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  • John Stevens
  •  and Dennis Libby


During the Middle Ages, an English or Latin song of uniform stanzas beginning with a refrain called a ‘burden’ that is repeated after each stanza. Medieval carols could be on any subject, but were mostly about the Virgin or the Saints of Christmas. In recent centuries the word has usually referred to strophic songs (some with refrains) associated with Christmas, many of them with texts derived from medieval English carols....

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International Musicological Society: Congress Report [1930-]
Early Music History
Journal of the American Musicological Society
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Cambridge, Trinity College, Library