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Arab music  

Owen Wright, Christian Poché, and Amnon Shiloah

Music traditions in the Arabic-speaking world. For discussions of the music of specific areas, see also individual country articles.

The art music/folk (or popular) music opposition is a blunt instrument at best, and at various times and places in the Arab world it would be unrealistic or unhelpful to seek to draw a clear dividing line. In Arabic the terminological distinction is a modern importation, and while the earlier textual tradition may recognize regional differences it is more frequently concerned with an ultimately ethical evaluation of the various purposes for which music may be used. However, these imply distinctions of function and social context, and as one major constant in Arab and Middle Eastern Islamic culture generally we may identify a form of entertainment music for which, in fact, the label ‘art music’ is quite apt. Nurtured at courts, patronized by urban élites, performed by professionals (and aristocratic amateurs) and described in explicitly theoretical terms, art music constituted an integral element of sophisticated high culture and, consequently, could be regarded as a suitable subject for scientific and philosophical enquiry....


Argentina: Art music  

Gerard Béhague

There is scant evidence of musical life in Argentina during this period. As in most Latin American countries, the earliest efforts to establish a regular musical life in the European sense were made by missionaries, especially the Jesuits whose missions covered the Paraná river area and the La Plata region (Paraguay and Argentina). Music was important in the catechization of the indigenous Amerindian population, but the absence of conventual historians and the disappearance of the music archives of the Jesuits (see Lange) restrict any assessment of music-making during the 16th and 17th centuries. The first missionaries were Father Alonso Barzana, a Jesuit, and Francisco Solano, a Franciscan who was eventually canonized.

The first reference to an organ in the church of Santiago del Estero dates from 1585; the first school of music was founded by Father Pedro Comental (1595–1665). The music taught was mainly plainchant and polyphonic song, and Amerindians and African slaves soon became skilful musicians and instrument makers: there is documentary evidence of locally made European instruments before ...



Margaret J. Kartomi

Large double-headed barrel drum in the Central Javanese Gamelan. It is about 74 cm long and 40 cm wide and is suspended in a decorative wooden frame. The heads are tacked to the shell and one head is beaten with a heavy mallet. It emphasizes dramatic effects in some gamelan works, especially in the theatre and plays the role of the ...


Bolivia: Art music  

Gerard Béhague

Until 1776 Bolivia formed part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, as ‘Audiencia de Charcas’ or ‘Alto Peru’; the early history of art music in Bolivia is therefore related to that of Peru. During the colonial period the capital, La Plata (or Chuquisaca, and since 1839 Sucre), was one of the important intellectual and artistic centres of Spanish America, particularly because of its S Francisco Xavier University and its cathedral. Founded in 1538 it became a bishopric in 1552 and as early as 1569 its first music school was established by the musicians Juan de la Peña Madrid and Hernán García, to teach the Indians singing and instrumental performance. The wealth and consequent musical development of La Plata Cathedral (whose liturgy was closely linked to that of Seville) during the 17th and 18th centuries is attested to by the substantial historical and musical archives at the cathedral, whose holdings dating from the Baroque period make it one of the richest South American archival centres. Manuscript copies of works by such European composers as Galuppi, Hidalgo, Durón and Michael Haydn have been little explored. Throughout this period the cathedral library expanded considerably, receiving works from Spain and the colonies, especially Mexico. At the same time works of composers active at the cathedral were copied locally: the manuscript copy made in Potosí in ...



(Bulg. Republika Bălgariya)

Country in south-eastern Europe. Bulgaria is a country of 110,994 sq. km with a population of approximately 7.25 million people, about 70% of whom live in urban centres. The national language is Bulgarian, a south-Slavic language. Orthodox Christianity is the official religion. Minority groups include Pomaks (Slavic Bulgarian Muslims), ethnic Turks, Macedonians, Christian and Muslim Roma, Jews, Albanians, Vlachs, and Armenians.

Bulgaria: Art music

Bulgaria: Traditional music


Stara Zagora

USA, §II, 1(iii)(d): Traditional music: European American: Bulgarian & Macedonian

Russian and Slavonic church music, §5: Bulgarian church music





Piron, Alexis

Manolov, Emanuil

Arnaoudov, Georgi

Atanasov, Georgi

Atanasov, Nikola

Badinski, Nikolai

Balyozov, Rumen

Bukoreshtliyev, Angel

Dimitrov, Georgi

Dragostinov, Stefan

Dzhurov, Plamen

Eliezer, Bentzion

Goleminov, Marin

Hadjiapostolou, Nikolaos

Hadjiev, Parashkev

Ikonomov, Boyan Georgiyev

Ikonomov, Stefan

Iliev, Konstantin

Kandov, Aleksandar

Karastoyanov, Asen

Kazandzhiev, Vasil

Khristoskov, Petar

Khristov, Dimitar

Khristov, Dobri

Klinkova, Zhivka

Krasteva, Neva

Kutev, Philip

Kyurkchiyski, Krasimir...


Bulgaria: Art music  

Stoyan Petrov

revised by Magdalena Manolova and Milena Bozhikova

Bulgarian musical culture began to take shape when the Bulgarian state was founded in 681, and its character was initially determined by the interaction of three fundamental ethnic groups: the Slavs (who were in the majority), the Proto-Bulgarians, and the remnants of the assimilated ancient Thracian population. After the introduction of Christianity in 865 the starobălgarskiyat napev (old Bulgarian church chant) came into being, at first influenced by Byzantine chant. Kliment, Naum, and several other followers of SS Cyril and Methodius restored the Slav chantbooks which had been destroyed in Moravia, and created new ones. The musical traditions were handed down from generation to generation and the old Bulgarian chant was gradually formed: it took on certain distinctive characteristics, primarily because of the discrepancy between the number of syllables and the differences of stress in the Greek and Bulgarian languages, and also because of the influence of folk music. Among the few musical works to have survived are the 9th-century ...


Cabrillo Music Festival  

Sara Velez

revised by Megan E. Hill

International festival of orchestral and chamber music, solo recitals, and staged works, established in 1963 in Aptos, California. It was founded by Lou Harrison, the bassoonist Robert Hughes, and Ted Toews, an instructor at Cabrillo College. Held for two weeks in August in the Santa Cruz Civic Auditorium and at various other locations, such as the Mission San Juan Bautista, the festival is noted for its innovative programming and emphasis on the works of living composers: it has staged at least 120 world premieres and over 60 US premieres. The first music director, Gerhard Samuel, was succeeded by Richard Williams in 1969, Carlos Chávez in 1970, Dennis Russell Davies in 1974, John Adams in 1991, and Marin Alsop in 1992. The directors have stressed making the artists accessible to their audiences through workshops and “Meet the Composer” sessions, open rehearsals, and a composer-in-residence program, in which John Adams, William Bolcom, John Cage, Elliott Carter, Carlos Chávez, Aaron Copland, John Corigliano, Michael Daugherty, Philip Glass, Osvaldo Golijov, Lou Harrison, Jennifer Higdon, Keith Jarrett, Aaron Jay Kernis, Libby Larsen, Tania León, Pauline Oliveros, Arvo Pärt, Christopher Rouse, Joseph Schwantner, Virgil Thomson, and Joan Tower have participated. The festival orchestra consists of about 65 musicians from leading orchestras in the United States and Canada....


Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center  

James Chute

Chamber music society. Resident in New York at Alice Tully Hall, the society is a constituent of Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. It was conceived by William Schuman, the president of Lincoln Center, who appointed the pianist charles Wadsworth as the society’s first artistic director (1969–89). Among the musicians Wadsworth assembled to perform for the opening season (1969–70) were Charles Treger (violin), Walter Trampler (viola), Leslie Parnas (cello), Paula Robison (flute), Leonard Arner (oboe), Gervase de Peyer (clarinet), Loren Glickman (bassoon), and Richard Goode (piano). In 2010, led by artistic directors cellist David Finckel and pianist Wu Han, the society numbered around 35 members, joined by guest artists for its annual concert series, educational programs, and national and international tours. Many concerts are broadcast on radio and television, and in 2007 the society started its own recording label.

Following its premiere performance on 11 September 1969...



(Sp. República de Chile)

Country in South America. It is bordered in the north by Peru, east by Bolivia and Argentina and south and west by the Pacific Ocean. The country occupies a narrow strip of land running for 4200 km from north to south, with an area of 736, 905 km². Further territory includes Easter Island (Rapa-Nui), the Juthan Fernández Islands and many other islands to the west and south.

Chile: Art music

Chile: Traditional music


Guzmán, Federico

Ried, Aquinas

Aguilar, Miguel

Allende, Pedro Humberto

Allende-Blin, Juan

Amenábar, Juan

Amengual, René

Asuar, José Vicente

Becerra, Gustavo

Bisquertt, Próspero

Botto, Carlos

Brnčić, Gabriel

Cotapos, Acario

Escobar, Roberto

Falabella, Roberto

García, Fernando

Garrido, Pablo

Gómez-Vignes, Mario

González, Jaime

Guarello, Alejandro

Heinlein, Federico

Isamitt, Carlos

Lavín, Carlos

Leng, Alfonso

Letelier, Alfonso

Letelier, Miguel

Maturana, Eduardo

Orrego-Salas, Juan

Ortega, Sergio

Quinteros, Abelardo

Santa Cruz, Domingo

Soro, Enrique

Urrutia Blondel, Jorge

Vargas, Darwin

Vera-Rivera, Santiago

Havestadt, Bernhard...


Chile: Art music  

Juan Orrego-Salas

References to music in chronicles and histories dealing with the 16th century are scarce. Opportunities for the Spanish soldiers to sing villancicos, to play the vihuela, flute or trumpet, were limited at a time when the settlers lived under the constant menace of Indian attacks. Yet by the end of the century the officials of the Spanish Church, who had observed the power that music had over the indigenous peoples, began using it as a missionary tool. The singing of the Mass with the participation of Spaniards and indigenous peoples became customary, and Amerindians were trained to make and play European instruments.

More peaceful and prosperous conditions in the 17th century favoured the development of music. In churches the use of plainsong alternated with hymns honouring the Virgin and with villancicos sung in unison, in two, three or four parts, or by a vocal soloist accompanied by guitar or harp. Pontifical Masses were complemented with ‘fanfares of trumpets, cornets and drums’. The death of Charles II in ...


Chorus (i)  

James G. Smith and Percy M. Young

[choir](from Gk. chorosFr. choeurGer. ChorIt., Sp. coro)

A group of singers who perform together either in unison or, much more usually, in parts; also, by extension, a work, or movement in a work, written for performance by such an ensemble (e.g. the ‘Hallelujah’ chorus in Handel's Messiah). In the performance of part-music a distinction is generally observed between a group of soloists (one singer to each part) and a chorus or choir (more than one singer, usually several or many, for each part); this distinction is not, however, without its exceptions (e.g. the solo petit choeur of the 17th-century French grand motet). The designations ‘chorus’ and ‘choir’ are often used in conjunction with qualifying terms indicative of constitution or function (e.g. mixed choir, male voice choir, festival chorus, opera chorus). Moreover at various times and places certain types of chorus and choir have been generically designated by terms lacking the words ‘chorus’ and ‘choir’ (e.g. ...


The Chorus (i) from the mid-18th century to the later 19th  

Percy M. Young

revised by James G. Smith

See also Chorus (i)

During the last years of his life Handel’s oratorios were increasingly performed in the English provinces, generally in conformity with practices familiar in London. His death turned what had already become a cult almost into a religion. In 1759 there were many commemorative Handel performances, not only in London but also in Oxford, Cambridge and other large towns and in the small village of Church Langton, near Leicester, where there was a two-day festival. In the same year, at the Three Choirs Festival at Hereford, Messiah, which like the other oratorios had been previously performed only in secular buildings, was for the first time sung in a cathedral. Almost from the beginning of Handel’s career as an oratorio composer, the profits on performances of his works had helped sustain charities, and as the need for investment in hospitals became more urgent, so the cult of Handel, assisted by the editions of Randall and Arnold, grew even stronger during the remainder of the 18th century....


The Chorus (i) in Antiquity and the Middle Ages  

James G. Smith

See also Chorus (i)

Organized choruses are known to have existed in several cultures of the ancient world. Two pre-Christian cultures, those of Greece and Palestine, fostered choral singing that was destined to have an influence on later developments in Western music.

In ancient Greece the chorus was a dancing as well as a singing ensemble. It consisted of one of four groupings – men, women, men and women together, or men and boys – and performed only monophonic music. It played a particularly important role in the drama of the Periclean Age – indeed, Greek drama evolved from religious and ceremonial performances of a chorus of masked dancers. Of the many types of choral dances performed by such choruses, the paean, first mentioned in the Iliad (c850 bce), was an invocation to Apollo in his capacity as god of healing; the partheneia, introduced about 650 bce, was for a women’s chorus composed of Spartan virgins; and the dithyramb, raised to the level of choral art music about ...


The Chorus (i) in the 20th century  

Percy M. Young

revised by James G. Smith

See also Chorus (i)

Two major trends – sometimes mutually contradictory, but nonetheless co-existent as the century drew to a close – marked the progess of choral development in the 20th century. On the one hand, there was the pursuit of a monolithic ideal in terms of choral organization and sonority. This tendency, which predominated during the first 60 or so years of the century, was challenged, mildly at first and more strongly from the 1960s, by a growing tendency towards differentiation: organizational, structural, functional, timbral and stylistic.

From very early in the century, the SATB chorus of mixed voices became the favoured medium. Female sopranos and altos were firmly entrenched in choruses large and small, sacred and secular. Choirs of men and boys continued to exist only in a few tradition-laden ecclesiastical and academic insitutions, primarily those of the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches. These all-male church choirs, as the century progressed, became exceptional even within the Anglican and Roman churches, and they were no longer in the forefront of choral development. Secular choruses, like those founded during the 19th century for oratorio singing, became increasingly important. Under the leadership of choral specialists such as the Englishman Henry Coward, these organizations pursued the ideal of ‘artistic choralism’, as it was called in Coward’s ...


The Chorus (i) in the Baroque  

James G. Smith

See also Chorus (i)

The general enlargement of church and chapel choirs that had taken place during the Renaissance was not carried forward to any great extent during the period from 1600 to 1750. As in the previous period, unusually large choirs occasionally flourished as a result of favourable patronage: the French royal chapel in the second half of the 17th century, for example, consisted of about 60 singers, Louis XIV having doubled its former size in order to make it a sufficiently splendid representative of his opulent court. For the celebration of particularly important occasions, untypically large choral bodies were sometimes created either by combining two or more choirs or by enlarging a single choir through the temporary employment of additional singers. The choirs of the Chapel Royal and Westminster Abbey were customarily combined at English coronations, and on at least one occasion, the funeral of Handel in 1759...


The Chorus (i) in the Renaissance  

James G. Smith

See also Chorus (i)

With only a few exceptions, secular music continued throughout the Renaissance to be sung by soloists. At the courts and in the homes of aristocrats and prosperous merchants, madrigals, chansons and all other types of Renaissance secular music were performed for pleasure by amateurs, sometimes with the assistance, or perhaps under the leadership, of court or household professional musicians. Men and women were on an equal footing in performing these convivial pieces, and instruments were freely combined and interchanged with the voices; the social nature of the musical activity made it essential for all those present on any given occasion to contribute whatever vocal or instrumental talents they possessed. Although secular music of this period was generally sung and played by solo performers, there were some important occasions, such as festivities associated with court weddings, at which it was publicly performed by choruses consisting for the most part of professional musicians. In ...



John Spitzer, Leon Botstein, Charles Barber, and Jack Westrup

revised by Neal Zaslaw and José A. Bowen

(Fr. direction d'orchestreGer. DirigirenIt. direzione d'orchestra)

Modern conducting combines at least three functions: 1) the conductor beats time with his or her hands or with a baton in performance; 2) the conductor makes interpretative decisions about musical works and implements these decisions in rehearsal and performance; 3) the conductor participates in the administration of the musical ensemble. The word conducting acquired its present meaning in the 19th century, as the practice developed in its modern form. Conducting is largely limited to the tradition of Western art music, although other traditions have adopted the practice (e.g. Turkish art music, big band jazz).

The history of musical direction may conveniently be divided into three overlapping phases: the singer-timebeater (15th–16th century); the instrumentalist-leader (17th–18th century); the baton conductor (19th–20th century).

Conducting History to 1800.

Conducting History since 1820.

Conducting Technique.

B. Grosbayne: A Bibliography of Works and Articles on Conductors, Conducting and Related Fields in Various Languages from the Sixteenth Century to the Present Time...


Conducting History since 1820  

Leon Botstein

See also Conducting

1820 has long served as a watershed in the history of conducting; Ludwig Spohr is said to have introduced the baton at a concert in London that year. Although he probably used a violin bow, Spohr took credit in his Autobiography for ‘the triumph of the baton as a time-giver’. Spohr had used scrolled music paper when conducting The Creation in 1809. Carl Maria von Weber used a manuscript roll to direct concerts in Dresden in 1817 but subsequently switched to the baton.

The rapid shift to the baton suggests the extent to which the craft of conducting was transformed between the 1820s and 1847, the year of Mendelssohn's death. The difficulties and innovations in the orchestral music of Beethoven and the early Romantics, and the increased number and diversity of the instruments in the orchestra, made directing from the first violin desk or from behind a keyboard in the opera pit unsatisfactory. The need for a central figure visually in charge of the ensemble became widely accepted. The codification of visual signals as the sole systematic means of guiding a performance quickly followed. The evolution of the art of conducting from auditory directives, including clapping, tapping (although tapping the stand at the start lingered on through the century), foot-stamping and shouting, and most of all playing along, coincided with the decline in amateur participation in public performance and the rise in spectator expectations. By the mid-1830s, the greatly expanded urban audience for music demanded higher standards as a consequence of the astonishing and widely travelled virtuosity of Spohr, Paganini, Liszt and Thalberg. More accurate orchestral ensemble, intonation and balance were responses to advances in dexterity and brilliance in solo instrumental playing. Weber and Spohr improved the quality of orchestral playing. Weber re-seated the opera orchestra so that woodwind, brass and percussion were no longer obscured by the violins. Nevertheless, the placement of the conductor at the front of the orchestra with his back to the audience did not become uniform until later in the century....


Conducting History to 1800  

John Spitzer

revised by Neal Zaslaw

See also Conducting

The rise of polyphonic music and mensural notation made it advantageous to coordinate singers on different parts by means of a visible beat called the tactus. The tactus marked a unit of musical time, usually (but not always) equivalent to a semibreve. A few 15th-century paintings are said to depict singers beating time, but their interpretation is problematic. A hand that seems to be beating time may be giving cheironomic signs; what seems to be a baton may be a pointer for indicating the notes in a choirbook. Writers on music do not mention timebeating until the very end of the 15th century. Adam von Fulda (1490) mentions the tactus, but does not say how to mark it; Ramis de Pareia (1482) recommends that singers mark the tactus to themselves by tapping a foot, hand or finger. Many 16th-century treatises give instructions for displaying the tactus to other singers with vertical motions of the hand and arm. Agricola (...


Conducting Technique  

Charles Barber and Jack Westrup

revised by José A. Bowen

See also Conducting

At the end of the 20th century stick technique and podium manner had become more standardized than at any point in the history of conducting. The rise of formal training at college and conservatory levels, the influence of international competitions and local apprenticeship programmes, the impact of recordings and film in the establishment of a conducting ‘common practice’, the impact of the international conductor as a generator of commerce and the concomitant reduction of expensive rehearsal time have all combined to codify the functions and skills of the modern maestro. These purely technical skills coexist in several forms and begin with first choices.

As a consequence, particularly, of the early music and performing practice movements of the 1940s–90s, and the associated rise to prominence of the scholar-conductor (Mackerras, Harnoncourt, Norrington, Christie, Gardiner, Jacobs, McGegan, Hogwood and others), conductors are increasingly concerned about textual accuracy. Accordingly, serious conducting begins with a choice of score that reflects the highest state of current scholarship. Scholars and publishers are required to provide answers to problems of variant, incomplete and error-ridden editions. While it was perfectly acceptable 100 years ago to retouch Handel, Chopin, Schumann and even Beethoven, wholesale rewriting of Musorgsky and Bruckner was the norm, and issues of period performance were rarely raised, today, many conductors look to a more rigorous attitude to the composer's assumptions regarding the performance of his music. This is reflected in the procedures of a conductor's preparation....