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Byard, Jaki  

Ryan Bruce

[John Arthur, Jr.]

(b Worcester, MA, June 15, 1922; d Queens, NY, Feb 11, 1999). American jazz pianist, composer, educator, and bandleader. He was technically proficient at playing rags, stomps, boogie-woogie, swing, bebop, and free jazz, but his performance career never conformed to any specific style or era. He is perhaps best known for his work with the Charles Mingus group (1962–5, 1970), with whom he recorded albums such as Mingus, Mingus, Mingus, Mingus, Mingus (1963, Imp.). He studied classical music from the age of five or six until he was 20 and began playing jazz on the trumpet when he was 16. As a jazz pianist, his early influences included Fats Waller, Art Tatum, Earl Hines, and Count Basie. After working with various groups in the 1950s, including three years with Earl Bostic around 1950, Byard recorded frequently from 1957 to 1962 with leaders such as Herb Pomeroy, Maynard Ferguson, Don Ellis, and Eric Dolphy. At this time he also recorded his first albums as a leader, ...


Fauré, Gabriel  

Jean-Michel Nectoux


(b Pamiers, Ariège, May 12, 1845; d Paris, Nov 4, 1924). French composer, teacher, pianist and organist. The most advanced composer of his generation in France, he developed a personal style that had considerable influence on many early 20th-century composers. His harmonic and melodic innovations also affected the teaching of harmony for later generations.

He was the youngest of six children (one a daughter), born to Toussaint-Honoré Fauré (1810–85) and Marie-Antoinette-Hélène Lalène-Laprade (1809–87), a member of the minor aristocracy. Gabriel was sent to a foster-nurse in the village of Verniolle for four years. In 1849 his father was appointed director of the Ecole Normale at Montgauzy, near Foix; Fauré later recalled that from his early childhood he spent hours playing the harmonium in the chapel adjoining the school. An old blind lady, who came to listen and give advice, told his father about his gift for music; a certain Bernard Delgay shares the honour of having been his first music teacher. During the summer of ...


Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolay Andreyevich  

Marina Frolova-Walker and Mark Humphreys

Member of Rimsky-Korsakov family

(b Tikhvin, 6/Mar 18, 1844; d Lyubensk, nr Luga [now Pskov district], 8/June 21, 1908). Russian composer and teacher.

Mark Humphreys

Rimsky-Korsakov was born into a family of landless nobility in the small provincial town of Tikhvin. His education and upbringing were guided at least as much by his brother Voin (22 years Nikolay’s senior) as by his parents. It was, for example, Voin who determined that the young Nikolay was to embark on a naval career (Voin was himself a distinguished naval officer and later became the director of the Naval College in St Petersburg). Nikolay received his primary education at home, displaying great abilities in practically every subject. From as early as five he also started tinkering on the piano, imitating the popular tunes his father played by ear, and soon began private piano lessons. Although he produced his earliest compositions at the age of ten, Rimsky-Korsakov later remembered that at this stage he had not yet developed a true passion for music, and that literature used to make a much stronger impression on him. In ...


Sherwin, William F(isk)  

William Brooks

revised by Christopher E. Mehrens

(b Buckland, MA, 14 March 1826; d Dorchester, MA, 14 April 1888). American composer and music educator. He learned music in singing-schools and assemblies conducted by Lowell Mason, George James Webb, and others. He taught briefly in Massachusetts before moving to Hudson, New York, to teach in public schools and at the Claverack Seminary. By 1855 he was in Albany, where he taught at the Female Academy and was music director at the Pearl Street Baptist Church. In 1865 he moved to New York and worked for Firth, Son & Co. and for Biglow & Main, both publishers of music. Around 1880 he became associated with the Cincinnati publishing firm John Church & Co. In 1884 he was appointed director of choral music at the New England Conservatory in Boston.

Sherwin was deeply involved in the Sunday school movement and published several collections of music for children. He was also very active in ...


Waldrop, Gideon William  

William McClellan

revised by Karen M. Bryan

(b Haskell County, TX, 2 Sept 1919; d New York, NY, 19 May 2000). American music educator and composer. He attended Baylor University (BM 1940) and the Eastman School of Music (MM 1941, PhD 1952). Waldrop taught at Baylor University (1946–51), where he conducted the Waco-Baylor University Symphony Orchestra. He joined the Juilliard School in 1960, serving first as assistant to the president and then as dean. He was president of the Manhattan School of Music from 1986 to 1989.

In the 1950s Waldrop served as editor of the Review of Recorded Music (1952–3) and the Musical Courier (1953–8). He also served as consultant for the humanities division of the Ford Foundation (1958–61). He consulted on music education with the governments of Germany, Portugal, and Israel and with the Albeniz Foundation in Madrid.

Waldrop composed a symphony (...