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date: 18 August 2019


  • Ian D. Bent,
  • David W. Hughes,
  • Robert C. Provine,
  • Richard Rastall,
  • Anne Kilmer,
  • David Hiley,
  • Janka Szendrei,
  • Thomas B. Payne,
  • Margaret Bent
  •  and Geoffrey Chew


A visual analogue of musical sound, either as a record of sound heard or imagined, or as a set of visual instructions for performers.

This article includes a discussion of notation in society (§II), subdivided into its primary types, which are considered with reference to various notational systems. Other specialized aspects of notation are considered in separate entries: Braille notation; Cheironomy; Ekphonetic notation; Pitch nomenclature; Shape-note hymnody; Solmization; Tablature; and Tonic Sol-fa. For non-Western notational systems see, in particular, China, People’s Republic of, §II, China, People’s Republic of, §IV; Indonesia; and Japan, §III, 4. Other related entries on technical subjects include Conducting; Improvisation; Mode; Psychology of music; Scale; and Tuning.

Whereas Western notation is considered as such in §III, a discussion of musical documents as sources – their physical make-up and production, their format, the layout and presentation of the music, the ordering of their contents – will be found in ...

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Bratislava, Archív Mesta Bratislavy
Sammelbände der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft
Modena, Biblioteca Estense e Universitaria
Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Universitätsbibliothek, Abteilung Handschriften, Nachlässe, Alte Drucke
Paris, Schola Cantorum
Graz, Universitätsbibliothek
Pistoia, Biblioteca Comunale Forteguerriana
Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Musiksammlung
Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft
Monumenta monodica medii aevi
M. Mersenne: Harmonie universelle
Handwörterbuch der musikalischen Terminologie
Musicological Studies and Documents
M. Gerbert: Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra potissimum (St Blasien, 1784/R, 3/1931)
Benevento, Biblioteca Capitolare
Dijon, Bibliothèque Municipale
Chartres, Bibliothèque Municipale
Epinal, Bibliothèque Nationale
Utrecht, Universiteit Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek
Einsiedeln, Benedikterkloster, Musikbibliothek
C. Burney: A General History of Music from the Earliest Ages to the Present Period (London, 1776-89); ed. F. Mercer (London, 1935/R) [p. nos. refer to this edn]
Hereford, Cathedral Library
Trier, Stadtbibliothek
International Musical Society: Congress Report [II-IV, 1906-11]
O. Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (New York, rev. 2/1998 by L. Treitler)
Cortona, Biblioteca Comunale e dell'Accademia Etrusca
Oxford, Bodleian Library
Journal of the Viola da Gamba Society of America
London, British Library
Aachen, Domarchiv (Stiftsarchiv)
Paléographie musicale
Vienna, Schottenabtei, Musikarchiv
The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek
Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi Müzesi
St Omer, Bibliothèque Municipale
Toledo, Catedral, Archivo y Biblioteca Capítulares
Revista de musicología
Warsaw, Biblioteka Narodowa
Verona, Biblioteca Capitolare
Rome, Biblioteca Vallicelliana
St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Handschriftenabteilung
Paris, Bibliothèque Ste-Geneviève
Journal of the International Folk Music Council
Güssing, Franziskaner Kloster
Montpellier, Bibliothèque Inter-Universitaire, Section Médecine
Budapest, Országos Széchényi Könyvtár
Studia musicologica Academiae scientiarum hungaricae
Bari, Biblioteca Capitolare
Klosterneuburg, Augustiner-Chorherrenstift, Stiftsbibliothek
Paris, Bibliothèque Mazarine
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
Prague, Národní Knihovna, Hudenbí Oddělení
Kraków, Archiwum i Biblioteka Krakowskiej Kapituły Katedralnej
Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek
Pelplin, Wyzsze Seminarium Duchowne, Biblioteka
Archiv für Musikwissenschaft
Laon, Bibliothèque Municipale
Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning
Österreichische Musikzeitschrift
Schweizerische Musikzeitung/Revue musicale suisse
Augsburg, Universität Augsburg, Universitätsbibliothek
Etudes grégoriennes
Prague, Pražská Metropolitní Kapitula
Prague, Památník Národního Písemnictví, Knihovna
Corpus scriptorum de musica (Rome, later Stuttgart, 1950-)
Early Music
Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek
Reims, Maîtrise de la Cathédrale
Journal of Music Theory
Studien zur Musikwissenschaft
Brno, Archiv města Brna
Acta musicologica
Zeitschrift der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft
Musical Times
International Musicological Society: Congress Report [1930-]
Monthly Musical Record
Lucca, Biblioteca Capitolare Feliniana e Biblioteca Arcivescovile
Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch
Fontes artis musicae
Perugia, Biblioteca Comunale Augusta
Valenciennes, Bibliothèque Municipale
O. Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (New York, 1950/R)
Collectanea historiae musicae (1953-66)
Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana
Siena, Biblioteca Comunale degli Intronati
Durham, Cathedral Church, Dean and Chapter Library
Linz, Bundesstaatliche Studienbibliothek
Monza, Parrocchia di S Giovanni Battista, Biblioteca Capitolare
Padua, Duomo, Biblioteca Capitolare, Curia Vescovile
Music & Letters
Modena, Duomo, Biblioteca e Archivio Capitolare
Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart
Wrocław, Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Biblioteka Uniwersytecka
Leipzig, Karl-Marx-Universität, Universitätsbibliothek, Bibliotheca Albertina
Reading, University, Music Library
Journal of Research in Music Education
Vercelli, Biblioteca Capitolare
Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Handschriftensammlung
Dresden, Sächsische Staatsoper, Notenbibliothek [in D-Dl]
see SMH
The English Madrigal School, rev. as The English Madrigalists
London, Lambeth Palace Library
Muzïkal 'nïy sovremennik
J.G. Walther: Musicalisches Lexicon, oder Musicalische Bibliothec
Musical Opinion
Musical Quarterly
Musica disciplina
Angers, Bibliothèque Municipale
Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana
Early Music History
Journal of the American Musicological Society
Rome, Biblioteca Casanatense, sezione Musica
Deutsches Jahrbuch der Musikwissenschaft
Perspectives of New Music
Chieti, Biblioteca della Curia Arcivescovile e Archivio Capitolare
Anuario musical
C.-E.-H. de Coussemaker: Scriptorum de musica medii aevi nova series (Paris, 1864-76/R, 2/1908, ed. U. Moser)
Revue belge de musicologie
Gesellschaft für Musikforschung: Kongress-Bericht [1950-]
Music Review
Seville, Institución Colombina
Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek
Das Musikwerk
Die Musikforschung
Revue de musicologie
The New Oxford History of Music (Oxford, 1954-90)
Current Musicology
Neue Zeitschrift für Musik
Chantilly, Musée Condé
Journal of Musicological Research
Rouen, Bibliothèque Municipale
Prague, Národní Muzeum
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France
R.M.A. [Royal Musical Association] Research Chronicle
Verdun, Bibliothèque Municipale
Cambrai, Médiathèque Municipale
Bulletin of the American Musicological Society
Journal of Musicology
Budapest, Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, Egyetemi Könyvtár
Cologny-Geneva, Fondation Martin Bodmer, Bibliotheca Bodmeriana