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date: 23 October 2019


  • Carl Morey,
  • Gordon E. Smith,
  • Elaine Keillor,
  • Jay Rahn,
  • Geoffrey Whittall
  •  and Rob Bowman


Country in North America. It is bounded to the north by the Arctic ocean, to the west by the Pacific and to the east by the Atlantic; the only land borders it shares are with the USA, on the south and between Yukon and Alaska in the north-west. Although it occupies almost 10,000,000 km², the vast majority of the population of 35 million (Statistics Canada 2013) live within 160 km of the Canada–US border. The first permanent settlements of Europeans were established by the French in the early 17th century.

Carl Morey

In the French colonies during the 17th century music was almost exclusively religious, associated either with the liturgy or with the conversion of the Amerindian peoples, whose attraction to European music was often noted by missionaries. In 1635 Father Le Jeune (1591–1664) began teaching elementary music, as did members of the Ursuline order after 1639...

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Journal of the International Folk Music Council
Encyclopedia of Music in Canada (Toronto, 2/1992)