- Michel Huglo
- , revised by Manuel Pedro Ferreira
In the Western Christian Church, an order of monks in a congregation affiliated to the abbey of Cluny in Burgundy. An offshoot of the Benedictines, this order was distinguished in the Middle Ages for the care it lavished on the performance of the liturgy.
Cluny was founded by William III, Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Auvergne, as a house of 12 monks directly under the protection of the pope; William placed it under the authority of Berno, abbot of Gigny and Baume, on 2 September 909. From this time until the mid-12th century, daughter Cluniac foundations were established, first in Burgundy and Auvergne, then in northern France and England, and finally in northern Italy and the Holy Roman Empire (see maps 47 and 48 in J. Martin: Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte, Freiburg, 1970, 2/1987). Most of these were near principal routes of communication, especially those leading to Santiago de Compostela. Five of the early abbots of Cluny were particularly responsible for the high reputation of the congregation, Odo (927–42; ...