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date: 31 October 2020


  • Ian D. Bent,
  • David W. Hughes,
  • Robert C. Provine,
  • Richard Rastall,
  • Anne Kilmer,
  • David Hiley,
  • Janka Szendrei,
  • Thomas B. Payne,
  • Margaret Bent
  •  and Geoffrey Chew


A visual analogue of musical sound, either as a record of sound heard or imagined, or as a set of visual instructions for performers.

This article includes a discussion of notation in society (§II), subdivided into its primary types, which are considered with reference to various notational systems. Other specialized aspects of notation are considered in separate entries: Braille notation; Cheironomy; Ekphonetic notation; Pitch nomenclature; Shape-note hymnody; Solmization; Tablature; and Tonic Sol-fa. For non-Western notational systems see, in particular, China, People’s Republic of, §II, China, People’s Republic of, §IV; Indonesia; and Japan, §III, 4. Other related entries on technical subjects include Conducting; Improvisation; Mode; Psychology of music; Scale; and Tuning.

Whereas Western notation is considered as such in §III, a discussion of musical documents as sources – their physical make-up and production, their format, the layout and presentation of the music, the ordering of their contents – will be found in ...

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Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart
Augsburg, Universität Augsburg, Universitätsbibliothek
Deutsches Jahrbuch der Musikwissenschaft
Lucca, Biblioteca Capitolare Feliniana e Biblioteca Arcivescovile
Modena, Biblioteca Estense e Universitaria
Paris, Bibliothèque Mazarine
Journal of the American Musicological Society
Rome, Biblioteca Casanatense, sezione Musica
Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek
Aachen, Domarchiv (Stiftsarchiv)
Klosterneuburg, Augustiner-Chorherrenstift, Stiftsbibliothek
Zeitschrift der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft
Vienna, Schottenabtei, Musikarchiv
St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Handschriftenabteilung
Musical Opinion
Current Musicology
Toledo, Catedral, Archivo y Biblioteca Capítulares
Warsaw, Biblioteka Narodowa
Chantilly, Musée Condé
Musicological Studies and Documents
Journal of Musicology
Anuario musical
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France
Early Music
R.M.A. [Royal Musical Association] Research Chronicle
Prague, Památník Národního Písemnictví, Knihovna
Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek
Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek
Reading, University, Music Library
Monza, Parrocchia di S Giovanni Battista, Biblioteca Capitolare
Siena, Biblioteca Comunale degli Intronati
Gesellschaft für Musikforschung: Kongress-Bericht [1950-]
Valenciennes, Bibliothèque Municipale
London, Lambeth Palace Library
Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana
Perspectives of New Music
Reims, Maîtrise de la Cathédrale
Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch
Revista de musicología
Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Musiksammlung
Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi Müzesi
Cologny-Geneva, Fondation Martin Bodmer, Bibliotheca Bodmeriana
Modena, Duomo, Biblioteca e Archivio Capitolare
Journal of the International Folk Music Council
Pelplin, Wyzsze Seminarium Duchowne, Biblioteka
Bulletin of the American Musicological Society
Neue Zeitschrift für Musik
Musical Times
Sammelbände der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft
Kraków, Archiwum i Biblioteka Krakowskiej Kapituły Katedralnej
Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft
Paris, Bibliothèque Ste-Geneviève
Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana
Brno, Archiv města Brna
Budapest, Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, Egyetemi Könyvtár
Verdun, Bibliothèque Municipale
Muzïkal 'nïy sovremennik
The New Oxford History of Music (Oxford, 1954-90)
Revue de musicologie
Bratislava, Archív Mesta Bratislavy
Bari, Biblioteca Capitolare
Prague, Pražská Metropolitní Kapitula
International Musical Society: Congress Report [II-IV, 1906-11]
Budapest, Országos Széchényi Könyvtár
Österreichische Musikzeitschrift
Hereford, Cathedral Library
Dresden, Sächsische Staatsoper, Notenbibliothek [in D-Dl]
C. Burney: A General History of Music from the Earliest Ages to the Present Period (London, 1776-89); ed. F. Mercer (London, 1935/R) [p. nos. refer to this edn]
Perugia, Biblioteca Comunale Augusta
Fontes artis musicae
Verona, Biblioteca Capitolare
Einsiedeln, Benedikterkloster, Musikbibliothek
Music Review
Utrecht, Universiteit Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek
Güssing, Franziskaner Kloster
Prague, Národní Muzeum
Early Music History
Vercelli, Biblioteca Capitolare
Laon, Bibliothèque Municipale
J.G. Walther: Musicalisches Lexicon, oder Musicalische Bibliothec
Schweizerische Musikzeitung/Revue musicale suisse
Oxford, Bodleian Library
Cambrai, Médiathèque Municipale
International Musicological Society: Congress Report [1930-]
St Omer, Bibliothèque Municipale
O. Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (New York, 1950/R)
M. Mersenne: Harmonie universelle
Chartres, Bibliothèque Municipale
Padua, Duomo, Biblioteca Capitolare, Curia Vescovile
Linz, Bundesstaatliche Studienbibliothek
Collectanea historiae musicae (1953-66)
Etudes grégoriennes
Chieti, Biblioteca della Curia Arcivescovile e Archivio Capitolare
Acta musicologica
Journal of Musicological Research
The English Madrigal School, rev. as The English Madrigalists
Musical Quarterly
Das Musikwerk
Musica disciplina
Corpus scriptorum de musica (Rome, later Stuttgart, 1950-)
Cortona, Biblioteca Comunale e dell'Accademia Etrusca
Music & Letters
Leipzig, Karl-Marx-Universität, Universitätsbibliothek, Bibliotheca Albertina
Durham, Cathedral Church, Dean and Chapter Library
Revue belge de musicologie
The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek
Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Handschriftensammlung
Die Musikforschung
Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning
Dijon, Bibliothèque Municipale
Handwörterbuch der musikalischen Terminologie
Angers, Bibliothèque Municipale
Trier, Stadtbibliothek
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
Journal of Research in Music Education
Rome, Biblioteca Vallicelliana
Rouen, Bibliothèque Municipale
Graz, Universitätsbibliothek
O. Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (New York, rev. 2/1998 by L. Treitler)
London, British Library
Seville, Institución Colombina
Paris, Schola Cantorum
Wrocław, Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Biblioteka Uniwersytecka
Journal of the Viola da Gamba Society of America
Monthly Musical Record
Studia musicologica Academiae scientiarum hungaricae
Pistoia, Biblioteca Comunale Forteguerriana
Prague, Národní Knihovna, Hudenbí Oddělení
Studien zur Musikwissenschaft
Journal of Music Theory
M. Gerbert: Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra potissimum (St Blasien, 1784/R, 3/1931)
see SMH
Archiv für Musikwissenschaft
Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Universitätsbibliothek, Abteilung Handschriften, Nachlässe, Alte Drucke
C.-E.-H. de Coussemaker: Scriptorum de musica medii aevi nova series (Paris, 1864-76/R, 2/1908, ed. U. Moser)
Monumenta monodica medii aevi
Epinal, Bibliothèque Nationale
Montpellier, Bibliothèque Inter-Universitaire, Section Médecine
Paléographie musicale
Benevento, Biblioteca Capitolare