Abbreviations: Ex.1 Dots over a note denote its repetition
Abbreviations: Ex.2 Beam joining note stems indicates rate of oscillation, note head indicates duration of oscillation (Ger. Brillenbass)
Abbreviations: Ex.3 Slash indicates repetition, number of slashes indicates rate of repetition, note head indicates duration of repetition
Abbreviations: Ex.4 As exx.2 and 3, but slashes are independent of note stems
Ex.5 Some archaic ways of denoting oscillation are often confused with types shown in ex.3
Ex.6 Other archaic forms
Abbreviations: Ex.7 Slash, usually with a dot on either side, or two slashes, to denote repetition of part of a bar, a whole bar or two bars
Ex.8 (a) Repetition from the beginning of a movement (b) Repetition from a later point necessitates another double bar
Ex.9 Avoidance of leger lines
Abbreviations: Ex.10 In clarinet music, chalumeau has occasionally been used to avoid leger lines
Abbreviations: Ex.11 Harp glissandos are usually notated in abbreviated form
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date: 20 September 2019
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