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H. Wiley Hitchcock

revised by Nicholas Temperley

(b Swanton Morley, Norfolk, bap. Jan 15, 1571; d Amsterdam, ?1622–3). English minister and psalmodist. He attended Cambridge University from 1586 to 1591, leaving without a degree. He was expatriated as a ‘Brownist’ in 1593 and settled in Amsterdam, where he became ‘teacher’ of the Ancient Separatist Church in 1596; in 1610 he founded an Independent church, becoming minister of it himself. He took the Calvinist position on predestination. He was the author of a number of controversial religious tracts, annotations, and translations of scripture. Many consider him one of the finest Hebrew scholars of his day. His Book of Psalmes: Englished both in Prose and Metre, with Annotations (Amsterdam, 1612, 4/1644; music ed. in ISAMm, xv, Brooklyn, NY, 1981) contains all 150 psalms in a new metrical version, together with prose translations and annotations. 48 are provided with monophonic tunes (six melodies are used twice and one three times). 21 of the 40 tunes are drawn from the Continental Reformed tradition, and 16 are from English sources (including three of the newer, short variety such as ...

Article

Renee Lapp Norris

(b Northborough, MA, Sept 5, 1830; d Madison, WI, Dec 9, 1889). American classical scholar, teacher, editor, and writer. Allen is best known musically as an editor of Slave Songs of the United States (New York, 1867), also edited by Charles Pickard Ware and Lucy McKim Garrison, who were white collectors of black music.

Allen graduated from Harvard in 1851, subsequently studied in Europe, and returned to the United States in 1856. In 1863 he began an eight-month stint as a teacher on St Helena Island in South Carolina, home to former slaves who remained after plantation owners left in 1861. Here, Allen gained first-hand experience of slave singing that contributed to the detailed explanations of his 36-page prologue to Slave Songs. In 1867 Allen was appointed chair of ancient languages at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, where he remained until his death.

Allen’s interest in philology is evident in the many pages of the prologue to ...

Article

Carolyn Gianturco and Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Mosso Santa Maria, nr Biella, Jan 31, 1921). Italian musicologist. He took diplomas in piano at the Parma Conservatory (1942) and in choral music at the Turin Conservatory (1948), and studied music history with Della Corte at Turin University, where he took an arts degree (1946). He subsequently taught music history in the conservatories of Bolzano (1950–51), Parma (1951–5) and Milan (1954–88); he has edited the journals Almanacco musicale italiano (1954–5), Ricordiana (1955–7) and Musica d’oggi (1958–63) and has been vice-director of Enciclopedia della musica Ricordi (1960–64). He has been a consulting editor for Ricordi since 1964. Music education is one of his major interests: he became director of the series Manuali di Didattica Musicale and Canti nel Mondo (Ricordi) in 1965, and editor of Educazione musicale...

Article

(b Comber, Co. Down, Aug 10, 1904; d Oxford, Oct 10, 1965). Northern Irish music scholar, teacher, organist, composer and editor. He went to Bedford School, and studied at the RCM in London, Trinity College, Dublin, and New College, Oxford, gaining doctorates of music at both universities. In 1938, after four years as organist and choirmaster at Beverley Minster, he moved to a similar position at New College. Thereafter, he lived and worked in Oxford, where he was a university lecturer in music and a Fellow of New College, and later of Balliol. He also taught at the RCM.

Andrews's published work consists of three books, various articles (including contributions to the fifth edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music), reviews, and several motets, services and songs. The Oxford Harmony, vol.ii, traces the development of chromatic harmony through standard repertory works and relates this to techniques of composition. The opening chapters of ...

Article

H. Wiley Hitchcock

(b New York, June 3, 1851; d Dresden, Oct 13, 1934). American music scholar and lexicographer. Trained as a young man for a business career, he decided rather on music. For a time he was an organist in Concord, Massachusetts. He went to Germany to study in 1874 and took the doctorate at Leipzig in 1882 with a dissertation based on field studies among the Seneca Indians in New York state. This, the first serious work on American Indian music, was shown to MacDowell by Henry Gilbert, and provided themes for MacDowell's Second (‘Indian’) Suite for orchestra. Baker returned to the USA in 1891 and became literary editor and translator for the music publishing firm of Schirmer, Inc. (1892), a post he held until his retirement in 1926, when he returned to Germany. Besides making many translations into English of books, librettos and articles (the last especially for the ...

Article

Vilena Vrbanić

(b Zagreb, May 13, 1956). Croatian-American musicologist and editor. He studied musicology at the Zagreb Music Academy (BA 1980; MA 1983) and received the PhD at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York (1997) with a dissertation on music in medieval and renaissance astrological imagery. He was a researcher at the institutes of musicology of the Zagreb Music Academy (1980) and the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (1981; 1983–8) and also editor at the Croatian Music Information Center (1982–3).

He is affiliated with the Répertoire International de Littérature Musicale (RILM; in various functions since 1987; executive editor since 1996), and with the Research Center for Music Iconography at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York (associate director 1991–7; director since 1998). In 1998 he founded the journal Music in Art...

Article

Jon Newsom

(b New York, Dec 1, 1905; d New York, Dec 16, 1967). American editor and musicologist. He attended City College, New York, and studied music privately, but as a music scholar he was largely self-educated. His career in editing and music publishing began with his appointment as associate editor of the Musical Quarterly (1945–67) and manager of the publications department at G. Schirmer (1945–54); he subsequently became chairman of the publication committee of the American Musicological Society (1952–4), executive director of the American Section of RISM (1961–5) and music editor at W.W. Norton & Co., New York (1963–7). He also taught at Columbia University (lecturer 1946–52, associate professor 1959–62) and served as president of the American Musicological Society (1963–4). He received a Guggenheim Fellowship (1956) and a Ford Foundation Grant (1961)....

Article

Yolande de Brossard

(b Dompierre, bap. Sept 12, 1655; d Meaux, Aug 10, 1730). French priest, theorist, composer, lexicographer and bibliophile. He was descended from a family founded by Antoine de Brossard (b c1286), a natural son of Charles de Valois (son of Philip the Bold) and Hélène Broschart, daughter of the king's treasurer. Sébastien was the last of a family of glass-blowers from lower Normandy. He studied at the Jesuit college in Caen and then attended that city's famous university, studying philosophy for two years and theology for three. When he turned to music, therefore, he was self-taught; he studied the lute, copying and composing pieces for the instrument. He took minor orders in 1675 and became a sub-deacon the next year, but the date when he became a priest is not known, nor is the date of his arrival in Paris. He was living there in ...

Article

Ellen T. Harris

(b Los Angeles, April 13, 1930; d Venice, Feb 20, 1993). American musicologist and editor. He took the BA at Harvard College in 1951, then studied singing and conducting privately in Vienna. He returned to Harvard in 1953 for graduate studies with Piston, Gombosi, Merritt and John Ward and received the MA in 1954 and the PhD in 1959, with a dissertation under Ward on music in the French secular theatre of the Renaissance. While at Harvard he studied the flute privately with Georges Laurent of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, and as a graduate student he conducted and performed both early and 20th-century music extensively in Boston and Cambridge. He first taught at Wellesley College, where he was instructor from 1958 to 1960. In 1960 he was appointed assistant professor at the University of Chicago, where he later became associate professor (1963), professor (1967) and chairman of the music department (...

Article

Richard Griscom

(b Lorain, OH, Mar 22, 1954). American music librarian, theorist, and editor. She received her undergraduate degree in music theory from Ohio University (BM 1976). While completing studies in music theory at Northwestern University (PhD 1985), she joined the staff of the Northwestern University Music Library (1980–98). Campana was also active in the promotion of contemporary music in Chicago through performances with the ensemble Kapture (1977–86) and by editing the monthly newsletter of New Music Chicago (1982–4). Her study of library science at the University of Chicago (MA 1987) led to her appointment as music public services librarian at Northwestern (1987–98). While at Northwestern, she also held appointments as lecturer (1993–8) and assistant dean for undergraduate studies (1993–4) in the School of Music and acting head of the Music Library (1994–6). In ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Eşfahān, Oct 11, 1908; d Francestown, NH, Sept 5, 1992). American musicologist and editor of Armenian origin. After taking a diploma at the American College in Tehran in 1927, he studied the violin and composition in Paris and New York, and became a composition student of Malipiero. He studied musicology at Harvard, where he took the MA in 1940 and the PhD in 1945, the year he founded the American Institute of Musicology, of which he was director.

Carapetyan's principal interest was the music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. As general editor of Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae, Musicological Studies and Documents and, for some years, Corpus Scriptorum de Musica, he was responsible for the publication of a growing number of important collected editions, scholarly monographs and theoretical treatises. He was editor of Musica disciplina from its first issue in 1946 until 1988. He was publisher of all the American Institute series, which include, in addition to those for which he was general editor, Corpus of Early Keyboard Music, Miscellanea and the series Renaissance Manuscript Studies. Carapetyan also edited the facsimile of the Faenza Codex and a 14th-century vernacular theoretical treatise. His editorials in ...

Article

Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...

Article

Argia Bertini

revised by Giulia Anna Romana Veneziano

(b Florence, July 8, 1638; d Florence, Jan 16, 1703). Italian composer, teacher, music editor, theorist, organist and singer. He spent his entire life as a priest in Florence. On 1 August 1663 he was appointed chaplain at the cathedral, S Maria del Fiore, where he was also active as an organist and singer. He was particularly admired as a teacher, and it was this above all that determined the nature of his publications; the numerous reprints particularly of Il cantore addottrinato and Scolare addottrinato bear witness to the popularity of his methods. In these two manuals he sought to establish rules for the effective composition and performance of church music, contributing, according to his contemporaries, to the codification of the ‘true rule of ecclesiastical singing’. However, he is better remembered for his Corona di sacre canzoni and Colletta di laude spirituali, which have great importance for the final phase in the history of the ...

Article

Christopher Fifield

(Aloys Theodor)

(b Cologne, Jan 23, 1813; d Berlin, Aug 17, 1887). German music historian, editor, organist and composer. He was a pupil of Joseph Klein and Carl Leibl and in 1828 became organist of the Carmelite church at Cologne and a member of the cathedral choir. In 1832 he went to Berlin, where he studied with A.W. Bach (organ) and K.F. Rungenhagen (composition) and attended A.B. Marx’s lectures. His interest in old music was stimulated by his friendship with Carl von Winterfeld, whom he met in 1835, and by a commission to set in order the library of the Royal Institute for Church Music, which from 1845 held much of Forkel’s personal library. In 1839 Musica sacra, the first of Commer’s many important editions of early music, began to appear. In 1845 he became regens chori of the Hedwigskirche and singing teacher at the Elisabeth School, and he held several other similar positions. He was much decorated by royalty for his research. In ...

Article

Tiberiu Alexandru

revised by Ruxandra Arzoiu

(b Timişoara, Romania, March 30, 1923). Romanian musicologist and lexicographer. He produced the first dictionaries of Romanian musicians, Muzicieni din România, in ten volumes (Bucharest, 1989–2011). He studied at the Timişoara Municipal Conservatory (1929–32) and the Bucharest Conservatory (1945–50), where his teachers included I. Dumitrescu (theory), M. Jora (harmony, counterpoint, and form), D.D. Botez (choral training), C. Silvestri (conducting), and Z. Vancea (music history). He then became a professor at the Alberto della Pergolla Conservatory, Bucharest (1945–7), and conducted several amateur choirs and orchestras in the city. He subsequently became head of the music department of the library of the Romanian Academy (1951–2) and taught at various Bucharest music schools (1951–63). He was successively appointed assistant lecturer (1951–2), lecturer (1964–71), and reader (since 1972) in the history of music at Bucharest Conservatory. From ...

Article

(b Rabestenne, Hautes-Pyrénées, 1525; d Geneva, Aug 31, 1561). French philologist and printer. He practised as a doctor and was known as a humanist. In 1554 he collaborated with Matthieu Bonhomme at Lyons, editing texts by Clenardo, Hippocrates and Terence. He settled at Geneva early in 1559 and on 25 May 1560 was granted a privilege to print ‘une nouvelle invention de musique sur les Pseaulmes’. This invention was a new and simple mnemonic aid for memorizing the music; it is explained and illustrated in a collection of 83 psalms printed by Michel Du Bois in 1560. The system, based on numbers rather than solmization syllables, was later adopted by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Projet concernant de nouveaux signes pour la musique, Geneva, 1781; ed. and trans. B. Rainbow, Kilkenny, 1982). (See Notation, fig.) Pidoux (1986 and 1993) suggested that Davantes was the author of 42 melodies for the new psalm paraphrases by Bèze, published together in the Huguenot psalter in ...

Article

(b Amiens, Dec 18, 1610; d Paris, Oct 23, 1688). French historian, philologist and lexicographer. He was one of a celebrated group of learned 17th-century French scholars who founded modern historical and linguistic criticism. He was a student of law in Orléans and practised at the parliament in Paris from 1631 before returning to Amiens, where he was appointed treasurer in 1645. He left in 1668 for Paris, where he produced his major works: Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae latinitatis (Paris, 1678; many subsequent edns, of which that by L. Favre, Paris, 1883–7/R, is current) and Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae graecitatis (Lyons, 1688/R). The first of these is of particular importance to students of medieval music for the large number of musical terms and instruments it describes, derived largely from primary sources.

DBF (R. d'Amat) FétisBS [incl. list of musical terms found in the Latin glossary]...

Article

Alec Hyatt King

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Oct 22, 1832; d Templin, Feb 2, 1905). German editor and bibliographer. Self-taught in music, Eitner established himself at Berlin in 1853 as a music teacher and also became known as a composer. In 1863 he founded a practical music school, but soon became interested in historical research and in 1867 received a prize from the Amsterdam Maatschappij tot Bevorderung der Toonkunst for compiling in manuscript the Lexikon der holländischen Tondichter. Turning to a wider field of musical scholarship, Eitner founded the Gesellschaft für Musikforschung in 1868 (among the first of its kind anywhere) and became its president and secretary. In 1869 he established and edited the Monatshefte für Musikgeschichte as the society's journal and followed this in 1873 with the Publikation Älterer Praktischer und Theoretischer Musikwerke, consisting largely of unpublished early music, which ran to 29 volumes during the next 32 years.

Eitner realized the importance of systematic collection of information about the sources of musical history and made them available in published catalogues. In his own words, ‘Die Musik-Bibliographie ist die Grundlage alles historischen Wissens’. In ...

Article

Edith Gerson-Kiwi

revised by Bret Werb

[Yuly Dmitrevich]

(b Berdyansk, Crimea, 4/April 16, 1868; d Tel-Aviv, Feb 11, 1927). Russian composer, critic, lexicographer and folklorist. He studied law at Kharkov University but soon turned to music, studying theory and composition with Taneyev and Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory (1893–7). From 1897 to 1919 he worked as a music critic for the newspaper Russkiye vedomosti. In 1901 his translation of Riemann’s Lexikon into Russian with newly written sections on Russian music was published in Moscow. Although an early opera, Esther, was performed in 1894, his work as a critic overshadowed that as a composer. Under the influence of the Russian nationalist music critic Vladimir Stasov, however, he turned his attention to Jewish folklore, collecting, arranging, performing and publishing the songs of eastern European Jews. In 1909 his first album of ten Jewish folksongs appeared in Moscow; a second volume followed later in the same year. Engel continued to promote his new interest with public lectures and a series of articles in ...

Article

Watkins Shaw

(b Paddington, London, Nov 11, 1870; d Windsor, Dec 21, 1951). English editor, scholar and cathedral musician. He showed marked musical gifts at an early age and when he was only seven Joachim offered to take him as a pupil. However, he received a conventional education at Winchester College and Oriel College, Oxford. At Oxford he read theology though he found time to develop his musical interests and remained for a fourth year working towards a music degree. On leaving Oxford he studied for the church and was ordained in 1894. He served for a short time as assistant curate in Wandsworth, London (1894–7), during which he took the Oxford BMus (1896). After three years as minor canon and precentor of Bristol Cathedral from 1897, he moved in 1900 to St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, as a minor canon, in which capacity he remained for the rest of his life. In the years between the death of Walter Parratt and the appointment of Walford Davies (...