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Anne Beetem Acker

[chip music]

Term related to music made by the eight-bit soundchips in 1980s and early 1990s gaming systems and microcomputers, as well as music composed using modified (‘modded’) gaming systems or environments designed to emulate the capabilities of early soundchips. (A chip, or microchip, is an integrated circuit packaged in a usually flat rectangular body with input and output pins for attachment to a larger circuit system.) The original systems include the NEC PC-8801, Commodore 64, Nintendo Entertainment Systems, Amiga, Game Boy, and Mega Drive/Genesis. The distinctive sound of music from these systems arises from their use of only a few simple waveforms, white noise, and beeps, as well as unreliable pitches and limited polyphony. Despite these restrictions, inventive chiptune composers in the 1980s emulated many styles of music using flutelike melodies, buzzing square-wave bass lines, rapid arpeggios, and noisy primitive percussion. Game music is designed to loop indefinitely and then quickly switch depending upon the characters or scenes of the game, requiring the music to be simple yet evocative. Composers used software ‘trackers’, tediously entering the note and other information in numerical codes that the hardware chip could use....



Edward H. Tarr

(Fr. fanfare; Ger. Fanfare; It. fanfara)

(1) A flourish of trumpets or other brass instruments, often with percussion, for ceremonial purposes. Fanfares are distinct from military signals in usage and character. In addition to its musical meaning, ‘fanfare’ has always had a figurative meaning. The root, fanfa (‘vaunting’), goes back to late 15th-century Spanish. Although etymologists believe the word to be onomatopoeic, it may in fact be derived from the Arabic anfár (‘trumpets’). The word ‘fanfare’ occurs for the first time in French in 1546 and in English in 1605, in both instances figuratively; it was first used to signify a trumpet flourish by Walther, although it may have been used earlier to mean a hunting signal: See (3) below.

Walther, Altenburg and an anonymous 18th-century author belonging to the Prüfende Gesellschaft in Halle all agreed that a fanfare was ‘usable on all days of celebration and state occasions’ and consisted of ‘a mixture of arpeggios and runs’ improvised by trumpeters and kettledrummers (J.E. Altenburg, 91); a ‘flourish’ in the British Army during the same period was ‘without any set rule’. Heyde has shown that this type of unreflective improvisation, the purpose of which was to glorify a sovereign, goes back to trumpeters’ ...



Hubert Unverricht

revised by Janet K. Page

(Ger.: ‘field music’)

A term used for the fanfares, and later other compositions, also known as Feldstücke, ‘needed in the field at warlike happenings’ (Altenburg, 88); alternatively it applied to an ensemble that played such pieces. The term referred originally to the corps of military trumpeters which replaced the drum and fife bands widely used in the Middle Ages.

In 1704 J.P. Krieger published six suites in his collection Lustige Feld-Music, auf vier blasende oder andere Instrumenta gerichtet, extending the term to include works for wind groups. As these groups had at first played double-reed instruments, their members were known as Hautboisten or Oboisten, (see Hautboist) even though from early in the 18th century the ensemble often included other types of instrument. The Feldmusik were military musicians, but they also performed for court festivities and entertainments, either as a self-contained ensemble or as part of a larger group. These Feldmusik ensembles, especially as used for entertainment, became known in about ...


Fife calls  

H.G. Farmer

Tunes played on the fife to regulate military activities. When the fife was reintroduced into the British army in 1746 fife calls, to the drum’s accompaniment, became the rule. They were possibly founded on 17th-century calls such as those that existed in France. Ex.1 shows the ‘Drummers’ Call’ from Potter’s treatise. Fife calls were used in Britain until the 1890s, the last official version being ‘Drum and Flute [i.e. Fife] Duty’, issued ...


Guild of American Luthiers  

Carolyn Bryant

Founded in 1972, the organization seeks to facilitate learning about the art, craft, and science of lutherie. It was organized by a group of craftsmen to provide a forum for sharing information about building string instruments, including guitars of all types, mandolins, lutes, violins, and others. In 2010 it had more than 3600 members from the United States and 40 other countries.

The Guild (<http://www.luth.org>) welcomes makers of all experience levels and is committed to advancing the free exchange of information to allow its members to learn from the experiences of others in the field. Its quarterly journal American Lutherie (published since 1985) is the primary vehicle for accomplishing the Guild’s goal of sharing information. In addition, the organization has published Historical Lute Construction (2001), an expanded version of articles written by master luthier Robert Lundberg, as well as Lutherie Tools (1990) and ...



Roger Hellyer

In its widest sense, music for wind instruments. Within its ambit have come a variety of musical styles: for instance, the French commonly use the term ‘harmonie militaire’ to refer to military bands, even the massed wind bands of the Napoleonic era: Elgar wrote Harmony Music for his domestic wind quintet; the Germans refer to the wind quintet as the ‘Harmonie-Quintett’. The title of Haydn's Harmoniemesse (1802) is explained by the prominence of wind instruments in that work. Mendelssohn’s Harmoniemusik op.24 (1824) is for 23 wind instruments and percussion. In its more limited sense the term was fully current only from the mid-18th century until the 1830s when it was primarily applied to the wind bands (Harmonien) of the European aristocracy and the music written for them, and secondarily to their popular imitations in street bands (Mozart told in a letter to his father, 3 November 1781...


John Caldwell and Christopher Maxim




John Caldwell, Christopher Maxim, Barbara Owen, Robert Winter, Susan Bradshaw, and Martin Elste



International Double Reed Society  

Sarah Deters Richardson


International organization established in 1971, dedicated to double reed players, instrument manufacturers, and enthusiasts. The society aims to enhance the art of double reed playing; encourage the performance of double reed literature; improve instruments, tools, and reed-making material; encourage the composition and arranging of music for double reeds; act as a resource for performers; assist teachers and students of double reed instruments; encourage cooperation and an exchange of ideas between the music industry and the society; and foster a world-wide communication between double reed musicians (IDRS Constitution, 1997). IDRS has over 4,400 members from 56 countries. The society’s website (www.idrs.org) hosts archives of its publications, conferences, and competitions, along with information on double reed performance, pedagogy, and research.

The society grew out of a thrice-yearly newsletter, To the World’s Bassoonists (1969–77). In the second year of its existence, a parallel newsletter, To the World’s Oboists...


International Horn Society  

Sarah Deters Richardson


International organization dedicated to horn performance, teaching, composition, and research, and the preservation and promotion of the horn as a musical instrument. The society was formed in June 1970 at the Second International Horn Workshop, in Tallahassee, Florida. It began publishing a refereed journal, The Horn Call, in Feb 1971; since its inception the journal has grown from a biannual to a quarterly publication. The society holds workshops, lectures, and seminars; awards grants and scholarships; encourages new compositions and arrangements for the horn; and presents honors and recognition for distinctive service related to the horn. It also maintains the IHS Archive, housed in the Sibley Music Library at the Eastman School of Music, as a repository for documents and memorabilia related to the history and development of the society, as well as for specially donated material relating to the horn. Its website www.hornsociety.org contains information on society activities and events of interest to horn players. IHS has over 3500 members from 55 countries, including university teachers, students, horn designers/builders, composers, music libraries, music publishers, internationally renowned touring artists, symphony musicians, and amateur players....



Janissary music  

Michael Pirker

[Turkish music] (from Turkish yeni çeri: ‘new troop’; Ger. Janitscharen Musik, türkische Musik; It. banda turca)

The Turkish ensemble of wind and percussion instruments known in the Ottoman Empire as mehter, introduced into Europe in the 17th century and later imitated there using Western instruments.

The janissaries, the élite troops of the Ottoman Empire, were initially Christian captives recruited to form a new army after their conversion to Islam. The bands of the janissaries were called mehter, a term used also for some Ottoman state officials and thus taken to mean not just the bands but the individual musicians as well. The music of the mehter (mehter musikisi) was not written down, and consequently most information about it concerns the instruments on which it was played. However, the information given in the secondary literature about the instrumental make-up of the mehter has been contradictory and unsupported by adequate proof.

There is no definite evidence that what became known as janissary music began with the founding of the janissaries in ...


Johnston, Thomas  

Barbara Owen

(b Boston, 1708; d Boston, May 8, 1767). American organ builder, music engraver, craftsman and musician. In 1739 he led the singing in the Brattle Street Church, Boston, and was paid for singing in King's Chapel in 1754–6. He was active as an ornamental painter and japanner, and as an engraver of maps, certificates, trade cards, music etc.; he is also regarded as Boston's first professional organ builder. He is recorded as having tuned and repaired some of the imported English organs in Boston, which presumably served as his only textbook in the craft of organ building. In 1744 Johnston made repairs to a small English organ in Christ Church (Old North Church), Boston, and he later tuned the three-manual Richard Bridge organ imported by King's Chapel in 1756, which appears to have been the model for the two-manual organ he built for Christ Church in 1759. Other organs he is known to have built were for St Peter's Church, Salem, Massachusetts (...


Keyboard music  

John Caldwell, Christopher Maxim, Barbara Owen, Robert Winter, Susan Bradshaw, and Martin Elste

Before the mid-17th century composers made little stylistic distinction between one keyboard instrument and another, and players used whichever happened to be available or was best suited to the occasion. Liturgically based works and those containing either long-sustained notes or pedal parts would be heard most often on the organ, and dances and settings of popular tunes on the harpsichord; nevertheless, much of the repertory could be shared. While a number of high Baroque composers exploited the individual characteristics of the organ, harpsichord or clavichord, it was not until the latter half of the 18th century that a distinctive style for the piano, which had been invented about 1700, began to appear: hence the main divisions of this article.

John Caldwell, assisted by Christopher Maxim

The term ‘keyboard’ is here understood to include not only the early string keyboard instruments (the clavichord, harpsichord, virginals etc.), but also the various types of organ (the positive, regal, church organ with and without pedals etc.). ...


Military calls  

Peter Downey

Signals intended to transmit information, commands or encouragement to an army during battle or in camp, to a navy during engagement or on voyage, and to royal and noble households at court and on tour, and also employed to embellish ceremonial occasions. Military calls are played on various musical instruments, including trumpets, bugles, flutes, drums and kettledrums, and are usually, but not exclusively, performed monophonically....


Military music  

Jeremy Montagu, Armin Suppan, Wolfgang Suppan, D.J.S. Murray, and Raoul F. Camus

Instrumental music associated with the ceremonies, functions, and duties of military organizations. The function of military music was threefold: to give signals and pass orders in battle; to regulate the military day in camp or quarters; and ‘to excite cheerfulness and alacrity in the soldiers’. Military music in the form of bugle and trumpet calls together with drum beatings could identify friend or foe before the general adoption of national uniforms.

The drum and trumpet, and latterly the bugle, were introduced to solve the problem of control in battle once armies had grown too large for control by the human voice to be effective. With the advent of the all-weather metalled road, it became possible for the large-scale movement of formed bodies of troops to be planned and performed to a timetable. For this a uniform and even marching beat was required and the military band, consisting of brass, woodwind (mainly reed), and percussion instruments, was evolved, supported by the drum and six-keyed flute (corps of drums) combination, and in Scottish regiments by that of the drum and bagpipe. This role has now disappeared with the increasing mechanization of modern war....



Owen Jander


A textless vocal exercise or concert piece to be sung to one or more vowels. The vocalise derives from two traditions. One dates from the early 19th century, when it became customary to perform and publish solfeggi and essercizi with piano accompaniment (e.g. Domenico Corri, The Singer's Preceptor, 1810; Manuel García, Traité complet de l’art du chant, 1840–47/R); by the middle of the century there were numerous publications of this kind. The singing instructor Heinrich Panofka, for example, published during his years in Paris five volumes of vocalises. The idea was that with a piano accompaniment even the most mechanical exercises would be performed in a more artistic manner. The other tradition was that of using existing compositions as vocal exercises without words. In 1755 Jean-Antoine Bérard provided, as a supplement to his L’art du chant, 20 compositions by Lully, Rameau and others, selected for the technical problems they offered (‘pour les sons tendres, légers, maniérés, majestueux’ etc.), and he added specific instructions as to how these problems were to be solved. In the 19th century most instruction manuals for the voice included original compositions specially composed for the same purpose: ‘melodies without words, offering the pupil a union of all the difficulties of song’ (García). Unlike the accompanied ...