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Adriaenssen [Adriaensen, Adriansen, Hadrianus, Hadrianius], Emanuel  

Godelieve Spiessens


(b Antwerp, c1554; d Antwerp, bur. Feb 27, 1604). Flemish lutenist, teacher and composer. He went to Rome to study in 1574, a visit that probably accounts for the Italian elements in his publications. He was a Protestant, but after the fall of Antwerp in 1585 he was compelled for political reasons to embrace the Catholic faith. With his brother Gysbrecht he opened a school for lutenists at Antwerp, but in 1587 they came into conflict with the musicians’ guild because neither of them was a member; later, however, Emanuel must have qualified as a freeman of the guild, for he occasionally assumed the title of master. He was appointed captain of the citizens’ watch, which brought him a regular income, and in 1595 he took part in the relief of the nearby town of Lier, which had been occupied by the Dutch. He moved in the highest circles in Antwerp, and the principal families doubtless admired his virtuosity as a lutenist and engaged him to perform. His publications brought him wider fame, and they were to be found in the libraries of many prominent people, among them Constantijn Huygens, King João IV of Portugal and Cardinal Mazarin. He was mentioned by Adrian Denss (...


Barbe, Antoine (iii)  

Frank Dobbins


Member of Barbe family

(b Antwerp, after 1573; d Antwerp, June 10, 1636). Flemish theorist, organist and teacher, son of Antoine Barbe (ii). On 23 February 1596 he was appointed organist of St Jacobskerk, Antwerp, and later acted as repairer and tuner of organs in other churches in the city. In ...


Beurhaus, Friedrich  

F.E. Kirby

(b Immecke, nr Meinerzhagen, 1536; d Dortmund, Aug 6, 1609). German theorist, teacher and Kantor. He was educated first in Münster and Dortmund, and later at Cologne University where he received the MA in 1560. After serving as teacher, Kantor and administrator for several years in various schools, mainly in Dortmund, he took up a post in 1567 as Kantor at the famous Reinoldi School there; he became Rektor in 1582 in succession to his former teacher and long-standing friend and colleague, Johann Lambach. His work in this post was widely acclaimed and in 1587 he was made Comes Palatinus by Emperor Rudolf II.

He is important for his treatise Erotematum musicae, originally published in 1573 under the title Musicae erotematum, and subsequently reprinted three times. The treatise, of the musica practica type, presents the fundamentals of music in question and answer form. For his formulations Beurhaus borrowed considerably, as was customary in a treatise of this kind, from other German theorists of the time, notably Agricola, Faber (both Gregor and Heinrich), Figulus, Galliculus, Ornithoparchus, Wilfflingseder and Zanger....


Caroso, Fabritio  

Julia Sutton

(b probably Sermoneta, c1527–35; d after 1605). Italian dancing-master. He was the author of two large manuals of vital significance as sources of dance steps, types and music of the second half of the 16th century. Caroso's works include over 100 different dances by himself and others, as well as valuable rules for basic step vocabulary and etiquette. The ballettos, which form the major part of his repertory, clearly descend from the balli of 15th-century Italy, being similarly multi-partite and individually choreographed, with specially composed or adapted music. The fact that Nobiltà di dame (1600) was reprinted under a different title as late as 1630 supports other evidence that Caroso's style may have continued to hold good for Italian dance in the first third of the 17th century.

Caroso's volumes include a few simple group figure dances such as the contrapasso, but most are more elaborate social dances for a skilled amateur couple, for example the ...


Cavalieri, Emilio de’  

Claude V. Palisca

(b Rome, c1550; d Rome, March 11, 1602). Italian composer, organist, singing teacher, dancer, choreographer, administrator and diplomat. He was the composer of the first surviving play set entirely to music, the Rappresentatione di Anima, et di Corpo (Rome, 1600), the score of which is the earliest one printed with a figured bass.

Cavalieri was the son of Lavinia della Valle and Tommaso Cavalieri (1512–87), an architect and intimate friend of Michelangelo Buonarotti. His brother, Mario (d 1580), coordinated the Lenten music in the Oratorio del SS Crocifisso in S Marcello, Rome, between 1568 and 1579. He himself also participated in this Oratorio both as an organist and as a coordinator of Lenten music from 1578 until at least 1584 (the account books are missing for 1584–94); during his administration the yearly expenditure on music rose from 51 to 140 scudi....


Coprario [Coperario, Cooper, Cowper], John  

Christopher D.S. Field


(b c?1570–80; d ?London, cJune 1626). English composer, viol player and teacher. Playford referred to him as ‘Mr John Coperario aliàs Cooper’, John Aubrey as ‘Jo. Coperario, whose reall name I have been told was Cowper’, and Roger North as ‘Coperario, who by the way was plain Cooper but affected an Itallian termination’. He himself spelt his name ‘John Coprario’. In a document dated 1617 he is described as ‘John Coperario, gentleman’. Dart (ML, 1961) conjectured that he may have been the John Cowper who became a chorister of Chichester Cathedral in 1575 but this seems improbable. He had already adopted his pseudonym by February 1601, when William Petre made a gift of 10 shillings to ‘Coprario for Lessons hee broughte mee while in London’ ( US-Ws 1772.1; copy in Essex Record Office). Anthony Wood’s notes seem to contain the earliest suggestion that the italianization of his name was a result of a sojourn in Italy, describing him as ‘an English man borne, who having spent much of his time in Italy was there called Coprario, which name he kept when he returned into England’. Such an Italian visit is far from being out of the question, though evidence remains elusive. He was however on the Continent during ...


Dagues, Pierre  

Frank Dobbins

(b ?Montricoux; d before Jan 9, 1571). French singer and music teacher active in Switzerland. Although he was proposed by Calvin as the successor to Guillaume de La Moeulle as choirmaster at Geneva Cathedral, the town council appointed Pierre Vallette in October 1556. Dagues was, however, responsible for teaching singing to the boys at St Gervais and La Madeleine between ...


Galilei, Vincenzo  

Claude V. Palisca

[Vincentio, Vincenzio]

(b S Maria a Monte, Tuscany, probably in the late 1520s; d Florence, bur. July 2, 1591). Italian theorist, composer, lutenist, singer and teacher. He was the leader of the movement to revive through monody the ancient Greek ideal of the union of music and poetry.

Galilei was probably born later than his traditionally accepted date of birth of about 1520. As a youth he studied the lute. It was probably his playing that attracted the attention of Giovanni de' Bardi, his principal patron, who facilitated his theoretical studies with Zarlino in Venice, probably about 1563. By that time he had settled in Pisa, where in 1562 he married a member of a local noble family. The scientist Galileo (who was born in 1564) was the first of his six or seven children; another was the lutenist Michelagnolo Galilei (b 18 Dec 1575; d 3 Jan 1631...


Herman, Nicolaus  

Walter Blankenburg


(b Altdorf, nr Nuremberg, 1500; d Joachimsthal [now Jáchymov], West Bohemia, May 15, 1561). German writer of hymn texts and melodies. From 1518 to 1560 he was schoolmaster, organist and Kantor in Joachimsthal. Johann Matthesius, Luther’s first biographer and headmaster of the Latin school there from 1532, was also, until 1565, minister of the church; Herman was associated with him both as a close friend and as a colleague, and thus came into contact with the Reformation from an early date. As early as 6 November 1524 Luther wrote to him as ‘viro pio et erudito’. Herman’s importance lies in his hymns, which were published in several volumes. He wrote both text and music, but most melodies are used for several texts. His poems are rhymed syllabic verses with no fixed metre. His Sunday Gospels, which retell Bible stories in rhymed stanzas, remained models for a succession of works of the same type well into the 17th century. In his endeavours to express Christian beliefs in the form of hymns Herman’s texts are close to those of Luther. Though never attaining the poetic force of the latter’s work, many have retained their place in the standard German Lutheran hymn repertory: above all ‘Lobt Gott, ihr Christen alle gleich’, ‘Erschienen ist der herrlich Tag’, ‘Die helle Sonn leucht jetzt herfür’, ‘Hinunter ist der Sonnen Schein’ and ‘Wenn mein Stündlein vorhanden ist’. Many of his melodies show clear affinities with folk music: in particular the traditions of ...


Molinaro, Simone  

Glenn Watkins and Dinko Fabris

Glenn Watkins, revised by Dinko Fabris

(b Genoa, c1570; d after 1633). Italian composer, teacher and lutenist. His father’s name was Bartolomeo. Simone was the nephew and pupil of G.B. Dalla Gostena (murdered in 1593) whose second book of Canzonette (RISM 1589¹³) includes his first published work. Several of Molinaro’s publications similarly included works by Dalla Gostena. In 1598 Molinaro was a canon of the Cathedral of S Lorenzo in Genoa. He became maestro di cappella there on 31 October 1601, a post from which he was abruptly dismissed in October 1617, possibly due to a serious illness, to which he referred in two letters of 1619. During his tenure at the cathedral he was entrusted with the musical education of a number of boys, for terms of as long as 12 years, and in 1618 some ‘alumni Simonis Molinarij ea scientia clarissimi’ were heard in Rome. From ...


Praetorius, Jacob (ii)  

Frederick K. Gable

Member of Praetorius family

(b Hamburg, Feb 8, 1586; d Hamburg, Oct 21/22, 1651). German composer, organist, and organ teacher, second son of Hieronymus Praetorius. He studied the organ in Amsterdam with Sweelinck, who in 1608 wrote a motet for his wedding. From 1603 until his death he was organist of the Petrikirche, Hamburg, and was specially known as an excellent organ teacher. Berendt Petri, who was his pupil from 1609 to 1611, compiled about that time a notable manuscript of organ music, the Visby (Petri) Tablature, containing works by Praetorius and his father, among others. His most famous student, Matthias Weckmann, studied with him in Hamburg between 1633 and 1636. Praetorius contributed 19 four-part chorale settings to the Melodeyen Gesangbuch (1604), and ten continuo songs to one of Johann Rist’s collections of sacred verses (1651). His three sacred motets were published in the second edition of his father’s ...


Pühler, Johann  

Renate Federhofer-Königs

( b Schwandorf, Oberpfalz, before c 1550; d ?c 1591). German singer, teacher and music editor . There is evidence that he was a singer in the court chapel of Emperor Ferdinand I at Vienna from 1557 to 1564. From 1564 to 1569 he served in a similar capacity at the court of Archduke Ferdinand of the Tyrol, who transferred his household from Prague to Innsbruck late in 1566. He sang tenor at the court of Duke Wilhelm in Landshut in 1573 and from 1580 he held an appointment as organist and schoolmaster in Regensburg. He was active as an editor and brought out two sets of compositions by his friend Christian Hollander, Newe teutsche, geistliche und weltliche Liedlein (1570) and Triciniorum … fasciculus (1573), and a miscellaneous collection of German songs, Schöner ausserlessner geistlicher und weltlicher teutscher Lieder (RISM 1585 37). He also edited a collection of poorly translated chansons by Lassus, reputedly his teacher, under the title of ...


Reade [Read], Richard  

Diana Poulton

revised by Warwick Edwards

(b c1555; d Oxford, 1616). English singer and composer. He is probably the Richard Read who took the BMus from Christ Church, Oxford, on 7 July 1592. Anthony Wood wrote: ‘Richard Read, who had studied the musical faculty for 22 years, was admitted the same day. He hath composed certain Church Services, and other matters for instruments, which are scattered in several books’ (Fasti oxoniensis, 1691). From 1588 to 1616 he was a ‘singing-man’ at Christ Church; the college disbursement books contain his signature alongside that of Matthew Holmes, copyist of the Cambridge Consort Books ( GB-Cu ), the principal source of his instrumental music. His will, which included the bequest of a bass viol, was proved at Oxford on 5 April 1617.

Reade's music for mixed consort of violin, recorder, lute, cittern, bandora and bass viol includes several pieces conceived in terms of the specific instruments which made up this distinctive English ensemble. So far as it is possible to tell from their fragmentary surviving state, they are engagingly written, featuring much antiphonal play between groups of instruments, though they perhaps lack the flair of their counterparts by Allison and Bacheler....


Robinson, Thomas  

Diana Poulton

revised by Robert Spencer

(fl 1589–1609). English lutenist, cittern player, composer and teacher. From the dedication to James I in his Schoole of Musicke (1603) we know that he was ‘once thought (in Denmarke at Elsanure) the fittest to instruct your Majesties Queene’. This must have been before Anne's marriage to James in 1589. In the dedication of his second publication, New Citharen Lessons (1609), to Sir William Cecil, he made it clear that both he and his father enjoyed the patronage of several members of the Cecil family. He wrote that he was ‘sometime servant’ to Thomas Cecil, Earl of Exeter, and that his father had been ‘true and obedient servant’ to ‘your Lord and Grandfather’, William Cecil, Lord Burghley. Robinson was one of 12 lutenists who played in the Merchant Taylors' banquet given in honour of James I on 16 July 1607.

Robinson's importance lies in the clear exposition of his lute method set forth in ...


Testagrossa, Giovanni [Gian, Zoan] Angelo  

Arthur J. Ness

(b Pavia, April 9, 1470; d ?Urbino, Dec 1530). Italian lutenist, singer and teacher. In Milan in 1492 he provided improvised accompaniments for ottava rima recitations, a manner of strambotto performance that was later cultivated at Mantua. By 1495 or 1496 Testagrossa had succeeded Girolamo Sextula at the Gonzaga court in Mantua as lute teacher to Isabella d’Este; he remained there until about 1500. A number of letters between Isabella and Testagrossa exist. His travels away from the court are not known until 1506, when he reported in January from Parma about a viol and wrote from Busseto in December that he had obtained a lucrative post under the patronage of Galeazzo Pallavicino. It may have been between 1500 and 1506 that Testagrossa returned to Milan, where he taught Francesco Canova da Milano. By early 1510 Testagrossa had returned to Mantua to teach Isabella’s son Prince Federico. Later that year he entertained Francesco Gonzaga, then captive in Venice, and travelled with Federico to Rome, pausing briefly at the Duke of Urbino’s court, where he was offered a post and where he met Leo X’s lutenist Gian Maria Alemanni. Testagrossa remained at Mantua, however, until ...


Wecker, Hans [Johannes] Jacob  

Sarah Davies

(b Basle, 1528; d Colmar, 1586). Swiss lutenist, intabulator, physician and university teacher. He matriculated at Basle University in 1543 and at Wittenberg University in May 1544, returning to Basle University in 1546. Here he befriended Christoph Piperinus, teacher of Basilius Amerbach, and the lutenists Johannes von Schallen and Thiebold Schoenauer, teachers of Felix Platter. In about 1550 Wecker travelled to Italy, presumably to complete his medical studies, and may have found his way into the intellectual circle surrounding the physician and theorist Girolamo Cardano. In 1552, at the behest of his friends, Wecker published a collection of lute duets that he had ‘recently brought back from Italy’, in the Lautenbuch vonn mancherley schönen und lieblichen Stucken (Basle, 1552). Platter reported playing from this book while studying medicine in Montpellier and also performed in Strasbourg in 1556 with a ‘good lutenist’ named ‘Wolf’. In that year, 20 of Wecker’s duets had been published by Wolff Heckel under a nearly identical title (...


Willich [Wilcke, Wild], Jodocus  

Clement A. Miller

[Jobst ]

(b Resel, Värmland, c1486; d Frankfurt an der Oder, Nov 12, 1552). German humanist, physician, writer and musician . The generally accepted birthdate for him is about 1486, but according to Pietzsch it is 1501. In 1516 he entered the University of Frankfurt an der Oder, where he probably studied music under Johann Volckmar. After graduating he taught music from 1522 to 1539. In 1524 Willich became professor of Greek and in 1540 professor of medicine. Although he retained his connection with the university until his death, he was frequently called to other countries (such as Poland and Hungary) because of his renown as a physician. He corresponded with Erasmus and was personally acquainted with Luther, Melanchthon and Glarean. More than 60 writings on philology, antiquity, philosophy, theology, law, medicine, mathematics and music, some of which remained current into the 18th century, gave Willich a position as one of the outstanding German humanists of his time. An ardent lutenist, he founded about ...


Wircker [Würker, Testorius, Hymaturgus, ?Weber], Johann  

Liesbeth Weinhold

[Johannes ]

(b Oschatz, Saxony; fl 1548–72). German composer, singer, copyist and teacher . In 1548 he was in the choir of the electoral Hofkapelle at Dresden. He attended the St Afra Fürstenschule at Meissen from 1551 to 1554, when on 16 April he entered the University of Wittenberg. In 1557 he is described as Rektor of the school at Borna, Saxony, in 1561 as a Kantor and musician at the Saxon electoral court and in 1563–5 as a copyist in the service of King Maximilian of Bohemia at Breslau. In 1565 he is referred to by the name Testorius, in 1571 as a musician at Oschatz with the name Hymaturgus and in 1572, as Johann Würker, as a singer. He may be the Johann Weber referred to in 1562 as ‘composer from Oschatz’. As a composer he is known by the Missa super ‘Castigans castigavit’ and the wedding motet ...