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Article

Henri Vanhulst

(Nicolas Joseph)

(b Bonsecours, Hainaut, Oct 23, 1893; d Uccle, Brussels, Feb 2, 1974). Belgian composer. He studied the organ, the piano and harmony with Alphonse Oeyen, organist of Bonsecours. He continued his studies at the Ecole St Grégoire, Tournai, where he gave his first organ recital in 1912. In 1913 he entered the Brussels Conservatory to study with Desmet (organ), Edouard Samuel (practical harmony) and (from 1915) Lunssens (written harmony). He took a first prize for organ and harmony in 1916 and, after a year’s further work with Paulin Marchand (counterpoint) and Léon Du Bois (fugue), another for counterpoint and fugue. Abandoning the idea of a career as an organist, he went to Gilson for composition lessons (1920–22). In 1921 his First Symphony won the Agniez Prize; in 1921 he took the second Belgian Prix de Rome with the cantata La guerre and was appointed director of the Etterbeek Music School. From ...

Article

Ferenc Bónis and Anna Dalos

(b Szigetszentmiklós, Dec 12, 1896; d Budapest, May 15, 1982). Hungarian composer, conductor and teacher. From 1911 until 1915 he received instruction in organ playing and theory at the Budapest teacher-training college. Then, as a prisoner of war (1916–20), he organized and conducted a men’s choir and an orchestra in Russia. He studied composition at the Budapest Academy of Music under Kodály (1921–25) and conducting in Weingartner’s masterclass in Basle (1933–5). He conducted the orchestra (1929–39) and the choir (1929–54) of the Budapest Academy where he also taught Hungarian folk music, choral conducting and methodology from 1939 to 1959, and where he directed the singing department from 1942 to 1957.

Ádám began his career as a conductor in Budapest in 1929 with a performance of Haydn’s The Seasons. From 1929 until 1933 he was deputy conductor of the Budapest Choral and Orchestral Society. With the male choir Budai Dalárda, which he directed from ...

Article

Edward Blakeman

(Gilford)

(b London, Jan 25, 1920). English flautist. He studied at the RCM with Robert Murchie, but was resistant to the English tradition of flute playing and has always considered himself largely self-taught. In 1938 he made his orchestral début in the St Matthew Passion under Vaughan Williams. He joined the LPO in 1941 and remained as principal flute until 1950, returning for a further nine years from 1960. He was a founder member of the Melos Ensemble and also played for many years with the English Chamber Orchestra, notably during the period of its close association with Benjamin Britten and the Aldeburgh Festival. Malcolm Arnold dedicated his Second Flute Concerto (1972) to him. Adeney originally played on a wooden flute, but in the latter part of his career changed to a metal instrument. In tone and style Adeney's playing had much affinity with the expressiveness and refinement of the French school (at the age of 14 he had been greatly impressed by a recording of Marcel Moyse). His own ...

Article

Howard Schott

(Leslie )

(b Kingston-on-Thames, May 30, 1938). English maker of fortepianos, clavichords, and harpsichords. He was educated at the Guildhall School of Music, London, where he specialized in keyboard instruments, studying the piano with Frank Laffitte, the harpsichord with Celia Bizony, and the organ with Harold Dexter. After some years as a music teacher, during which he also undertook some restorations of early keyboard instruments, he became curator of the Colt Clavier Collection, Bethersden, Kent (1963–73). While continuing to teach and perform, Adlam studied the craft of instrument building at the Feldberg workshop in Sevenoaks. After further years of restoration experience he began producing new instruments in 1971, and in November of that year formed a partnership with the pianist and collector Richard Burnett. The Adlam–Burnett restoration and production workshops were in the grounds of Finchcocks, a large 18th-century house in Goudhurst, Kent (GB.GO.f), which now contains an extensive collection of antique keyboard instruments. Adlam–Burnett’s production was modelled closely on historical prototypes. While it included reproductions of Flemish and French harpsichords, emphasis was placed on the 18th-century piano and clavichord, instruments that had not enjoyed so extensive a revival as the harpsichord. Adlam has contributed on the subject of harpsichord restoration to ...

Article

Harold Rosenthal

(b Cologne, June 29, 1896; d Garmisch-Partenkirchen, July 23, 1979). German baritone. He studied with Karl Niemann in Cologne and made his début at Mönchengladbach in 1929 as Wolfram. He sang at the Kroll Oper, Berlin (1930–31), at the Hamburg Staatsoper (1931–3 and 1946–61), and at the Dresden Staatsoper (...

Article

Hermann Fischer

(b Göttingen, April 28, 1930). German organ builder. Ahrend studied in Göttingen with Paul Ott from 1946 until 1954, before opening a workshop in Leer, East Friesland, with his partner Gerhard Brunzema. After intensive study of surviving historical organs, Ahrend and Brunzema developed a special interest in the north German mechanical-action tradition and adopted its methods. From the beginning they divided their activities between the careful restoration of historical instruments and the construction of exemplary new organs. They often collaborated with leading performers of early music, and their groundbreaking work gained an international reputation. 67 organs were built and restored between 1954 and 1971, largely in northern Europe. In 1962 both partners received the State Prize for craftsmanship in Lower Saxony. In January 1972 Brunzema left the firm to pursue his own career in Canada; Ahrend continued his work in Germany.

Important restorations include instruments at Rysum (...

Article

José López-Calo

(b Gauteriz de Arteaga, Vizcaya, Sept 25, 1869; d Barcelona, March 19, 1948). Spanish organ builder. He began his career as an apprentice in the workshops of Aquilino Amezúa in Barcelona in 1885 and was active for more than 50 years. In 1895, on the retirement of Amezúa, Alberdi became director of the firm, and in 1896 the owner. His sons, Antonio and Luis Alberdi Aguirrezábal, assisted him in the workshop, which was the most productive in Spain, building nearly 200 organs (in particular those at the monastery of Montserrat, the Jesuit church in Madrid, and the cathedrals of Gerona and Santiago). Alberdi’s construction methods were extremely advanced: he incorporated many of the best techniques of the time and invented others. He always used mixed mechanical systems and was especially noted for systems without sliding valves; later he abandoned troublesome pneumatic machinery and utilized the possibilities of electricity. He always used the best available methods and systems. Organs from his workshop were exported to South America and the Philippines....

Article

Hans Klotz

(b Stuttgart, May 12, 1938; d 1984). German organ builder. Born into a family of organ builders once active in the vicinity of Waldhut, he was trained by the firm of Walcker, followed by Rieger in Schwarzach (Vorarlberg), for whom he didSeit 1960 war er bei Montage- und Intonationsarbeiten für Rieger ua in den USA, Kanada und Haiti tätig. installation and voicing. From 1962 to 1964 he worked for Verschueren Orgelbouw in Heythueysen, Netherlands, then again at Rieger, where he worked on organs for the Freiburg cathedral and the Jakobskirche in Rothenburg ob der Tauber. 1966 folgte die Meisterprüfung und 1969 schließlich die Gründung der eigenen Werkstatt in Lindau/Bodensee. He then studied at the Meisterschule in Ludwigsburg, where he passed his examinations in 1966. After working in Austria, Switzerland, Holland, and the USA, in 1969 he founded his own business in Lindau (Lake Constance) under the name of Albiez-Orgelbau. He built organs exclusively with slider chests and tracker action, using solid wood, never plastic. The firm built more than 60 new organs, including those at the Catholic church, Bischofszell, Switzerland (...

Article

William Waterhouse

( b 1872; d Switzerland, Jan 1938). Italian flute maker, flautist and composer . He was a flautist at La Scala, Milan, from 1897. In 1910 he invented his ‘Albisiphon’, a vertically-held, Boehm-system bass flute in C, with a T-shaped head, which he described in his Albisiphon: flauto ottava bassa (Milan, 1910). It was used by, among others, Mascagni in Parisina (1913), and Zandonai in Melenis (1912) and Francesca da Rimini (1914). The Dayton Miller Collection (Library of Congress, Washington, DC) possesses two models of an ‘albisiphon baritono’ in C and a tenor in F. There is also an example of another invention which Miller termed ‘half flute in C’ (that part of a regular flute played by the left hand, with a wooden handle for right hand) for which Albisi composed a concerto. He also made flutes in collaboration with the Milanese maker Luigi Vanotti in about ...

Article

Robert E. Eliason

(b Holland, MA, Sept 24, 1815; dc1905). American brass instrument maker. About 1853 he designed a very efficient rotary valve, featuring flattened windways, string linkage, and enclosed stops. This valve was very successful in the USA during the second half of the 19th century. Other makers who adopted the Allen valve included B.F. Richardson, D.C. Hall, and B.F. Quinby, all of whom had at one time worked with Allen; Henry Lehnert, who worked in Boston for a time before moving to Philadelphia; and E. Glier of Cochecton, New York.

Allen began making brass instruments about 1838 in Sturbridge, Massachusetts, a short distance from his birthplace. He moved to Boston in 1842 and is known to have worked in Norwich, Connecticut, from 1846 to 1849; in 1852 he returned to Boston. He is known to have made at least one keyed bugle early in his career, and a number of instruments with double-piston Vienna valves. During the late 1850s in Boston his flat-windway valve won respect among leading musicians and his instruments received favourable comment at mechanics exhibitions. From ...

Article

Charles Beare

(b Cornwall, England, 1848; dc1905). English bow maker. He worked for W.E. Hill & Sons from about 1880 until 1891. During this time he made many bows marked with the brand of his employers, some of them with exquisitely decorative mountings. He also repaired and modernized old sticks. On leaving Hill’s he continued to make bows, branding them ‘S. ALLEN’; he made at least one double bass as well. Some players complain that his violin bows are too ‘whippy’, but strong sticks were apparently not highly regarded by players at that time. He earned his reputation mainly through his cello bows: patterned in most respects after Tourte, they are medium to heavy in weight, of the strongest pernambuco wood, and in every way ideal for the modern cellist. His sticks are almost always octagonal....

Article

Hugh Davies

[pseud. of André Vernier]

(b Joeuf, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Feb 27, 1915; d Nov 10, 1992). French poet, painter, instrument maker, and inventor of board games. In 1948 he created a brand of poetry, métapoésie, developed from the lettrisme of Isidore Isou (introduced in 1946), which concentrates on sound without semantic content. In 1963 at Trésauvaux, Meuse, he began the construction of 15 koto-like musical instruments in three families, all of which are struck with small sticks: the pantophones have one or two convex bridges and about 12 strings which, in addition to being struck, can be plucked, or bowed with one or two bows; the métaphones have up to four flat bridges and use about 18 large rubber bands as ‘strings’; and the plectrophones have two flat bridges and about 20 strings. Not tuned to equal temperament, these instruments were used for improvisation, often to accompany performances of métapoésie. Vernier claimed that the ...

Article

Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

(b Hanwell, Middlesex, UK, Sept 16, 1949). English bow maker. He served his apprenticeship with W.E. Hill & Sons (1966–71) and remained with the firm until 1978. His post-Hill bows retain many elements of the Hill style although the heads tend to be slightly smaller. He uses a gold laurel-wreath inlay for his gold and tortoise-shell mounted bows....

Article

Ole Olesen

( b Varde, Dec 17, 1904; d Copenhagen, June 5, 1980). Danish organ builder . He was apprenticed in 1926 to Marcussen & Søn in Åbenrå, and only five years later was appointed managing director of the firm’s Copenhagen division. In 1963 he founded his own workshop in Copenhagen, and under his own name built many distinguished and characteristic instruments based on the ideals he had developed during the preceding decades. He was one of the pioneers and theoreticians of the Danish Organ Reform Movement; he took a special interest in organ architecture, and always preferred to design his own instruments in order to create what he described as ‘an intimate coherence between aural and visual architecture’. Examples of his work are the organs at the church of Our Saviour, Copenhagen (rebuild, 1965); the church of Gustavus Adolfus, Helsingborg, Sweden (1968); St Olai’s Cathedral, Helsingør (1969...

Article

Barbara Owen

(b Boston, Dec 26, 1785; d Reading, MA, July 11, 1872). American organ builder. Apprenticed as a young man to a Boston cabinet maker, Appleton entered the workshop of William Marcellus Goodrich in 1805. From 1810 to 1820 both men were associated with the Franklin Musical Warehouse, building church and chamber organs, pianos and claviorgans. During this period Appleton assisted Goodrich in building organs, but also made pianos in partnership with Lewis and Alpheus Babcock (Babcock, Appleton & Babcock, 1811–14) and Charles and Elna Hayt (Hayts, Babcock & Appleton, 1814–15). In 1821 Appleton became an independent organ builder, quickly gaining a reputation and securing important commissions. Between 1847 and 1850 Thomas D. Warren was his partner, having served with him as an apprentice; in the latter year Appleton moved his workshop from Boston to Reading, Massachusetts, where he worked until his retirement in 1868. Appleton’s most important work was carried out between ...

Article

Astor  

Niall O’Loughlin

English and American firm of instrument makers, publishers and dealers. The two founders were the sons of Jacob Astor, a merchant of Mannheim. George [Georg] (Peter) Astor (b Waldorf [now Walldorf], nr Heidelberg, April 28, 1752; d London, Dec 1813), after an initial visit to London, decided to establish a business there with his brother John [Johann] Jacob Astor (b Waldorf, July 17, 1763; d New York, 29/March 30, 1848). This operated as George & John Astor at 26 Wych Street c 1778–83. In 1783 John left for the USA to sell flutes. He rapidly also became involved in the fur trade and built up a highly profitable business exporting furs to England and importing musical instruments for sale in the USA. In 1809 he established a fur trading company; this and the purchase of land in the Bowery laid the foundations of the Astor wealth....

Article

Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

(b Mirecourt, France, Dec 12, 1842; d Paris, France, 1920). French violin maker. He was the son and pupil of Leopold Audinot (1811–91) and surpassed all the other members of this Mirecourt family of violin makers. From 1863 to 1868 he worked for Sebastien Vuillaume in Paris and in 1875 succeeded to his business in the boulevard Bonne-Nouvelle. In 1908 he retired and transferred the business to Eugene Corvisier, one of his workers. Audinot worked mostly after the Stradivari and Guarneri models, the work being typically French in its fastidiousness. The varnish varies from yellow-brown to red-brown and is normally of good consistency. His violins were previously regarded as good orchestral instruments but are now beginning to show signs of mellowing in tone. He used a variety of printed labels, all showing his name in oversized type. Some labels are addressed, dated, and numbered in ink....

Article

Edward H. Tarr

[Schrottenbach, Vinzenz]

(b Baden, nr Vienna, March 24, 1890; d New York, Jan 8, 1976). American brass instrument maker of Austrian birth. He played the violin as a child and studied the trumpet (cornet) with Josef Weiss and Georg Stellwagen. In 1910 he earned a degree in mechanical engineering at the Maschinenbauschule in Wiener Neustadt. After a year as an Austrian navy bandsman, he studied the solo cornet repertory with Fritz Werner in Wiesbaden (1911–12), then toured as a cornet virtuoso in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Russia, Poland and England, arriving in New York in September 1914. While continuing his solo career in the USA, he played a season as assistant first trumpet with the Boston SO (1914–15) and a season as first trumpet with Dyaghilev’s ballet orchestra at the Metropolitan Opera House (1915–16). In 1916–18 he was bandmaster of the 306th Field Artillery Regiment. He became an American citizen in ...

Article

Peter Andreas Kjeldsberg

(b Kranz, Russia, July 7, 1896; d Trondheim, Norway, Nov 19, 1963). Norwegian collector of musical instruments and founder and director of the Ringve Museum in Trondheim. An amateur singer, she had no formal musical training, but three siblings became professional musicians. In 1920 Victoria (née Rostin) married Christian Anker Bachke (1873–1946), the last private owner of Ringve manor outside Trondheim. Together they made plans for two museums: one for the history of the manor and its inhabitants, another for musical instruments, which they had begun to collect. Upon Christian’s death, his will established a foundation encompassing the land and buildings, and Mrs Bachke began serious collecting to prepare the museum, which opened in 1952 in the manor’s main building, a well-kept example of historicist architecture and interior decoration from the second half of the 19th century. Her main gifts for this task were enthusiasm and useful contacts, notably in France and Italy. One of her advisors was the Danish musicologist and organologist Godtfred Skjerne. Before she died, Mrs Bachke had collected about 1000 instruments of European and non-Western classical and folk traditions. She desired that the instruments be playable. Today the Ringve Museum has a national responsibility for collections of musical instruments in Norway, with educational and scientific staff and a conservation workshop. It remains a foundation under the administration of Museene i Sør-Trøndelag AS....

Article

Robert B. Winans

revised by Jonas Westover

(b Holyoke, MA, Jan 17, 1871; d Newfane, VT, Nov 18, 1948). American banjoist and banjo maker. He began his career playing with a medicine show and a Wild West show, then from 1890 to 1915 performed in a vaudeville act with his wife. He studied with ALFRED A. FARLAND in the mid- 1890s and about 1897 organized the Bacon Banjo Quintette. He toured with the Bacon Trio in 1905–6, and made another very successful tour in 1908 with “The Big Three,” consisting of himself, the guitarist William Foden, and the mandolinist Guiseppe Pettine. Bacon continued to play into the 1940s and his few recordings attest to his virtuoso performances; contemporary reviewers praised his tone, his great technique, and the expressiveness of his playing. He taught, published several method books, and wrote many arrangements and compositions for five-string banjo. Bacon also designed banjos, bringing out his first instrument in ...