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Pecham, John  

Peter Loewen

[Johannes de PeschamPeccanusPischanoPisanoPithyano]

(b Patcham, Sussex, c1230; d Mortlake, Surrey, Dec 8, 1292). English composer, Franciscan scholar, provincial minister, and archbishop of Canterbury. Pecham joined the Order of Friars Minor in Oxford c1250 after studying at the Cluniac Priory at Lewes. He studied the liberal arts at Oxford, and theology in Paris. From 1269 to 1271, Pecham fulfilled the offices of Franciscan lector and regent master of theology at the University of Paris, and then served in the same capacity at the University of Oxford between c1272 and 1276. He became provincial minister of the Franciscans in England in 1276, and in 1277 was appointed lecturer in theology for the papal curia (lector sacri palatii). Pecham was appointed archbishop of Canterbury on January 25, 1279, and he continued in this position until his death. Pecham’s body was buried in Canterbury Cathedral, though his heart was preserved in the Franciscan church in London....

Article

Watts, Isaac  

Esther R. Crookshank

(b Southampton, England, July 17, 1674; Stoke Newington, London, Nov 25, 1748). English hymn writer, clergyman, scholar, and author. Watts wrote hymns from age 20 for his Southampton congregation and from 1702 served as pastor in London. After giving up public ministry for health reasons in 1712, he exerted great influence on Puritan leaders in the American colonies through extensive correspondence and his published collections, which contained nearly 700 hymns and psalm paraphrases.

With The Psalms of David Imitated in the Language of the New Testament (1719) he undertook large-scale reform of Dissenting (non-Anglican) worship by writing new “Christianized” versifications of the Psalms; he believed the Psalter required revision to fit it for New Testament worship. His reform succeeded far beyond his expectations for many reasons, including the strong appeal of his vigorous, singable lyrics to Puritan ministers and worshippers in colonial New England, where they took deep root. Called the “liberator of English hymnody,” Watts produced psalm paraphrases and hymns that broke the grip of strict metrical psalmody in use for over a century in Protestant Britain and North America. Dozens of American compilers produced ...