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Abeles, Harold F(red)  

Jere T. Humphreys

(b New York, March 10, 1945). American music educator and scholar. He received degrees from the University of Connecticut (BS 1966, MA 1968) and the University of Maryland, College Park (PhD 1971). He served on the faculties of the University of North Carolina at Greensboro (1972–5), Indiana University (1975–82), and Teachers College, Columbia University (1982–). At Teachers College he served as coordinator of music education, chair of the Arts and Humanities Department, and director of the Division of Instruction. He is coauthor (with C.R. Hoffer and R.H. Klotman) of Foundations of Music Education (1984, 2/1994) and coeditor (with L. Custodero) of Critical Issues in Music Education: Contemporary Theory and Practice (2010). He wrote chapters for the Handbook of Music Psychology (1980, 2/1996) and The New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning...


Abrashev, Bozhidar  

Angelina Petrova

(b March 28, 1936; d Nov 6, 2006). Bulgarian composer and musicologist. He studied composition under Pantcho Vladigerov at the State Conservatoire (now renamed the Pantcho Vladigerov National Music Academy) in Sofia, Bulgaria. He worked as a conductor with the Filip Kutev National Folklore Ensemble, and as a lecturer (from 1966) and professor (from 1990) of symphonic orchestration at the NMA. He served as vice-president of the NMA (1999–2001) and as Minister of Culture (2001–2005).

A composer of symphonic and chamber music, his individual style epitomizes the post-tonal tendencies of the early 20th century; he distanced himself from the Social Realism movement that was imposed upon composers in the countries of Eastern Europe. After 1990 he also wrote cantatas and oratorios, which exhibit an even more radical post-tonal style. He is the author of a number of theoretical studies on symphonic orchestration....


Acevedo Vargas, Jorge Luis  

Enrique Cordero Rodríguez

(b San José, Aug 24, 1943). Costa Rican composer, ethnomusicologist and baritone. He obtained a teaching diploma and the BA at the University of Costa Rica Conservatory, with singing as his special subject. During 1975–6 he lived in Paris, where he studied singing at the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Musique, Gregorian chant and choral conducting at the Catholic University and ethnomusicology at the Sorbonne. He taught at the Escuela de Artes Musicales of the University of Costa Rica (1976–90; director of the Escuela, 1983–7; dean of the fine arts faculty of the university, 1987–91). In 1994, with the painter Ronald Mills, he co-founded the Centro de Investigaciones y Documentación de Musica y de Artes Plásticas, researching the traditional music of Guanacaste and Limón provinces and of the Costa Rican indigenous people, conducting field studies in Costa Rica, Guatemala and Mexico, making recordings, publishing books and articles, and holding lectures and seminars....


Adamis, Mihalis  

Dimitri Conomos

revised by George Leotsakos

(b Piraeus, May 19, 1929). Greek composer and musicologist. He graduated in theology from Athens University (1954), in neo-Byzantine music (1955) and harmony (1956) from the Piraeus League Conservatory, and in counterpoint, fugue and composition (1959) from the Hellenic Conservatory, where he studied with Yannis A. Papaïannou. At Brandeis University (1962–5) he studied composition (with Arthur Berger), Byzantine music palaeography and electronic music. In 1950 he revived the boys' choir of the Greek Royal Palace, which he directed until 1967. He also established and conducted the Athens Chamber Chorus (1958–61). Between 1961 and 1963 he taught Byzantine music at the Holy Cross Theological Academy, Boston, Massachusetts. In 1965 he established the first electronic music studio in Athens. He was a founder-member (1965) and later president (1975–85) of both the Hellenic Association for Contemporary Music and the Greek section of the ISCM. In ...


Aharonián, Coriún  

Gerard Béhague

(b Montevideo, August 4, 1940). Uruguayan composer, musicologist and teacher of Armenian parentage. He studied composition with Tosar (1955–7, 1966–9), the piano with Adela Herrera-Lerena (1945–59), conducting with Jacques Bodmer (1966–9), musicology with Ayestarán (1964–6) and electro-acoustic techniques with Henry Jasa (1961–3). In Buenos Aires he studied at the Instituto Torcuato di Tella with Gandini and Kroepfl (1969), in Venice with Nono (1970), at the Darmstadt summer courses with Ligeti, Aloys Kontarsky, Xenakis, Globokar and Christian Wolff (1970, 1974), and at various of the Latin American Courses for Contemporary Music with Mumma, Rabe and others (1971–89).

Aharonián has been influential as a teacher and as an organizer of activities in music and music education both in Uruguay and abroad. His teaching specializations range from composition, choral conducting and organology to analysis, musical folklore and music and society; he has taught mainly at the Uruguayan National University and the National Institute for Teacher Training, as well as privately. An assiduous participant and lecturer in seminars and workshops in Europe, the Americas and the Philippines, he has been a member of the executive committee of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music and of the presidential council of the ISCM, and the executive secretary of the Latin American Courses for Contemporary Music. He has received numerous awards from Uruguay and other countries for his work as a composer, musicologist and choral conductor, and commissions from France, Poland, Sweden and Germany....


Alexiadis, Minas  

George Vlastos

(b Athens, Feb 17, 1960). Greek composer, musicologist, and keyboard player. Born into an artistic family, he took up jazz and free improvised music. During the period 1977–84 he took his first lessons in composition with Yannis Ioannidis while he also studied law at the University of Athens. Thereafter he continued his studies in composition at the Robert Schumann Musikhochschule (now Robert Schumann University, Düsseldorf) with Guenther Becker until 1986. Having a background both in jazz and electronic music, he showed an interest in the echo effect. Thus, in his early works (dating from the mid-1980s) he developed a heterophonic technique, which he called the ‘technique of linear heterophonic modulations’. In his music he makes extensive use of ancient Greek tetrachords, melodic ramifications, and modal structures deriving from the Greek and other non-Western traditions. Until 1994 his writing was abstract and rhythmically complex, while his later works are more conventionally structured and use consonant sonorities. His output includes operas, vocal music, works for orchestra, works for solo instruments, chamber music, incidental music, electronic music, ballet music, and music for films. Among his major works are the opera ...


Ames, Charles  

Kristine H. Burns

(b Pasadena, CA, March 1, 1955). American composer, theorist and computer programmer. He studied at Pomona College (mathematics and music composition, BA 1977) and SUNY, Buffalo (MA 1979, PhD 1984); his teachers included Morton Feldman, Lejaren Hiller, Kohn, Kotoński, John Steele Ritter and Dorrance Stalvey. In 1995 he was appointed Senior Programmer Analyst with Client Logic Corporation (also known as the Softbank Services Group, UCA&L and Upgrade Corporation of America). He has also served as a visiting instructor for numerous courses in computer music, automated composition and systematic compositional procedures at SUNY, Buffalo, the New England Conservatory and the Kurzweil Foundation.

Ames is most noted for his work in systematic approaches to music composition. His use of computers in the composition of works for acoustic instruments has been influenced by techniques originated by Xenakis, Gottfried Michael Koenig and Hiller. His interests range from music cognition and hierarchical structures in music to computer-verified modelling of musical styles. His computer music programs, most notably Cybernetic Composer (...


Amigo, Cristian  

Robert Paul Kolt

(b Santiago, Chile, Jan 2, 1963). American composer, guitarist, ethnomusicologist, educator, and producer of Chilean birth. He immigrated to the United States as a child and studied guitar with Joseph Torello, Vincent Bredice, Lou Mowad, and George Aguiar. Amigo enrolled at Florida State University (1980) where he studied classical guitar with Bruce Holzman and William Carter and was active as a performer of popular music. In 1986, he moved to Los Angeles, earning a degree in political science from California State University, Northridge (BA 1995) and degrees in ethnomusicology (MA 1988, PhD 2003) from the University of Calfornia, Los Angeles. He studied in Los Angeles with Kenny Burrell, Gary Pratt, Harihar Rao, and wadada leo Smith. Amigo also performed with African, Arabic, funk, hard rock, free jazz, jazz, and reggae groups, and worked as a session guitarist for Hans Zimmer, Mark Mancina, Jay Rifkin, and Les Hooper, among others....


Anderson, Gillian  

Wayne D. Shirley


(b Brookline, MA, Nov 28, 1943). American conductor, musicologist, and music librarian. Anderson attended Bryn Mawr (BA 1965), the University of Illinois (MM 1969), and the University of Maryland (MLS 1989). Anderson was a Music Librarian at the Library of Congress from 1978 to 1995 before resigning to pursue an independent career as a conductor, specializing in the conducting of music to accompany the showings of silent films. Her interest in this area began in the late 1970s while working on the score for Carl Dreyer’s The Passion of Joan of Arc. Her conducting is informed by scholarly work; whenever possible her performances use the music for its original release; lacking that, she compiles a score using material which might have been used during the film’s first showings. A good example of her work is the 1922 film Häxan (now on Criterion Collection DVD 134)....


Angermüller, Rudolph  

Rudolf Klein

(b Gadderbaum, Bielefeld, Sept 2, 1940). Austrian musicologist of German origin. He studied musicology in Mainz (1961–5), Münster (1965–7) and Salzburg (1967–70) with Schmitz, Massenkeil, Federhofer and Croll, as well as the piano, double bass and music theory at the Salzburg Conservatory. He received the doctorate at Salzburg University with a dissertation on Salieri in 1970 and was assistant lecturer at the musicology institute of Salzburg University under Gerhard Croll (1968–72). While continuing to teach at Salzburg University, in 1972 he became academic librarian of the Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum in Salzburg, a post in which he worked with Otto Schneider on the preparation of the Mozart bibliography. He has been editor-in-chief of the Mozart Neue Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke (1973–81), director of musicology (1981–9) and secretary-general (1989–) of the Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum, curator of many exhibitions and a prolific Mozart scholar. His Salieri studies have brought him international recognition and he has edited the opera ...


Angi, Ştefan  

Gabriel Banciu and Cristina Şuteu

[Angi István]

(b Ojdula, 16 Oct 1933) Romanian music aesthetician and musicologist. He is considered the founder of musical aesthetics in Romania. Ştefan Angi studied at Cluj-Napoca Conservatory (1953–8) where his teachers included Márkos Albert (music theory), Jodál Gabor (harmony), Max Eisikovits (counterpoint), Jagamas János (forms), Földes László (aesthetics), Lakatos István and Benkő András (music history), Zsurka Péter (violin), Ana Voileanu-Nicoară (chamber music), Antonin Ciolan (orchestral ensemble), and Szenik Ilona (folklore). He then studied at Lomonosov Moscow State University (1963–5), with the philosopher Valentin Ferdinandovich Asmus, where he graduated with a dissertation on Music and Affectivity and took the PhD in Romania in 1966. In 1958 he joined the academic staff of Cluj-Napoca Conservatory and between 1976 and 1986 was the dean of the Theoretic Faculty. He was awarded the ‘Cultural Merit’ medal (1970) and the ‘Romanian Academy Award’ (1977). Angi is a permanent correspondent on serial radio broadcasts, has published more than 100 articles, and has attended 70 conferences – on musicology, philosophy, and aesthetics....


Antonicek, Theophil  

(b Vienna, Nov 22, 1937). Austrian musicologist. He studied with Schenk and Wessely at the University of Vienna, taking the doctorate there in 1962 with a dissertation on Ignaz von Mosel; in 1967 he spent a year of study with Remo Giazotto in Italy. From 1963 to 1999 he was a research musicologist for the Music Research Commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. Concurrently he was secretary of the Gesellschaft zur Herausgabe der Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Österreich (1963–74), becoming director of publications (from 1998). He also served the newly created Österreichische Gesellschaft für Musikwissenschaft as general secretary (from 1973), vice-president (from 1984) and president (1990–96). In 1979 he was appointed a reader at the University of Vienna. He was elected a corresponding member (1984) and later a full member (1995) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. He became editor in ...


Aparicio, Frances R  

Marysol Quevedo

(b Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Dec 11, 1955). American literary scholar. She studied Spanish and Comparative Literature at Indiana University (BA 1978), and earned the MA (1980) and PhD (1983) in Spanish from Harvard University. Aparicio’s research focuses on languages, cultural hybridity, and transnationalism in Latino and Latina culture. She examines the role of popular music in defining the cultural changes, hybridity and cultural politics in Latin American popular culture. She is the author of Listening to Salsa (1998), co-editor of two volumes of essays: Musical Migrations (New York, 2003) and Tropicalizations (Hanover, NY, 1997), and has published many articles. She received the Modern Languages Association’s Katherine Kovac Singer Award for the best book in Hispanic Studies and the Best Book Award from the International Association for the Study of Popular Music for Listening to Salsa. Aparicio has taught at Stanford University, University of Arizona, University of Michigan, and University of Illinois at Chicago, and currently holds the position of professor of Spanish and Portuguese and director of the Latina and Latino Studies Program at Northwestern University....


Arlt, Wulf  

Jürg Stenzl


(b Breslau [now Wrocław], March 5, 1938). German musicologist. He studied musicology at the universities of Cologne (1958–60), and Basle (under Schrade), where he obtained the doctorate in 1966 with a dissertation on the Beauvais Office for the Feast of the Circumcision. As an assistant he maintained and expanded the Basle microfilm archives, and became editor of Palaeographie der Musik, prepared by Schrade. In 1965 he was appointed lecturer at Basle University, where he completed his Habilitation in musicology in 1970 with a work on the theory and practice of Ars Subtilior; he was appointed supernumerary professor in 1972. From 1971 to 1978 he was also director of the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, the teaching and research institute for early music in Basle, and editor of the journal Basler Jahrbuch für historische Musikpraxis. He was made professor and chair of musicology at Basle in 1991.

In his research Arlt has concentrated on music of the Middle Ages. He is concerned with creating a productive relationship between the musicology of the past (in the tradition of Schrade and Handschin) and current approaches in the discipline. His writings focus on the genre, notation, analysis and interpretation of medieval, 17th- and 18th-century music, and he is particularly concerned with investigating the connections between music and text. Best known for his publications on medieval music, he has examined liturgical genres (particularly the trope and the lied), early polophony, the motet, Machaut and the history of the chanson. In his work with the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, he has successfully fused new findings in musicology with new standards of performance, assisted by international specialists in early music. His contribution in this area is exemplified by his collaboration with Dominique Vellard, whom he has advised on performing practice and style for a recording series which includes 11th-century polphony, tropes from the St Gallen Codices 484 and 381, and the ‘nova cantica’ of the Engelberg Codex 314....


Asnawa, I Ketut Gede  

Michael B. Bakan

[Gedé ]

(b Kaliungu Kaja, Denpasar, 1955). Balinese composer, performer, teacher and musicologist. Born into a musical family, he is the brother of I Komang Astita and the cousin of Wayan Sadra and I Wayan Yudana, all well-known composers. He has taught composition and gamelan performance at the Sekolah Menengah Karawitan Indonesia and Sekolah Tinggi Seni Indonesia in Bali since 1981. He is a graduate of these same institutions (1974 and 1980 respectively) and also holds a graduate degree (SSKar) from the Institut Seni Indonesia in Yogyakarta, as well as an MA in ethnomusicology from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, where he wrote his thesis on Balinese gambuh drumming under the direction of Mantle Hood (1991). He directed the Balinese gamelan programme at the University of Maryland while a student there (1988–91), and since that time has taught gamelan at the University of Montreal (...


Babbitt, Milton  

Elaine Barkin

revised by Martin Brody and Judith Crispin


(b Philadelphia, PA, May 10, 1916; d Princeton, NJ, Jan 29, 2011). American composer and theorist. He contributed extensively to the understanding and extension of 12-tone compositional theory and practice and was one of the most influential composers and teachers in the United States since World War II.

Brought up in Jackson, Mississippi, he started playing the violin at the age of four and several years later also studied clarinet and saxophone. He graduated from high school in 1931, having already demonstrated considerable skills in jazz ensemble performance and the composition of popular songs. His father’s professional involvement with mathematics (as an actuary) was influential in shaping Babbitt’s intellectual environment. In 1931 Babbitt entered the University of Pennsylvania with the intention of becoming a mathematician, but he soon transferred to New York University, concentrating on music under marion Bauer and ...


Badian, Maya  

Irina Boga

(b Bucharest, Romania, April 18, 1945). Canadian composer and musicologist of Romanian descent. After musical studies at the University of Music in Bucharest (with Tiberiu Olah, Dan Constantinescu, and Aurel Stroe) she obtained the PhD in musicology from the University of Montreal, under the supervision of André Prévost. In 1987 she immigrated to Canada where she became a professor at the Royal Music Conservatory in Ottawa (teaching harmony, counterpoint, musical analysis, orchestration, composition, and computer-assisted music) and associated composer at the Canadian Music Centre, and founded her own musical publishing house. Maya Badian is a senior theoretical examiner for the College of Examiners. Her catalogue includes compositions for almost all genres: symphonic music (e.g. Holocaust—In Memoriam, Symphony), concertos dedicated to different instruments (e.g. the Piano Concerto, Violin Concerto, Guitar Concerto, Clarinet and Saxophone Double Concerto, Marimba and Vibraphone Double Concerto, and the Concerto Grosso for Timpani, Trumpet and String Orchestra), music for choir and orchestra (e.g. ...


Bailey, Robert  

Paula Morgan

(b Flint, MI, June 21, 1937; d Naples, FL, July 6, 2012). American musicologist. He received the BA from Dartmouth College in 1959. Following a year of study at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Munich, he began graduate work in musicology at Princeton University. He studied piano with Eduard Steuermann during this time, and his Princeton professors included Oliver Strunk and Milton Babbitt; he received the MFA from Princeton in 1962 and the PhD in 1969. Bailey taught at Yale University from 1964 to 1977. He was on the faculty of the Eastman School of Music, first as associate professor (1977–85) and then as professor (1985–6); in 1986 he was appointed Carroll and Milton Petrie Professor of Music at New York University and a member of the graduate faculty of the Juilliard School.

In his research, Bailey concentrated on German music of the 19th and 20th centuries, particularly Wagner, Brahms and Mahler, and on 19th-century musical autographs. In addition to his more strictly academic activities, he lectured on Wagner at the Bayreuth Festival (...


Baley, Virko  

Kyle Gann

(b Radekhov, Oct 21, 1938). American composer and conductor of Ukrainian birth. He studied at the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music and Art (BA 1960, MM 1962; later the California Institute of the Arts), where his teachers included Earle Voorhies and Morris Ruger; he also studied the piano with Rosina Lhevine and composition with Donald Erb and Mario Davidovsky. He joined the music department at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas in 1970. He has also served as founder-conductor of the Nevada SO (1980–95), music director of the Las Vegas Opera Company (1983–8) and principal guest conductor and music advisor of the Kiev Camerata (from 1995). His scholarly work has established him as an authority on Soviet music.

Although Baley's music frequently refers to Ukrainian sources, his style became increasingly Americanized after 1980. The First Violin Concerto (1987) includes Ukrainian folk elements and exhibits a European polish and mood, but its unusual orchestral textures, rippling with celeste, vibraphone and harpsichord, seem American, as does the energetic drumming of the second movement ‘Dies irae’ and the muted jazz trumpet of the final ‘Agon’. His gradual move away from a mournful, Eastern European, somewhat neo-classical idiom climaxed in ...


Ballif, Claude  

Daniel Charles

(André François)

(b Paris, May 22, 1924; d Poissons, France, July 24, 2004). French composer and theorist. Born into an intellectual family (his uncle, Fr Festugière, was a Greek scholar and a member of the Institut), he decided at the age of 16 to make his career in music and entered the Bordeaux Conservatoire as a pupil of J.-F. Vaubourgoin; later he studied at the Paris Conservatoire with Noël Gallon, Aubin and Messiaen. In 1951 he went to Berlin where, as a pupil of Blacher and Rufer, he became familiar with the music of the Second Viennese School, and where he studied musicology with Stuckenschmidt. Ballif had already made a reputation as the composer of Cendres (1946) for percussion when, in 1953, he completed his theoretical work Introduction à la métatonalité, published in 1956 with a foreword by the aesthetician Etienne Souriau. In 1955 Ballif won the first prize for composition at the Geneva International Competition, and he lectured at the French Institutes of Berlin (...