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Academy of Ancient Music (i)  


Accompanied keyboard music  

Michelle Fillion

A term used to describe 18th-century chamber music with a substantially or fully written-out keyboard part and one or more accompanying instrumental parts. 18th-century sources most often designated these works by such terms as sonata, trio, terzetto, or divertimento for harpsichord or, simply, keyboard (later with the option of fortepiano), ‘with the accompaniment of’ or ‘that can be played with’ a violin (or flute), with or without cello. The accompanying parts could also be optional (ad libitum), resulting in the popular commercial practice of arranging solo sonatas as accompanied works. Larger ensemble scorings, especially the concerto-inspired grouping for keyboard instrument, two violins and bass, were also possible. Accompanied keyboard music is the direct ancestor of 19th-century chamber music with keyboard, especially the sonata for piano and violin and the piano trio.

To limit the genre to sonatas for fully written-out keyboard (without patches of continuo) and subsidiary or optional accompaniment is to capture only a segment of this vast and heterogeneous repertory. The genre appears concurrently with and as a manifestation of the rise of the harpsichord as a solo instrument, in a sense as a corrective to its purely supportive role in the Baroque sonata for melody instrument and continuo. As the small-ensemble counterpart to the emerging keyboard suite, sonata and solo concerto, accompanied keyboard music bore the stylistic marks of these three genres for decades. The solo sonata with continuo accompaniment, however, played virtually no role in its development; both genres were cultivated independently into the second half of the century, often by the same composer (e.g. C.P.E. Bach), before the continuo sonata disappeared with the demise of the thoroughbass tradition....


Alain, Olivier  

Brigitte Massin

revised by Aurélie Decourt

Member of Alain family

(b Saint Germain-en-Laye, Aug 3, 1918; d Elancourt, Ile de France, Feb 28, 1994). French composer, pianist, and musicologist, brother of Jehan Alain and Marie-Claire Alain. He learnt to play the organ and piano as a child. Equally drawn to the study of literature, he did not enter the Paris Conservatoire until after graduating from the Sorbonne; at the Conservatoire (1948–51) he was a pupil of Aubin and Messiaen. In addition to his activities as a composer and concert pianist, he worked as music critic for Le Figaro (1957–70) and for Les nouvelles Littéraires (1965–8); he also taught sight-reading, analysis, and composition. He directed the Saint Germain-en-Laye Conservatory (1950–64) and the Ecole César Franck, Paris (from 1961), and acted as an inspector of music with special responsibility for conservatories (from 1970), particularly in the creation of the Baccalauréat with music option. In ...




Angi, Ştefan  

Gabriel Banciu and Cristina Şuteu

[Angi István]

(b Ojdula, 16 Oct 1933) Romanian music aesthetician and musicologist. He is considered the founder of musical aesthetics in Romania. Ştefan Angi studied at Cluj-Napoca Conservatory (1953–8) where his teachers included Márkos Albert (music theory), Jodál Gabor (harmony), Max Eisikovits (counterpoint), Jagamas János (forms), Földes László (aesthetics), Lakatos István and Benkő András (music history), Zsurka Péter (violin), Ana Voileanu-Nicoară (chamber music), Antonin Ciolan (orchestral ensemble), and Szenik Ilona (folklore). He then studied at Lomonosov Moscow State University (1963–5), with the philosopher Valentin Ferdinandovich Asmus, where he graduated with a dissertation on Music and Affectivity and took the PhD in Romania in 1966. In 1958 he joined the academic staff of Cluj-Napoca Conservatory and between 1976 and 1986 was the dean of the Theoretic Faculty. He was awarded the ‘Cultural Merit’ medal (1970) and the ‘Romanian Academy Award’ (1977). Angi is a permanent correspondent on serial radio broadcasts, has published more than 100 articles, and has attended 70 conferences – on musicology, philosophy, and aesthetics....


Anonymous theoretical writings  

C. Matthew Balensuela

This article focusses on anonymous music theory texts written during the Western Middle Ages and early Renaissance (to about 1600), currently assumed to be anonymous and not closely associated with a known person, which have been edited and published in modern times.

Numerous artefacts of music have survived to modern times without clearly identifying their author. These include musical works, pictures, court records, theoretical treatises, and other documents. The corpus of anonymous theoretical works, therefore, comprises only a portion of all anonymous works in the history of music. In music theory, anonymous sources primarily span the time from antiquity to the early Renaissance, when texts were copied by hand. After the advent of printing, few theoretical works were transmitted anonymously.

Several groups of anonymous treatises are excluded from this article, such as works of ancient Greek, Byzantine, or Arabic music theory, works closely associated with named writers, and unpublished anonymous works. In addition, several significant anonymous works, such as the ...



Sydney Robinson Charles

A printed or manuscript collection of musical works selected from a particular repertory. Most anthologies contain works by more than one composer. Certain types of collection, which may be anthologies in the broadest sense – folksong collections, tune books, songsters, hymnals, psalters, pasticcios, ballad operas, organ and lute intabulations, and theory or performance manuals with music examples – are not considered in this article, which is confined to printed anthologies of music roughly contemporary with date of publication and containing works by different composers. For manuscript anthologies, see Sources, MS ; for printed anthologies, see Editions, historical .

The value of printed anthologies for the musical scholar and performer goes beyond the individual musical items contained, for the entire make-up of each one reflects the judgment of a knowledgeable contemporary, its compiler, of the interests, tastes and needs of the musical public of that time and place. Thus anthologies can suggest many aspects of social usage. Sometimes the very wording of an anthology title can offer a surprisingly vivid picture of the circumstances of its intended use, as in ...


Aosta MS  


Apel Codex  


Apt Manuscript  


Archives and music  

François Lesure, Roger Bowers, Barbara H. Haggh, and André Vanrie

Archival documents contain accurate and detailed information relevant to many aspects of musical scholarship: to biography, chronology, history of institutions and societies, the place and function of musicians in society, performing practice (in the fullest sense of that phrase) and many others. They yield the kind of information that primarily musical manuscripts and printed sources cannot provide.

The term ‘archive’ is here used as defined under §1 below. It is also widely used in a second sense, to denote what bibliographers would classify as a ‘collection’ or even ‘library’: the Deutsches Musikgeschichtliches Archiv in Kassel, for example, is a library of photographic materials relating to sources of German music. Many collections fall halfway between an archive in the strict sense, consisting of the surviving papers of a historical person, and a collection, which may include material added by subsequent collectors. Such a case is the collection in the Library of Congress known as the ‘Rachmaninoff Archives’. ...


Arsenal, Chansonnier de l’  


Aucassin et Nicolette (i)  

John Stevens

A French 13th-century chante-fable. The only surviving example of the genre, its sole source is F-Pn fr.2168. It tells, in prose, the romantic story of the love of a count’s son for a foreign girl-captive. Interspersed in the narrative are verse sections (laisses) written in lines with equal numbers of syllables, all sung to the same double phrase of melody (a relic of narrative singing; ...


Ballet Lutebook  


Banciu, Gabriel Marius  

Cristina Şuteu

(b Sibiu, 4 Nov 1956) Romanian musicologist and music aesthetician. He studied at Cluj-Napoca Conservatory (1976–81) where he joined the academic staff (in 1996), earned a doctorate on music aesthetics (1999), was pro-rector (2008–12), and became president of the Senate in 2012.

Owing to his multiple interests Banciu has been recognized as a member of several professional music associations (starting in 2002), an evaluator on many national committees and music competitions (starting in 2006), a member of the board of directors at the Union of Romanian Composers and Musicologists (starting in 2014), the vice-president of the ‘Performing Arts Commission’ within the National Council for the Certification of University Titles, Diplomas, and Certificates (C.N.A.T.D.C.U., starting in 2016), a peer reviewer on journals (Musicology Papers, Musicology Today, Studia Musica), and an organizer of international conferences (The International Congress on Musical Signification in ...



Gianluca D’Agostino

Designation attached to a three-voice Gloria in manuscript F-APT 16bis; the piece is also transmitted in I-IV 115. The Apt manuscript is now thought to contain music from the court of the antipopes at Avignon in the late 14th century. It is not clear whether the word refers to the name of a composer or to something else; it is now known that ‘Bararipton’ was a mnemonic used in medieval logic for one of the categories of syllogisms. However, any possible musical meaning of the word remains a mystery.

The Gloria seems to be in discant style, with text underlay following the typical French pronunciation of Latin. The lower parts are rhythmically linked and run both in parallel and in contrary motion. The preponderance of 8-5 and 5-3 chords is interrupted, sometimes at closing cadences, by 6-3 chords. Likewise, the sequence of 8-5–6-3–8-5 chords often gives way to parallel 5ths between cantus and contratenor. (The Gloria is ed. in PSFM, 1st ser., x, ...


Barcelona Mass  

Maricarmen Gómez

A cycle of the ordinary of the Mass belonging to the Avignon school found in the manuscript E-Bc M971 (ff.1r–8r) that almost certainly belonged to the chapel of King Martin I of Aragon (1396–1410). It is made up of five fragments, written, with the exception of the four-part Agnus Dei, for three parts.

The compositional techniques vary from movement to movement. The Kyrie is written in simultaneous style and has no concordances. The Gloria is in discant style and has certain similarities with the melody of a Gloria by Depansis in a contemporary source ( F-APT 16bis, no.12): either one melody provided a model for the other, or both are by the same composer (Stäblein-Harder). There are two other versions of this Gloria ( E-Boc 2, no.1 and F-APT 16bis, no.34) which have different countertenors, and another ( F-Sm 222, no.82) which is lost....


Bauyn Manuscript  


Bek, Mikuláš  

Petr Macek

(b Šternberk, 22 April 1964). Czech musicologist. He studied musicology with Jiří Vysloužil, Jiří Fukač, and Miloš Štědroň at Brno University. Then he worked at the Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague where he taught and researched until 1999. Between 1991 and 2002 he also taught at the Palacký University, Olomouc. In 1998 he started working at the Masaryk University, Brno (head of the Institute of Musicology, 1999–2004; vice-rector 2004–11; rector starting in 2011).

Bek’s scholarly specializations include music sociology, history of music after 1750, and music analysis. He is a co-director of the online Český hudební slovník osob a institucí (‘Czech Music Dictionary of Persons and Institutions’), and co-ordinator of RIPM for the Czech Republic (2001–3). He also participates actively in the international musicological colloquia that form part of the international music festival, Moravian Autumn, each year in Brno.

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Benton, Thomas Hart  

Annett Richter

(b Neosho, MO, 15 April 1889; d Kansas City, MO, 19 Jan 1975). American painter, muralist, illustrator, folklorist, harmonica player. Widely known as a Regionalist painter, Benton repeatedly captures in his art American musicians and scenes of music-making, both urban and rural. As a folklorist, he observed during his sketching trips rural vocal and instrumental traditions of black and white musicians, describing them vividly through word and image in his autobiography, An Artist in America (1937; rev. 4/1983).

Benton created portraits of musicians and composers he knew, among others Missouri Musicians (1931), The Sun Treader (Portrait of Carl Ruggles) (1934), Edgard Varèse (c. 1934), The Music Lesson (1943) [Gale Huntington (1902–93)], Portrait of David Mannes (1949), and The Hymn Singer (The Minstrel) (1950) [Burl Ives]. His Portrait of a Musician (...