- Marcel Frémiot
- , revised by Charles Pitt
Country in Europe. It is an independent European principality in an enclave on the French Mediterranean coast. At the end of the 12th century it came under Genoese control, and from the 13th century the Grimaldis (Guelphs) fought for its independence; but they were successively dominated or protected by the counts of Provence, the dukes of Milan, the Genoese, the Spanish, the dukes of Savoy and the French. There were consequently many influences on Monaco’s cultural life. Some surviving folksong texts indicate Provençal influence in the 18th century; sea songs show Italian, Spanish and French features.
As early as 1406 the Avignon Pope Benedict XIII and his court stayed in Monaco and had music performed there. During the Renaissance, when Italian influence was predominant, the Genoese lords commissioned music, had manuscripts copied and protected printers. Music also flourished in the mid-17th century, when as a result of the Treaty of Péronne (...