatory, and with Rheinberger and M. Sachs in Munich. From 1879 to 1881 he lived in Kraków, where he began his career as composer and critic. In 1882 he was conductor of the Andante Choir in Leipzig and associate répétiteur for the opera chorus in Weimar; here his songs came to the attention of Liszt. In 1883 he went to Italy to deepen his knowledge of the art of singing, and consulted various teachers including F. Lamperti. From the autumn of 1884 he was conductor of the Music Society in Lemberg, and at the end of 1888 he went to Dresden and Leipzig, where he became musical advisor to the publisher of his songs, Leuckart. From ...

Article

Marco Beghelli

(b Perticara, Rimini, Oct 12, 1845; d Rimini, Dec 8, 1919). Italian critic, teacher and composer. He studied with Croff and Mazzucato at the Milan Conservatory, 1862–7, joining Garibaldi during the 1866 war against Austria, along with his fellow-students Marco Praga, Faccio and Boito. In Carnival 1865 his Cesare al Rubicone, a gran scena ed aria for baritone, chorus and orchestra, was successfully performed in Rimini, and on graduating he won the composition prize for his secular oratorio Espiazione (1867) to his own text after Moore’s Lalla Rookh. He then conducted the band in Amelia, Umbria, and was director of the music school in Finale Emilia, 1871–3 (several early works are extant in I-FEM , including a quartet, three symphonies, sacred music and the oratorio Cristo al Golgota, 1871).

Galli returned to Milan as music critic of Il secolo, published by Sonzogno. He took charge of Sonzogno’s music publishing, arranging vocal scores, translating French librettos and replacing spoken dialogue with recitative. He was responsible for a series of cheap editions and sat on the jury of Sonzogno’s opera competitions (which led to ...

Article

Lesley A. Wright

(b Vaugirard, Paris, France, Feb 27, 1822; d Paris, France, April 1, 1878). French composer, teacher, and critic. At the Paris Conservatoire he studied the violin with Habeneck and composition with Halévy, winning the Second Prix de Rome in 1842. He played first violin at the Opéra (1838) and the Société des Concerts du Conservatoire (1847), and became assistant conductor at the Opéra-National (1847–8). His association with opera continued at the Théâtre Italien, where from about 1849 to 1852, and again from 1863 to 1864, he was chef des choeurs. The Opéra-National, and later the Théâtre Lyrique, presented most of Gautier’s early operas. His most popular work there, the opéra comique Flore et Zéphire (1852), had 126 performances as a curtain-raiser. Though some critics found the harmony complicated and the orchestration too rich, Berlioz praised the score’s freshness and skilful orchestration, and the elegant and lively style of the melodies. Gautier’s greatest success came with another light one-act opera, ...

Article

(b Göteborg, Dec 22, 1846; d Stockholm, March 11, 1925). Swedish conductor, composer, teacher and critic. Between 1866 and 1871 he studied in Leipzig with Reinecke, in Munich with Rheinberger and in Dresden with Rietz. He then returned to Göteborg, where he became conductor of the music society (1872–8); he later taught singing in Berlin (1879–83). Back in Sweden he was conductor of the Philharmonic Society in Stockholm (1885–95) and of the Royal Opera (1892–7), as well as founder and conductor of the South Swedish Philharmonic Society (1902–7). From 1909 to 1919 he taught composition at the Stockholm Conservatory.

Hallén’s compositions show an accomplished handling of formal elements and contain stylistic reminiscences of Swedish folk music and the works of other Swedish composers like Söderman. The salient feature of his style, however, and the one which strongly affected contemporary reaction, is its close, almost derivative relationship to German music. Wagner’s works and aesthetic ideas had a particularly strong and lasting influence on Hallén; his operas, although conceived with considerable dramatic skill, are largely dependent on Wagnerian models. As an enterprising and versatile conductor, he gave sympathetic performances of the Wagner operas and brought about performances of many choral masterpieces then almost unknown in Sweden, including the first Swedish performance of Bach's ...

Article

Stefan Fricke

(b Teterow, June 8, 1932). German music journalist and composer. He studied privately comparative linguistics (with Roman Jacobson), philosophy and sociology (with Adorno, Max Horkheimer and Siegfried Kracauer), Marxist methodology, history, economics and urban planning. After working in several European countries and the USA he settled in 1957 in Cologne, where he met Gottfried Michael Koenig and Heinz-Klaus Metzger at the WDR electronic studios. Between 1957 and 1970 he attended the Darmstadt summer courses, where he also lectured. During the 1960s and 70s he wrote as a critic and a journalist on 20th-century music, focussing particularly on sociological issues. He was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Bremen in 1974 and was visiting lecturer at the University of Illinois, 1976–8. He moved to New York in 1978 and returned to Cologne in 1988.

Helms’s writings reflect his commitment to the ideas of the Frankfurt School and concentrate on the sociological context within which musical events take place. His compositions have been described as ‘Sprachmusik’, or the attempt to cross the boundary between literary and musical ideas. He draws on different aspects of language – morphemes, phonemes, grammar, phonetics – to create new word units by using quasi-serial techniques (...

Article

Ilkka Oramo

(b Säkylä, Oct 26, 1822; d nr Uusikaupunki, March 3, 1868). Finnish composer, writer and critic. He studied classical philology and literature at the Imperial Alexander University of Helsinki, took his Master of Arts in 1843, worked as a teacher in Turku from 1847, lectured on music history and wrote novels, short stories and plays as well as reviews on music for several newspapers in Turku and Helsinki. As a composer he was self-taught, but nevertheless wrote the first symphony ever composed in Finland (1847). Its third movement (‘Scherzo finnico’) is in 5/4 metre, characteristic of Finnish rune singing, although it otherwise lacks the distinctive features of rune melodies. His opera Junkerns förmyndare (The Guardian of a Junker, N.H. Pinello, 1853) was based on a subject from 16th-century Finnish history, and he also wrote about 100 choruses and songs to Finnish poetry (J.L. Runeberg, Z. Topelius and others) as well as some German songs (Schiller, Heine). As one of the first representatives of Finnish national Romanticism and Biedermeier in music and as a pioneer of music criticism he has a place in Finnish music history....

Article

James Deaville

(Heinrich )

(b Brunswick, Sept 5, 1820; d Königsberg [now Kaliningrad], Feb 16, 1886). German pianist, composer, critic and teacher. He quickly developed as a pianist and was sent to Vienna, where he studied the piano with C.M. von Bocklet and theory with Sechter and Seyfried. After a further two years in Brunswick, he settled in 1845 in Königsberg, where he initially worked in the theatre and conducted the Singverein. From 1847 Köhler devoted himself exclusively to piano pedagogy and to writing about music. He was music critic for the Hartungsche Zeitung for almost 40 years (1849–86), and contributed to Signale from 1844 until his death. His correspondence articles from Königsberg for Brendel's Neue Zeitschrift für Musik brought him to the attention of Liszt and Wagner in 1852, but it was his first book, Die Melodie der Sprache (1853), that established him as one of the leading New German writers, a reputation substantiated by his many journal articles, newspaper reviews and books of the 1850s and 60s. He also proposed the idea behind the Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein, which he, Liszt and Brendel (among others) developed at the ...