(b Buenos Aires, April 13, 1913; d Buenos Aires, June 2005). Venezuelan-Argentine ethnomusicologist, folklorist and composer, wife of Luis Felipe Ramón y Rivera. She studied the piano under Rafael González (1923–31) and composition with Athos Palma (1928–33) at the Buenos Aires National Conservatory of Music, instrumentation with Villa-Lobos in Brazil (1937), anthropology (1938–40) and, with Carlos Vega, folklore and musicology (1938–44) at the Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Buenos Aires. She took the doctorate in musicology in 1967 at the Argentine Catholic University with a dissertation on Argentine folk music. She was an associate member of the Instituto Argentino de Musicología from 1938 to 1950. After working as the first professor of ethnomusicology at the Escuela Nacional de Danzas de Argentina (1950–52) she moved to Caracas, Venezuela, where she has held appointments as research fellow in folklore and ethnomusicology at the Instituto Nacional de Folklore de Venezuela (...
(b Tehran, Nov 7, 1915; d Los Angeles, March 5, 1994). Armenian musicologist, folklorist and composer. After moving to Yerevan in 1923 he studied composition at the Yerevan Conservatory. From 1944 he taught harmony at the conservatory and completed a second degree at the Institute of Art of the Armenian Academy of Sciences with Kushnaryov, 1945–8. In 1951 he began taking part in folklore expeditions around Armenia and in 1955 he completed his dissertation at the conservatory on Armenian neumatic (khazer) notation. He joined the staff of the Institute of Arts in 1956 and was appointed professor in 1962 at the conservatory, where he also served intermittently as head of the music theory department until 1991. He was made an Honoured Representative of the Arts of Armenia in 1961. He participated in many congresses both within and outside the former Soviet Union, and was highly regarded as a teacher....
(b Lugoj, 20 March/April 2, 1877; d Bucharest, Dec 19, 1968). Romanian composer, folklorist and administrator. He studied privately in Lugoj with Josif Czegka and Sofia Vlad-Rădulescu, in Blaj with Iacob Mureşianu, in Sibiu with Hermann Kirchner and in Braşov with Paul Richter. Extremely active in the musical life of Romania, he participated in the foundation of the Romanian Opera, the Romanian National Theatre (1919), the Dima Conservatory, Cluj (1920), the Society of Romanian Composers (1920) and the Astra Conservatory, Braşov (1928); during this period he directed the opera houses in Cluj and Bucharest. He collected more than 2000 folksongs, recorded on 214 cylinders, and made use of them in his ten books of Doine şi cântece poporale (‘Doinas and Other Folksongs’) and in eight books of instrumental pieces published as Jocuri populare româneşti (‘Romanian Folkdances’); he also published a scholarly collection, ...
James B. Kopp
(b Avignon, France, May 18, 1854; d Versailles, France, May 20, 1933). Organist, composer, collector, and writer on musical instruments. Born a count into an old Norman family, he studied organ with Gigout in Paris in the late 1880s and was admitted to the Académie des Sciences Morales, des Lettres et des Arts de Versailles in 1891. Beginning in 1897, de Bricqueville played the organ in the chapel of the palace of Versailles for about 20 years. Writing as a music critic, he enthusiastically promoted Wagner but also appreciated earlier French opera. His studies of historical instruments, instrument collecting, and music iconography, while largely superseded by later research, offer valuable insight to the state of scholarship at the turn of the 20th century. He described his private collection of instruments (mainly European of the preceding three centuries) in three published catalogues, the last being Catalogue sommaire de la collection d’instruments de musique anciens formée par le Cte de Bricqueville...
Lyndesay G. Langwill
revised by Rosemary Williamson
(b Newcastle upon Tyne, May 19, 1878; d Great Missenden, Nov 2, 1958). English collector and historian of instruments and composer. He was educated in Hanover (1892) and as a Macfarren scholar at the Royal Academy of Music (1893–1902, ARAM 1902), where he studied composition with Corder. After serving as assistant music master at Winchester College (1909–22), he returned to the RAM in 1922 as professor of harmony and counterpoint, becoming a Fellow of the RAM in the same year; he held the professorship until 1940.
Carse’s early compositions include an orchestral prelude to Byron’s Manfred, a dramatic cantata, The Lay of the Brown Rosary and two symphonies; his later works, for student orchestras and beginners, are light, tuneful and individual, and ideally suited to their purpose as teaching material. His reputation, however, rests on his study of the history of instruments and the orchestra, and on his collection of some 350 old wind instruments, which he gave to the Horniman Museum, London, in ...
(b Dzhalal-Oglï, nr Tbilisi, Georgia, 9/May 21, 1869; d Minsk, Dec 27, 1964). Belarusian folklorist and composer. He completed his studies in composition with Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Tbilisi Music College (1892), and then worked as a music teacher in Baku and from 1903 in the north-west region of Russia (in the towns of Kovno, Vil′no and Mstislavl′). He headed amateur societies and choirs, and began his work as a folklorist. His first volume of 53 Belarusian songs was published in Vil′no in 1910. His opera Osvobozhdyonnïy trud (‘Emancipated Labour’) was written in Mstislavl′ in 1922 and was staged there by amateurs in the same year.
After 1935 Churkin lived permanently in Minsk and devoted himself to folklore. He recorded around 3000 Belarusian, Lithuanian, Polish, Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaidjani folksongs. These served as sources for many of his instrumental works – three sinfoniettas (1925, 1949...
Andrew D. McCredie
revised by Samantha Owens
(b Sydney, Australia, April 16, 1887; d Brisbane, Australia, July 31, 1959). Australian conductor, composer, and music collector. He studied with Arthur Mason and Gordon Lavers in Sydney. In 1912 he was appointed organist and choir director at Christ Church Anglican Cathedral and conductor of the choral society in Grafton, New South Wales. After war service he went to London for further study with Frederick Bridge, R.R. Terry, and Charles W. Pearce. He returned to Australia in 1919 and settled in Brisbane, where he served as organist and choirmaster at St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church (1919–32) and the Anglican churches of St Thomas at Toowong (1933) and All Saints, Wickham Terrace (1933–41). He directed the University of Queensland’s Musical Society (1920–30), an association that culminated in what was believed to have been the first Bach Festival in the southern hemisphere, held in ...
(b Brookline, MA, c1875; d Boston, MA, c1959). American collector, arranger, and civil engineer. He is responsible for one of the largest collections of sheet music in America. While growing up in Brookline he learned to play piano and organ under b.j. Lang, and there is some evidence that he also wrote arrangements of sacred music. This led to a long amateur engagement at Boston’s Sacred Heart Cathedral, where he led the choir and played the organ. “Benedixisti domine” by Bernhard Klein is one of Driscoll’s few remaining arrangements; the other extant editions or arrangements are of sacred pieces. By the 1890s Driscoll was already amassing material for his ever burgeoning collection, always looking for the perfect copy of any rare number. Well known for his sharp bargaining and compulsive habits, he refused to relinquish the search for the most complete collection possible. The James Francis Driscoll Collection of American Sheet Music at the Newberry Library in Chicago, IL, stores around 84,000 pieces of music dating from the 1770s until Driscoll’s death in ...
revised by Bret Werb
(b Berdyansk, Crimea, 4/April 16, 1868; d Tel-Aviv, Feb 11, 1927). Russian composer, critic, lexicographer and folklorist. He studied law at Kharkov University but soon turned to music, studying theory and composition with Taneyev and Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory (1893–7). From 1897 to 1919 he worked as a music critic for the newspaper Russkiye vedomosti. In 1901 his translation of Riemann’s Lexikon into Russian with newly written sections on Russian music was published in Moscow. Although an early opera, Esther, was performed in 1894, his work as a critic overshadowed that as a composer. Under the influence of the Russian nationalist music critic Vladimir Stasov, however, he turned his attention to Jewish folklore, collecting, arranging, performing and publishing the songs of eastern European Jews. In 1909 his first album of ten Jewish folksongs appeared in Moscow; a second volume followed later in the same year. Engel continued to promote his new interest with public lectures and a series of articles in ...
Israel J. Katz
(b Santo Domingo de la Calzada, Logroño, May 14, 1898; d Madrid, Dec 22, 1964). Spanish folklorist and composer. He received his early musical education in Burgos, where, influenced by the musicologist Nemesio Otaño, he became deeply interested in traditional folk music. He qualified as a military bandmaster in 1923 and served as bandmaster for the Spanish army until 1960. In 1926 he founded the Conservatory of Music at Badajoz, where he was the director and an instructor for 20 years. As an active collaborator with the Centro de Estudios Extremeños (1926–46) and the Spanish Institute of Musicology (from 1944) he participated in many field trips throughout the provinces of Extremadura (1924–31), La Rioja (1944–5), Granada (1946, 1960), Ciudad Real (1947), Toledo (1949), Cádiz (1957), Badajoz (1958) and Ávila (1959...
Malcolm Gillies and David Pear
(b Brighton, Victoria, July 8, 1882; d White Plains, NY, Feb 20, 1961). Australian-American composer, pianist, and folksong collector. Best known for his settings of British folk music, he was also an innovative composer of original works and ‘free music’, and an accomplished performer.
Grainger spent the first 13 years of his life in Melbourne, where he was educated at home under the guidance of his mother, Rose. She instilled in him a love of the arts and an heroic outlook on life, reinforced by his study of Classical legends and Icelandic sagas. He also received occasional tutorials in languages, art, drama, elocution, and the piano (with Louis Pabst, 1892–4). Following his Melbourne début as a pianist in 1894, funds were raised to support further musical training in Frankfurt, where he studied at the Hoch Conservatory (1895–1901) with James Kwast (piano), Iwan Knorr (composition, theory), and others. There he formed lifelong friendships with Cyril Scott, Henry Balfour Gardiner, and Roger Quilter, who, with Norman O’Neill, became known as the Frankfurt Group. During these years he was strongly influenced by the writings of Rudyard Kipling (he would compose many Kipling settings, ...
(b Ērgļi, Vidzeme, Sept 30, 1856; d Riga, Sept 28, 1922). Latvian composer and folklorist. He was one of the founders of Latvian classical music, graduating at the St Petersburg Conservatory from Lui Homilius’s organ class (1880), Rimsky-Korsakov’s composition class (1881) and F. Homilius’s horn class (1882). He then taught theory at the Russian Imperial Music Society’s music school at Kharkiv (1882–1916) and from 1920 lived in Riga. Even when not resident there, he always maintained a close association with the musical life of his native land, giving many concerts as a horn player (sometimes in the Jurjāns brothers' horn quartet) and organist; he was one of the leading conductors in the third, fourth and fifth big Latvian song festivals (1888, 1895 and 1910). He also worked assiduously in studying Latvian folksong melodies, of which he and his colleagues collected about ...
(b Moscow, 16/Nov 28, 1856; d Moscow, Dec 17, 1926). Russian composer and folklorist. The son of a priest, he acquired his musical education at the Moscow Conservatory (1876–78), where he studied music theory, composition and the piano. In 1887 he joined the Moscow Synodal School of Church Singing as a piano teacher on the recommendation of his teacher, Tchaikovsky. In later years he taught musical and theoretical disciplines and folklore at the schools of the Synod and the Philharmonia, as well as at the People's Conservatory. He was also active as a conductor (from 1891 he was assistant to the precentor, and from 1903 precentor of the Synodal Choir), and in studying folksongs and Russian music of the Middle Ages. From 1910 to 1918 Kastal′sky was the director of the Synodal School of Church Singing and did much work in transforming it into a higher educational establishment for choral training....
(b Ruse, Sept 23, 1925). Bulgarian folklorist and composer. He graduated in 1952 in both theory and performance at the State Academy of Music in Sofia and worked at the Music Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, as junior research fellow (1953–66) and senior research fellow (1966–89). He received the doctorate at the institute in 1973 with a dissertation on Bulgarian polyphonic folksong; in 1979 he was appointed professor of ethnomusicology at the State Academy of Music and in 1989, senior research fellow at the Institute for Folklore of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. His areas of research include various aspects of Bulgarian and Jewish folk music and he has been a member of the Union of Bulgarian Composers' executive committee since 1965. Much of his work in the 1960s on the folksong from particular regions in Bulgaria was published in Izvestiya na Instituta z muzika...
Israel J. Katz
(b Ciudad Rodrigo, Feb 3, 1868; d Salamanca, June 13, 1928). Spanish folklorist, organist and composer. His talent as a musician was nurtured during his early childhood. After serving as an organist at a local church, Ledesma became organist at the cathedral in Ciudad Rodrigo (1889–98) and at Salamanca Cathedral (1898), a post he held until his death. He was ordained a priest in Salamanca. He was a famous improviser and a prolific composer of organ and liturgical music, but he is best remembered for his Folk-lore ó Cancionero salmantino (Madrid, 1907/R), which contains 404 melodies collected from the rich oral tradition of his native province. This was awarded a prize in an open competition by the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando (Madrid), and was later published by the Diputación Provincial de Salamanca; the collection remains one of the most outstanding in Spanish folklore. An unpublished second volume containing 903 items was left to his disciple Bernardo García-Bernalt Huertos in ...
(b Melbourne, April 21, 1915; d Brisbane, April 19, 1985). Australian folksong collector and poet. After graduating in modern languages from Cambridge University, Manifold became active in Baroque music circles in London. He served with the intelligence corps during World War II. His first book of poems was published in New York in 1946 and soon afterwards he wrote a handbook on the history and repertory of the recorder, The Amorous Flute (London, 1948). On his return to Australia he completed the innovative study, The Music in English Drama, from Shakespeare to Purcell (London, 1956), which for many years was the standard reference book used by English theatre companies. His major musical contribution began in the 1950s when he started to collect Australian folksongs. These songs were published in broadsheet editions as Bandicoot Ballads (Lower Fern Tree Gulley, Victoria, 1955) and The Penguin Australian Song Book...
(b Igara, western Uganda, March 21, 1926; d Kampala, June 21, 1995). Ugandan composer, poet, writer and folklorist . Largely self-taught, he took positions as a teacher of music and literature at several teachers’ colleges in western Uganda and at St Kalemba’s Catechetical Centre, retiring in his 50s to concentrate on creative writing. His most valued musical work consisted of providing a new musical liturgy for the Catholic church in western Uganda. The hymnbook Mweshongorere Mukama (‘Let us Praise the Lord’, Kampala, 1961, 6/1987), adopted for use throughout the diocese and further afield, contains 79 of his compositions. A second unpublished collection of the same title contains a further 65 settings, including arrangements of Latin, French and English hymns. Despite ill-health and poverty his prolific output included 6 masses, partsongs, liturgical settings (in Latin, French, English and his native tongue Runyankore), novels, folktales, poetry, plays and other historical and linguistic contributions. All but 12 titles remain unpublished and in the care of the Omuhanda gy’Okumanya Publishing Association, Mbarara....
(b Louisville, KY, April 28, 1892; d nr Lexington, KY, March 1, 1980). American Folksinger, folk-music collector, and composer. He began collecting and transcribing songs at age 14 and composed his first song, “Go ’way from my window,” in 1907. A skilled pianist upon his graduation from Louisville’s Dupont Manual High School, he continued his studies at Cincinnati Conservatory and the Schola Cantorum in Paris. A pilot with the US Army Signal Corps during World War I, he published two collections of wartime songs, Singing Soldiers (1927) and The songs my mother never taught me (1929).
While based in New York, Niles toured internationally with contralto Marion Kerby from 1929 to 1933, arranging African American and Appalachian material for their repertoire. He also began publishing his arrangements and compositions with Carl Fischer and G. Schirmer and recording for Victor’s Red Seal label. From 1931 to 1934...
(b Ottawa, Sept 7, 1892; d Montreal, Sept 20, 1958). Canadian composer and folklorist . He studied the piano and the organ in Ottawa with Amédée Tremblay and piano in Montreal with Alfred Laliberté. From 1915 he collaborated with Charles Marchand on collecting and arranging folksongs, and he was also active as a teacher, orchestral pianist and accompanist. From 1927 to 1930 he took part in the festivals commissioned by the Canadian Pacific Railway and became their joint musical director with Harold E. Key in 1930; it was for these that his ballad operas, based on Canadian folklore and including many folksongs, were written. His operetta Philippino was broadcast in 1943. O’Brien became a priest in 1952.
ballad operas unless otherwise stated
(b Kutaisi, 4/Aug 16, 1871; d Tbilisi, Oct 6, 1933). Georgian composer and folklorist. Brought up in a Catholic family in which music occupied an important place, he sang in the church choir at the age of eight and at an early stage learnt to play the organ. In 1887 he moved to Tbilisi, joining a choir founded by the folk-music enthusiast L. Agniashvili. A few years later he entered the Tbilisi Music School, where he studied the horn and started to compose; he then went on to study with Sergey Taneyev at the Moscow Conservatory (1900–03). Returning to Tbilisi (1903), he taught at the Music School and the Georgian Grammar School, and helped to establish the Georgian Philharmonic Society (1905), under whose auspices he later founded a choir and orchestra. He also directed the society’s music school (1908–17...