Birkenstock [Birckenstock, Birkenstok, Berkenstock], Johann Adam
- Pippa Drummond
(b Alsfeld, Hessen, Feb 19, 1687; d Eisenach, Feb 26, 1733). German violinist and composer. In 1700 his family moved to Kassel where he studied music for five years with the Italian Kapellmeister Ruggiero Fedeli. Impressed by his progress, the Landgrave sent him to Berlin to study with Volumier. After a year in Berlin, Birkenstock spent a year at Bayreuth as the pupil of Fiorelli. He then went to Paris in 1708 to perfect his violin technique under the guidance of François Duval. The following year he became a member of the court orchestra at Kassel, and in 1721 was promoted to the position of first violin. During the year 1722 he undertook a concert tour, spending seven months in Amsterdam where his first violin sonatas were published. While in Holland Birkenstock refused a lucrative appointment at the King of Portugal's establishment. Returning to Kassel, he was subsequently (...