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Mary Berry


The practice of embellishing certain sections of plainsong (e.g. intonations and cadences, particularly in the solo passages of alleluias, graduals and responsories) in order to add greater solemnity. It was excluded from the Office for the Dead. Machicotage appears to have been widespread in France and Italy in the Middle Ages and to have continued into modern times. Lebeuf described it (somewhat disparagingly) according to its practice in 18th-century France. It appears to have consisted chiefly in the addition of passing notes, although Lebeuf linked with machicotage the occasional practice of dropping a 3rd below the normal melodic line, especially at cadences.

The technique of machicotage could be employed by the celebrant when intoning the hymns of the Little Hours, the Te Deum, Veni Creator and Tantum ergo, etc. Lebeuf explained how he would intone the well-known Whitsun hymn Veni Creator (see ex.1 ). Normally, however, the practice was reserved for singers – members of the lower clergy – known as ...


Musica figurata  



(Heb.: ‘melody’; pl. nigunim

In the liturgical music of the Ashkenazi Jews, an early form of centonized chant, also known as nusa . Among the East European Ḥasidic Jews, the term refers to a type of vocal music, often sung to nonsense syllables and accompanied by dancing, of which one of the important forms is the ...



Alastair Dick

Variable tension waisted drum of ancient India, important in the theatre orchestra. It is described in the Nāṭyaśāstra as 16 fingers (perhaps 32 cm) long with a narrow waist. The shell at the heads is 8 fingers wide externally, but as the shell here is 1½ fingers thick the internal diameter of the opening is 5 fingers; the diameter of the waist is 4 fingers. Elsewhere in the same text the drum is said to be bound all around with strings. Its playing technique is also described: the fingers of one hand or the armpit are used to tension and release the heads, producing low, high, and portamento (socchvāsa: ‘sighing’) sounds. The paṇava can thus very probably be identified with the waisted armpit drum seen in ancient sculpture. The name also occurs in general Sanskrit literature, often linked with tūṇava (paṇavatūṇava: ‘pipe and tabor’.

C. Marcel-Dubois: Les instruments de musique de l’Inde ancienne...


Tonus (iii)  


Tonus (iv)