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Bainbridge, William  

Philip Bate

revised by William Waterhouse

(d 1831). English woodwind instrument inventor, maker and player and music publisher. Having originally trained as a turner, he began his career playing oboe, flute and flageolet at two London theatres. As maker, his first patent was in 1803 for a new model of ‘English flageolet’, which, by changing the fingering of the tonic from six to three fingers, led in about 1805 to the development of his double flageolet model in collaboration with John Parry (ii) (1776–1851). Between 1808 and 1821 he was in partnership with John Wood as Bainbridge & Wood, writing and publishing tutors and music for his instruments. From cto 1835 the business was continued by Bainbridge’s widow Harriet, and thereafter until 1855 by his successor, Hastrick, whose mark usually included the words ‘late Bainbridge, inventor’.

The firm’s speciality was the ‘English flute’ or ‘English flageolet’ – not to be confused with the French or the ‘quadrille’ flageolet – in its single, double and occasionally triple form. In addition they made single and double concert flutes with flageolet-type heads to be held transversely. These instruments, designed for amateurs of both sexes, enjoued enormous popularity, the double flageolet being much plagiarised (in spite of two unsuccessful legal actions) by rival makers both at home and abroad. Bainbridge was perhaps the earliest wind-instrument maker with the all-round abilities required to launch such projects successfully, combining single-handedly as he did the diverse skills of inventor, performer, teacher, manufacturer, author and publisher....


Clementi, Muzio  

Leon Plantinga

revised by Luca Lévi Sala

[Clementi, Mutius Philippus Vincentius Franciscus Xaverius]

(b Rome, Jan 23, 1752; d Evesham, Worcs., March 10, 1832). English composer, keyboard player and virtuoso, teacher, music publisher, entrepreneur, and piano manufacturer of Italian birth.

The oldest of seven children of Nicola Clementi (1720–89), a silversmith, and Magdalena (née Kaiser), Clementi began studies in music in Rome at a very early age; his teachers were Antonio Boroni (1738–92), an organist named Cordicelli, Giuseppi Santarelli (1710–90), and possibly Gaetano Carpani. In January 1766, at the age of 13, he secured the post of organist at his home church, S Lorenzo in Damaso. In that year, however, his playing attracted the attention of an English traveller, Peter Beckford (1740–1811), cousin of the novelist William Beckford (1760–1844) and nephew of William Beckford (1709–70), twice Lord Mayor of London. According to Peter Beckford’s own forthright explanation, he ‘bought Clementi of his father for seven years’, and in late ...


Gerle, Hans  

Howard Mayer Brown

revised by Lynda Sayce

(b Nuremberg, c1500; d Nuremberg, 1570). German instrumentalist, lute maker and compiler and arranger of several volumes of instrumental music. He was probably the son of Conrad Gerle (d 1521), a well-known lute maker in Nuremberg. He may be presumed to have spent his life in his native city. He may have been related to Georg Gerle who worked as an instrument maker in Innsbruck during the second half of the 16th century.

Hieronymus Formschneider of Nuremberg published three volumes of music by Hans Gerle: Musica teusch, auf die Instrument der grossen unnd kleinen Geygen, auch Lautten (1532), Tabulatur auff die Laudten (1533) and Eyn newes sehr künstlichs Lautenbuch (1552). On the title-page of the last volume the author called himself ‘Hans Gerle den Eltern’ (the elder), implying the existence of a younger relative with the same forename.

The first volume, ...


Manwaring, William  

Brian Boydell

( b ?Dublin; d Dublin, 1763). Irish music publisher, music seller, instrument dealer and violinist . He worked from about 1738 in the business established by his brother Bartholemew (d July 1758) about a year previously at Corelli’s Head, opposite Anglesea Street in College Green, Dublin. In April 1740 he advertised a proposal for printing Geminiani’s Guida armonica by subscription; it was finally issued in about 1752. Notable publications by him include collections of songs from Arne’s Comus, Dubourg’s variations on the Irish melody ‘Ellen a Roon’ and in December 1752 ‘six Trios for 2 Fiddles and thorough Bass composed by Sieur Van Maldere’. From 1741 a number of publications were issued in conjunction with William Neale, including the Monthly Musical Masque consisting of a collection of contemporary popular songs; the first issue was advertised in January 1744. Manwaring also imported Peter Wamsley’s best violins, Roman fiddle strings and ‘all the newest music published in London’. In addition to his business he took a prominent part in Dublin musical life during the 1740s as a violinist, often appearing with his brother who was also a violinist. He acted as treasurer of various charitable musical societies. After his death his wife carried on the business until ...


Monzani, Tebaldo  

William C. Smith

revised by Peter Ward Jones

[ Theobald ]

( b Duchy of Modena, 1762; d London, June 14, 1839). Italian flautist, instrument maker and publisher . He apparently played both the flute and the oboe, but gave up the latter after moving to England where he first appeared at a London concert in February 1785, subsequently becoming well known as a solo and orchestral flautist, and remaining active in this capacity until about 1803. In 1787 he established premises in London where from various addresses he published his own compositions (mainly for flute) and other works. From 1789 he sometimes employed the piano maker and music publisher James Ball to print and sell his publications. In 1800 Monzani entered a partnership with Giambattista Cimador as Monzani & Cimador, from about 1803 occupying a building known as the Opera Music Warehouse. Cimador’s arrangement of several Mozart symphonies for flute and strings was allegedly provoked by the refusal of the King’s Theatre orchestra to play the works in their original form because of their difficulty; six of these were published by Monzani after Cimador’s death. From ...


Pleyel family (i)  

Rita Benton

Austro-French family of composers, musicians, publishers, and piano makers, active in France. (For the firm of piano makers, see Pleyel.)

Pleyel, Ignace Joseph [Ignaz Josef] (b Ruppersthal, June 18, 1757; d Paris, Nov 14, 1831)

Pleyel, (Joseph Stephen) Camille (b Strasbourg, Dec 18, 1788; d Paris, May 4, 1855)

Pleyel, (Camille) Marie (Denise) Moke (b Paris, Sept 4, 1811; d St Josse-ten-Noode, nr Brussels, March 30, 1875)

BrookSFN.E. Framery: Notice sur Joseph Haydn (Paris, 1810)J.F. Lobstein: Beiträge zur Geschichte der Musik im Elsass und besonders in Strassburg (Strasbourg, 1840), 33ffJ.-B. Weckerlin: Musiciana (Paris, 1877) [incl. several letters to Pleyel]O. Comettant, ed.: Un nid d’autographes (Paris, 1885, 2/1886) [incl. letters to Pleyel]C. Pierre: Les hymnes et chansons de la Révolution (Paris, 1904/R)M. Vogeleis: Quellen und Bausteine zu einer Geschichte der Musik und des Theaters im Elsass...


Romero y Andía, Antonio  

Beryl Kenyon de Pascual

(b Madrid, May 11, 1815; d Madrid, Oct 7, 1886). Spanish clarinettist, music publisher and instrument inventor . Romero began to study the clarinet in 1826 and by 1829 he was playing in a regimental band and a theatre orchestra in Valladolid. He subsequently joined the band of the royal guards, rising to bandmaster in 1841, and was appointed supernumerary clarinet in the royal chapel in 1844. During the 1840s and 50s he also played in Madrid theatre orchestras as a clarinettist and oboist. From 1849 to 1876 he was professor of the clarinet at the Madrid Conservatory and briefly taught the oboe. He opened a shop in 1854 selling both music and instruments and in 1856 founded a music publishing firm. By 1870 he had incorporated an instrument factory into his business and in 1884 he added a concert room.

Romero was an influential figure in Madrid musical life. As a publisher he laid particular emphasis on making available works by Spanish composers and on enlarging the military band repertory. He published a series of specially commissioned Spanish-language tutors covering all conservatory and band instruments, himself writing those for the clarinet, the bassoon and the french horn. A modern revised edition of his clarinet tutor was still in use in Spain at the end of the 20th century. In ...