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Abbreviations: Ex.1 Dots over a note denote its repetition

Abbreviations: Ex.1 Dots over a note denote its repetition

Abbreviations: Ex.2 Beam joining note stems indicates rate of oscillation, note head indicates duration of oscillation (Ger. Brillenbass)

Abbreviations: Ex.2 Beam joining note stems indicates rate of oscillation, note head indicates duration of oscillation (Ger. Brillenbass)

Abbreviations: Ex.3 Slash indicates repetition, number of slashes indicates rate of repetition, note head indicates duration of repetition

Abbreviations: Ex.3 Slash indicates repetition, number of slashes indicates rate of repetition, note head indicates duration of repetition

Abbreviations: Ex.4 As exx.2 and 3, but slashes are independent of note stems

Abbreviations: Ex.4 As exx.2 and 3, but slashes are independent of note stems

Abbreviations: Ex.5 Some archaic ways of denoting oscillation are often confused with types shown in ex.3

Ex.5 Some archaic ways of denoting oscillation are often confused with types shown in ex.3

Abbreviations: Ex.7 Slash, usually with a dot on either side, or two slashes, to denote repetition of part of a bar, a whole bar or two bars

Abbreviations: Ex.7 Slash, usually with a dot on either side, or two slashes, to denote repetition of part of a bar, a whole bar or two bars

Abbreviations: Ex.8 (a) Repetition from the beginning of a movement (b) Repetition from a later point necessitates another double bar

Ex.8 (a) Repetition from the beginning of a movement (b) Repetition from a later point necessitates another double bar

Abbreviations: Ex.10 In clarinet music, chalumeau has occasionally been used to avoid leger lines

Abbreviations: Ex.10 In clarinet music, chalumeau has occasionally been used to avoid leger lines

Abbreviations: Ex.11 Harp glissandos are usually notated in abbreviated form

Abbreviations: Ex.11 Harp glissandos are usually notated in abbreviated form

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J. Wolf: Handbuch der Notationskunde (Leipzig, 1913-19/R)