Gradual [grail](ii) (from Lat. gradale, graduale, liber gradualis)
- Michel Huglo
- , revised by David Hiley
[grail](from Lat. gradale, graduale, liber gradualis)
Liturgical book of the Western Church containing the chants for the Proper of the Mass and, secondarily, in more recent times, those of the Ordinary (i.e. those of the kyriale).
The majority of graduals have no title; some ancient graduals, however, bear the title Incipit antefonarius ordinatus a Sancto Gregorio (B-Br 10127–44, 8th century; see Hesbert, 1935, p.2; see also Antiphoner, §1). The term ‘antiphonale’ is here (and in some other instances) applied to a book containing only chants for the Mass, but at this early date it could refer equally well to the antiphons of the Divine Office. In the ‘antiphonaries’ of the non-Roman liturgies (Milan and Spain) and in the Lucca fragments (I-Lc 490, 8th century) the chants for the Mass alternate Sunday by Sunday or feast by feast with those of the Office. According to Amalarius of Metz (see edn. with commentary by Hucke, ‘Graduale’, ...