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Chapí (y Lorente), Rupertolocked

  • Robert Stevenson

(b Villena, nr Alicante, March 27, 1851; d Madrid, March 25, 1909). Spanish composer. In 1865 he conducted the band in his home village, where his father, an enthusiastic music-lover, was a barber. Two years later Chapí enrolled in the Madrid Conservatory, studying with Arrieta and winning first prize in harmony in 1869. While earning a precarious living as cornettist in the Circo de Price theatre orchestra, he composed an overture Zanzé and his first zarzuela Abel y Caín. In 1871 he competed successfully for the directorship of the artillery regimental band. His first symphonic suite La corte de Granada: fantasía morisca was composed in 1873 (the third of its four movements, ‘Serenata’, is still played); his one-act opera Las naves de Cortés, performed at the Teatro Real on 19 April 1874 with Tamberlik in the title role, earned him a three-year government grant to study, first at the Spanish Academy of Fine Arts in Rome, then at Milan and Paris. As fruit of these years abroad, he sent back the one-act operas La hija de Jefté (1876) and La muerte de Garcilaso (1878), and the three-act Roger de Flor (1878).

Beginning with his one-act Música clásica (1880), Chapí, once more in Madrid, wrote more than 100 zarzuelas, many of which ran more than 100 consecutive nights. In contrast with Chueca, who caught the ear of the illiterate, Chapí's zarzuelas appealed to the city's middle and upper classes. In 1905 he published the first of four string quartets, a unique venture for a zarzuela composer and one symptomatic of his loftier musical aims.

Works

(selective list)

MSS in E-Mn

Stage

all first performed in Madrid; unless otherwise stated, works with named librettists published in vocal score in Madrid in year of first performance; for full list see GroveO

Operas

Las naves de Cortés (1, A. Arnao), Real, 19 April 1874, unpubd

La hija de Jefté (1, Arnao), Real, 11 May 1876, unpubd

Roger de Flor (3, M. Capdepón), Real, 25 Jan 1878

La muerte de Garcilaso (1), 7 Feb 1878, unpubd

La serenata (1, J. Estremera), Apolo, 5 Nov 1881

Circe (3, M. Ramos Carrión, after P. Calderón de la Barca: El mayor encanto amor), Lírico, 7 May 1902

Margarita la tornera (3, C. Fernández Shaw, after J. Zorrilla), Real, 24 Feb 1909

Zars

Abel y Caín (2, S.M. Granés and M. Pastorfido), Rivas, 14 May 1873

Música clásica (disparate cómico-lírico, 1, J. Estremera), Comedia, 20 Sept 1880

La tempestad (melodrama fantástico, 3, Ramos Carrión, after Erckmann-Chatrian: Le juif polonais), Zarzuela, 11 March 1882

El milagro de la Virgen (3, M. Pina Domínguez), 1884

La flor de lis (1, Estremera), Eslava, 13 Dec 1884

El guerrillero (3, F. Muñoz), Apolo, Jan 1885, collab. P.E. Arrieta and M.F. Caballero; Término medio (1, R. de Marsal), Martin, Oct 1885

El domingo gordo [Las tres damas curiosas] (2, R. de la Vega), Variedades, Jan 1886

El figón de las desdichas (1, A. Llanos), Eslava, Feb 1887

Playeras (1, Llanos), 1887

Los lobos marinos (2, Ramos Carrión, V. Aza), Apolo, 17 May 1887

La bruja (3, Ramos Carrión and Aza), Zarzuela, 10 Dec 1887

Ortografía (1, C. Arniches y Barrera and G. Cantó), Eslava, 31 Dec 1888 (1889)

Las hijas de Zebedeo (2, Estremera), Maravillas, 9 July 1889

¡Las doce y media y sereno! (1, F. Manzano), Apolo, 7 May 1890

El rey que rabió (3, Ramos Carrión and Aza), Zarzuela, 20 April 1891

Las campanadas (1, Arniches and Cantó), Apolo, 13 May 1892

El organista (1, Estremera), Apolo, 20 Dec 1892

Vía libre (1, Arniches and C. Lucio), Apolo, 25 April 1893

El reclamo (1, Arniches and Lucio), Apolo, 25 Nov 1893

El duque de Gandía (drama lírico, 3, J. Dicenta), Zarzuela, 17 March 1894, collab. E. Llanos; El tambor de granaderos (1, Sánchez Pastor), Eslava, 16 June 1894

Mujer y Reina (3, M. Pina Domínguez), Zarzuela, Jan 1895

Las bravías (1, Fernández Shaw and J. López Silva after W. Shakespeare: The Taming of the Shrew), Apolo, 12 Dec 1896

La Revoltosa (sainete lírico, 1, Fernández Shaw and López Silva), Apolo, 25 Nov 1897

Los hijos del batallón (3, Fernández Shaw after V. Hugo: Quatre-vingt-treize), Parish, 17 Dec 1898

La cara de Dios (3, Arniches), Parish, 28 Nov 1899

María de los Angeles (1, Arniches and Lucio), Apolo, 12 May 1900

¿Quo vadis? (1, S. Delgado), Apolo, 28 Dec 1901 (1902)

La venta de Don Quijote (comedia lírica, 1, Fernández Shaw, after M. de Cervantes), Apolo, 19 Dec 1902

El punão de rosas (1, Arniches, R. Asensio Más), 1902, score (1930)

La puñalada (melodrama, prol, 4 scenes, Fernández Shaw), Apolo, Oct 1904

El seductor (sainete, 1, A. Domínguez), Zarzuela, 30 May 1905

El género chico (1), 1905, collab. J. Valverde; La joroba (1, Ramos Carrión and A. Ramos Martín), Apolo, 14 Feb 1906

El pino del norte (1, V. Casanova), Apolo, 27 Feb 1907

Niñón (comedia lírica, 1, M. Fernandez de la Puente and C. Allen-Perkins), Zarzuela, 13 May 1907

Los madrileños (1, Perrin and Palacios), Apolo, June 1908

La magia de la vida (1), Apolo, Jan 1910

Other works

Los ángeles, oratorio, unpubd

6 canciones españolas (1873)

Himno al arte, 2 solo vv, vv (c1900)

Los gnomos de la Alhambra, leyenda musical, orch (?1889)

La corte de Granada: fantasía morisca, orch, arr. military band, 1873 (?1888)

4 str qts, G, F, D, b (1905–11)

Bibliography

  • ES (J. Subirá)
  • A. Peña y Goñi: ‘Ruperto Chapí y “La tempestad”’, Revista contemporánea, 38 (1882), 207–22
  • A. Garrido: ‘Margarita la Tornera’, Ilustración española y americana (28 Feb 1909)
  • A. Larrubiera: ‘Ruperto Chapí’, Ilustración española y americana (28 Feb 1909)
  • F. Acebal: ‘Chapí y el nacionalismo musical’, Ilustración española y americana (8 April 1909)
  • A.S. Salcedo: Ruperto Chapí: su vida y sus obras (Córdoba, 1929)
  • J. Deleito y Piñuela: Orígen y apogeo del ‘género chico’ (Madrid, 1949)
  • J. Subirá: Historia y anecdoturio del Teatro real (Madrid, 1949)
  • ‘Chispero’: El teatro Apolo (Madrid, 1953)
  • J. de D. Águilar Gómez: Historia de la música en la provincia de Alicante (Alicante, 1970), 263–300
  • J. de D. Águilar Gómez: Ruperto Chapí y su obra lírica (Alicante, 1973) [with work-list]
  1. See also from The New Grove Dictionary of Opera: Ruperto Chapí; Bruja, La; Revoltosa, La; Rey que rabió, El; Tambor de granaderos, El; and Tempestad, La

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