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Asaf′yev, Boris Vladimirovich  

Larisa Georgievna Danko

[Glebov, Igor′]

(b St Petersburg, 17/July 29, 1884; d Moscow, Jan 27, 1949). Russian musicologist, composer and critic. He studied at the St Petersburg Conservatory from 1904 to 1910 with Rimsky-Korsakov and Lyadov, and graduated in 1908 from the faculty of history and philology of the University of St Petersburg. From 1910 he worked as a repetiteur; from 1916 edited and composed ballet music and from 1919 was a member of the board of directors and repertory consultant at the Mariinsky and Mikhaylovsky Theatres. In 1919 he became head of the Central Library for State Musical Theatres. In the same year, in association with Lyapunov and Bulich, he organized the music department at the Petrograd Institute for the History of the Arts (now the Zubov Institute for the History of the Arts); he was its director from 1921. Between 1922 and 1925 he was responsible for the organization there of concerts of contemporary music. He was made a professor at the Leningrad Conservatory in ...


Barzun, Jacques  

David Trippett

(b Créteil, France, Nov 30, 1907; d San Antonio, TX, October 25, 2012). Cultural historian, critic, and teacher of French birth. Born into the artistic environs of French modernism, he wrote widely on Western culture and its documents, founding the discipline of cultural history at Columbia University, where he spent his academic career.

After leaving France for America in 1920, he attended Columbia University (BA 1927, PhD 1932) where he lectured on contemporary civilization from 1927, becoming assistant professor (1937), professor (1945), Seth Low Professor of History (1955), Provost (1958–67), and University Professor (1967–75). He also served as president of the American Academy of Arts (1972–5, 1977–8), and was made an Extraordinary Fellow of Churchill College, Cambridge University in 1960.

Barzun regarded culture as a fabric of interwoven ideas which historians should trace through time, and between which exist a series of links: “because culture is a web of many strands; none is spun by itself, nor is any cut off at a fixed date.” He viewed music through the prism of a broader culture, typified in the scope of ...


Blesh, Rudi  

John Edward Hasse

[Rudolph] (Pickett)

(b Guthrie, OK, Jan 21, 1899; d Gilmanton, NH, Aug 25, 1985). American writer on music. He attended Dartmouth College and earned the BS in architecture from the University of California, Berkeley. In the 1940s he served as jazz critic for the San Francisco Chronicle and the New York Herald Tribune. He wrote a pioneering serious history of jazz, Shining Trumpets (1946), and with Harriet Janis was co-author of the first history of ragtime, They All Played Ragtime (1950). The latter work established him as the leading authority in this field, and eventually prompted a revival of the music. Also with Janis, he founded Circle Records, a small but significant jazz label which became the first to issue the Library of Congress recordings of Jelly Roll Morton. In 1953 they sold Circle Records – apart from the Morton recordings – to Jazzology Records. From 1947 to 1950...


Boman, Petter [Pehr] Conrad  

Kathleen Dale

revised by Axel Helmer

(b Stockholm, June 6, 1804; d Stockholm, March 17, 1861). Swedish music critic, historian and composer. He was a pupil of Per Frigel. He earned his living as a clerk in the Swedish Customs and was for many years music critic for the Post och inrikes tidningar. In 1849 he was elected a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music, the library of which he helped to catalogue. In 1850 he translated Birch’s Darstellung der Bühnenkunst into Swedish. He lectured extensively on music history at the conservatory in 1852, and wrote articles for the Ny tidning för musik during the whole period of its existence (1853–7). The most important of these was ‘En blick på tonkonsten i Sverige’, a survey of Swedish music during the previous 50 years. Boman is considered one of the most reliable and important Swedish writers on music before Adolf Lindgren. (...


Branco, Luís (Maria da Costa) de Freitas  

Adriana Latino

(b Lisbon, Oct 12, 1890; d Lisbon, Nov 27, 1955). Portuguese composer, teacher, musicologist and critic. He studied composition in Lisbon privately with Augusto Machado and Tomás Borba, then with Désiré Pâque and Luigi Mancinelli. He also studied the piano and the violin. He completed his studies in Berlin with Humperdinck and Pâque (1910) and in Paris with Grovlez (1911). After his marriage he lived on Madeira for two years, returning to Lisbon in 1914. He taught at the Lisbon Conservatory (1916–39), later becoming its assistant director (1919–24). There he worked with Mota in the major reforms which began in 1918. At the same time he established himself as a composer, musicologist, critic and lecturer and slowly rose to a position of fundamental importance in Portuguese musical life. As a teacher, he also played an important role in the preparation of a new generation of composers. In the 1930s, he began to have difficulties with the political authorities and in ...


Brown, Maurice J(ohn) E(dwin)  

Rosemary Williamson

(b London, Aug 3, 1906; d Marlborough, Sept 27, 1975). English writer on music. At London University he took the BSc (1929) and BMus (1939). After teaching music at Belle Vue High School, Bradford (1939–44), and serving as a radio and telegraph instructor with the RAF, he taught physics at Marlborough Grammar School, where he was head of the science department (1945–66).

Brown was the leading Schubert scholar of his generation. His work was notable for its disciplined accuracy and depth, balance and perception, and was informed both by his thorough knowledge of the progress of Schubert research and by his enthusiasm for the music under discussion. His knowledge of and delight in literature contributed greatly to his understanding of the devices of word-setting in lieder. The other major subject of his research was Chopin: he compiled the standard thematic index of his works and studied their publishing history....


Calvocoressi, Michel-Dimitri  

Gerald Abraham

(b Marseilles, Oct 2, 1877; d London, Feb 1, 1944). Critic and musicologist of Greek parentage, French birth and English adoption. Calvocoressi studied classics at the Lycée Janson de Sailly, Paris, and entered the law faculty but soon abandoned law to study harmony with Xavier Leroux at the Conservatoire. Here he formed a lifelong friendship with Ravel. In 1902 he embarked on a career as critic and also as music correspondent of English, American, German and Russian periodicals. He was a remarkable polyglot, and from 1904 he specialized in the translation of song texts, opera librettos and books – ultimately from languages as unfamiliar as Russian and Hungarian, and into both French and English. He also began to champion Russian music, particularly Musorgsky's, but his earliest book was on Liszt. From 1905 to 1914 he lectured at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales, mainly on contemporary music. Calvocoressi was principal French adviser to Diaghilev when the latter was introducing Russian orchestral music, opera and ballet to Paris (...


Černušák, Gracian  

John Tyrrell

revised by Geoffrey Chew

(b Ptení, nr Prostějov, Moravia, Dec 19, 1882; d Brno, Oct 13, 1961). Czech musicologist and critic. He studied history at the universities of Prague and Kraków (1901–5); he also attended music lectures at Prague University. At first he taught in a school in Hradec Králové (1905–8), where he was also active as accompanist and choir conductor. In 1918 he moved to Brno where, in addition to his school post, he taught music history at the conservatory (1919–39). After the war he continued to teach at the conservatory until his retirement. He also lectured at the Janáček Academy and at the university. He wrote two standard Czech histories of music. His Dějepis hudby continued to be used in revised editions for over 60 years.

Between the wars Černušák was music critic of the influential Lidové noviny and was a frequent broadcaster and lecturer. His most lasting contribution, however, was his dictionary work. He wrote the music articles for general Czech encyclopedias such as ...


Darwīsh, ‘Alī al-  

Saadalla Agha Al-Kalaa

(b Aleppo, Syria, 1884; d Aleppo, Nov 26, 1952). Syrian musician and music researcher. He studied music and muwashsha singing in Aleppo and Istanbul. From 1912 to 1920 he lived in Turkey, where he taught music and wrote an unpublished book entitled The Real Theories in the Science of Musical Readings. On return to Aleppo he became leader of the Mawlawi Sufi group, playing the flute (nāy) during the ceremonies and teaching muwashsha singing.

In 1927 he was invited to teach at the Royal Institute of Music in Cairo; his pupils included the composers Riyād al-Sunbaṭī and Muḥammad ‘Abd al-Wahhāb. In Egypt he documented many old muwashsha and musical pieces. In 1931 he went to Tunisia to do joint research with the French musicologist Baron D'Erlanger, and while resident in Tunis taught muwashsha for six years. He made the first notations of Tunisian Andalusian ...


Dent, Edward J(oseph)  

Anthony Lewis and Nigel Fortune

(b Ribston, Yorks., July 16, 1876; d London, Aug 22, 1957). English musicologist, teacher, translator and critic. He was educated at Eton, where he studied music with C.H. Lloyd, and Cambridge, where his teachers were Charles Wood and Stanford. He was elected a Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, in 1902, began lecturing on the history of music that year and also taught harmony, counterpoint and composition. In 1918 he left for London, where he worked as a music critic. He returned to Cambridge as professor of music in 1926, when he was again elected to a fellowship at King’s. He occupied the Cambridge chair for 15 years. From his retirement until his death he lived in London.

At Cambridge, Dent completely reorganized the teaching for the MusB degree. He realized that this degree would no longer be taken mainly by church organists but that a Cambridge education in music would produce members of other branches of the musical profession – school and university teachers, composers, critics, BBC staff and so on – and he consistently aimed at giving the curriculum greater breadth as a sound foundation, stressing particularly the study of music history and encouraging the performance of pre-19th-century, especially Baroque, music. He exercised a profound influence on several generations of young musicians, whose subsequent success as composers, teachers, performers or scholars owed much to his teaching and example. He himself composed a small amount of music, mainly of a conservative cast....


Downes, Edward O(lin) D(avenport)  

Paula Morgan

revised by Jon Stroop

(b Boston, Aug 12, 1911; d New York, Dec 26, 2001). American musicologist and music critic, son of Olin Downes. He attended Columbia University, the Manhattan School of Music and universities in Paris and Munich. From 1939 to 1941 he was music critic for the Boston Transcript. He taught at Wellesley College and the Longy School of Music (1948–9), and was assistant professor of music at the University of Minnesota (1950–55). After taking the doctorate in musicology at Harvard University in 1958 he was musicologist-in-residence at the Bayreuth Festival masterclasses until 1965. He was on the faculty of Queens College and the Graduate School, CUNY (1966–81), and New York University (1981–6), and in 1986 he was appointed professor at the Juilliard School of Music.

As a musicologist Downes concentrated on opera of the early Classical period. In 1958 he became quizmaster for the Metropolitan Opera radio broadcasts, and he wrote programme notes for the New York PO from ...


Fétis family  

Katharine Ellis, Robert Wangermée, and Gustave Chouquet

Belgian family of musical scholars, critics, teachers, and composers.

Fétis, François-Joseph (b Mons, Belgium, March 25, 1784; d Brussels, March 26, 1871)

Fétis, Edouard (Louis François) (b Bouvignes, nr Dinant, May 16, 1812; d Brussels, Jan 31, 1909)

Fétis, Adolphe Louis Eugène (b Paris, Aug 20, 1820...


Fétis, François-Joseph  

Katharine Ellis and Robert Wangermée

Member of Fétis family

(b Mons, Belgium, March 25, 1784; d Brussels, March 26, 1871). Belgian musicologist, critic, teacher, and composer. At once both a pioneer and a conservative, he was among the most influential musical figures in continental Europe for most of the 19th century, occupying key posts within the Franco-Belgian musical establishment and initiating significant cultural trends through his theoretical works and his concert activity.

Fétis came from a family of musicians and instrument makers: his grandfather, Simon-Joseph, was an organist and organ builder; his father, Antoine-Joseph, an organist, violinist in a local theatre, and a conductor of subscription concerts in Mons. As a child he played the organ, piano, and violin and began to compose; he was giving piano lessons in his early teens in order to help his family out of financial difficulties. As a result of playing continuo for his father’s musical gatherings, he became well acquainted with the music of C.P.E. Bach, Viotti, Mozart, and Haydn before leaving for Paris aged 16 to study at the Conservatoire, where he matriculated on ...


Fröhlich, (Franz) Joseph  

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...


Grgić, Miljenko  

Vjera Katalinić

(b Split, Croatia, July 17, 1951; d Split, May 14, 2011). Croatian musicologist and music critic. He graduated in music education from the Pedagogical faculty in Split (1972), in music theory at the Music Academy Sarajevo (1974), gained the Master’s degree in musicology there (1983), and took the PhD at the Zadar Faculty of the Humanities and Social Sciences with Stanislav Tuksar, with a dissertation on musical life in Split from the 18th century to the 20th (1995). He was employed at Radio Sarajevo (1975–87). From 1987 to 1997 he taught at the Faculty for Natural Sciences and Pedagogy in Split, and from 1997 until his death at the Academy of Arts in Split (dean: 2005–9). He was artistic director of several music festivals, including Sarajevo musical evenings (SVEM: 1982–6), Meeting of klapa ensembles in Klis, the Croatian Mandolin Festival ‘Mandolina Imota’ (which he also founded), Festival of the sacral music ‘Cro Patria’, Festival of the klapa singing in Omiš, and Musical Youth Split (...


Heerup, Gunnar  

John Bergsagel

(b Copenhagen, April 5, 1903; d Copenhagen, Nov 27, 1989). Danish writer on music and educator. After taking an organ diploma at the Royal Danish Conservatory (1924), he studied musicology at the University of Copenhagen (MA 1928). He taught music at the Copenhagen Choir School founded by Mogens Wöldike (1929–48), then at Aurehøj Gymnasium (1948–9) and at the College of Further Education for Teachers (1941–73), where he was appointed professor in 1969. Heerup was an active force in music education in Denmark in a variety of capacities: as author and editor of music textbooks and articles, as a member of the editorial board of the Folke- og Skolemusik series (1934–72), as a founder and chairman of the Danish Society for Music Therapy (1969) and as a member of numerous committees and governmental commissions. He was editor of ...


Henricus of [Heinrich von] Augsburg  

Michel Huglo

(b c1000–02; d Füssen am Lech, Bavaria, 1083). Writer on music. He was probably born in Bavaria, and later became a canon of Augsburg Cathedral; by the middle of the 11th century he was acting as scholasticus in the cathedral choir school there. In 1083, as the result of a conspiracy, Henricus was expelled from Augsburg at the same time as his bishop, Wigold. He sought refuge in the monastery of St Mang in Füssen, where he died and was buried. There is insufficient evidence to confirm his identification with Honorius Augustodunensis (see Flint).

Henricus's teachings on music are assembled in a treatise entitled De musica. This survives only in a south German manuscript ( A-Wn cpv 51), which has a lacuna at the end of the treatise. The work is set out in the form of a dialogue between pupil and teacher, a very popular literary technique used two centuries earlier by the author of the ...


Kerman, Joseph  

Philip Brett


(b London, April 3, 1924; d Berkeley, CA, March 17, 2014). American musicologist and critic. The son of an American journalist, he was educated at University College School, London, took the AB at New York University (1943) and the doctorate at Princeton University (1950), where he studied under Oliver Strunk, Randall Thompson and Carl Weinrich. After teaching at Westminster Choir College, Princeton (1949–51), he joined the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley (assistant professor 1951, associate professor 1955, professor 1960), serving as chairman of the music department (1960–63, 1991–4). In 1971 he was appointed Heather Professor of Music at Oxford, returning to Berkeley in 1974. He has held Guggenheim and Fulbright fellowships, and visiting fellowships at Princeton (1956), All Souls, Oxford (1966), Cornell (1970) and Clare Hall, Cambridge (1971). He was awarded an honorary doctorate by Fairfield University, Connecticut (...


Laloy, Louis  

John Trevitt

(b Gray, Haute-Saône, Feb 18, 1874; d Dôle, March 4, 1944). French musicologist and critic. He was a pupil at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (1893), gaining the agrégé des lettres (1896) and docteur ès lettres (1904); he also studied at the Schola Cantorum with d’Indy, Bordes and others (1899–1905). He contributed as editor-in-chief (‘without title’, as he said later) to Combarieu’s Revue musicale from 1901, and in 1905 founded, with Jean Marnold, the Mercure musical which Ecorcheville later transformed into the Bulletin français de la S.I.M. He was also co-founder of the short-lived Année musicale (1911–13) and an influential music critic of the Grande revue, the Gazette des beaux-arts and (from 1930) the Revue des deux mondes. In 1906–7 he lectured on music history at the Sorbonne while Romain Rolland was on leave. He served as secretary general of the Paris Opéra from ...


Marx, (Friedrich Heinrich) Adolf Bernhard  

Sanna Pederson

[Samuel Moses]

(b Halle, May 15, 1795; d Berlin, May 17, 1866). German music theorist, critic and pedagogue. One of the most influential theorists of the 19th century, Marx named and codified sonata form. As a critic he awakened and cultivated early appreciation for the symphonies of Beethoven; as a pedagogue he worked to make music an integral part of the education of the individual and of the development of the German nation.

Marx was the son of a Jewish doctor in Halle. He entered the university there in 1812, studying law, and together with Carl Loewe also studied composition with Türk. He practised law in Naumberg from 1815 to 1821, and in 1819 converted to Protestantism, changing his forenames from Samuel Moses to Friedrich Heinrich Adolf Bernhard. In 1821 he moved to Berlin, where he increasingly gave himself over to music and studied for a short period with C.F. Zelter. The music publisher A.M. Schlesinger made him editor of the ...