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date: 22 August 2019


  • Ian D. Bent,
  • David W. Hughes,
  • Robert C. Provine,
  • Richard Rastall,
  • Anne Kilmer,
  • David Hiley,
  • Janka Szendrei,
  • Thomas B. Payne,
  • Margaret Bent
  •  and Geoffrey Chew


A visual analogue of musical sound, either as a record of sound heard or imagined, or as a set of visual instructions for performers.

This article includes a discussion of notation in society (§II), subdivided into its primary types, which are considered with reference to various notational systems. Other specialized aspects of notation are considered in separate entries: Braille notation; Cheironomy; Ekphonetic notation; Pitch nomenclature; Shape-note hymnody; Solmization; Tablature; and Tonic Sol-fa. For non-Western notational systems see, in particular, China, People’s Republic of, §II, China, People’s Republic of, §IV; Indonesia; and Japan, §III, 4. Other related entries on technical subjects include Conducting; Improvisation; Mode; Psychology of music; Scale; and Tuning.

Whereas Western notation is considered as such in §III, a discussion of musical documents as sources – their physical make-up and production, their format, the layout and presentation of the music, the ordering of their contents – will be found in ...

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Revue de musicologie
Neue Zeitschrift für Musik
Modena, Duomo, Biblioteca e Archivio Capitolare
Perugia, Biblioteca Comunale Augusta
Prague, Pražská Metropolitní Kapitula
Budapest, Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, Egyetemi Könyvtár
Brno, Archiv města Brna
Güssing, Franziskaner Kloster
Epinal, Bibliothèque Nationale
Oxford, Bodleian Library
Das Musikwerk
Acta musicologica
Valenciennes, Bibliothèque Municipale
Padua, Duomo, Biblioteca Capitolare, Curia Vescovile
Journal of Musicology
Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch
M. Mersenne: Harmonie universelle
Pistoia, Biblioteca Comunale Forteguerriana
Cortona, Biblioteca Comunale e dell'Accademia Etrusca
Current Musicology
Modena, Biblioteca Estense e Universitaria
Rome, Biblioteca Vallicelliana
Musica disciplina
Rouen, Bibliothèque Municipale
Einsiedeln, Benedikterkloster, Musikbibliothek
Prague, Národní Muzeum
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France
Monza, Parrocchia di S Giovanni Battista, Biblioteca Capitolare
Handwörterbuch der musikalischen Terminologie
Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning
Zeitschrift der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft
Muzïkal 'nïy sovremennik
London, Lambeth Palace Library
Verona, Biblioteca Capitolare
Augsburg, Universität Augsburg, Universitätsbibliothek
Cologny-Geneva, Fondation Martin Bodmer, Bibliotheca Bodmeriana
Angers, Bibliothèque Municipale
Journal of Musicological Research
Journal of the International Folk Music Council
Toledo, Catedral, Archivo y Biblioteca Capítulares
Music Review
Bratislava, Archív Mesta Bratislavy
Montpellier, Bibliothèque Inter-Universitaire, Section Médecine
Cambrai, Médiathèque Municipale
Paris, Schola Cantorum
Journal of Research in Music Education
Kraków, Archiwum i Biblioteka Krakowskiej Kapituły Katedralnej
Musicological Studies and Documents
Wrocław, Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Biblioteka Uniwersytecka
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
Gesellschaft für Musikforschung: Kongress-Bericht [1950-]
Journal of Music Theory
International Musical Society: Congress Report [II-IV, 1906-11]
Budapest, Országos Széchényi Könyvtár
Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Musiksammlung
Benevento, Biblioteca Capitolare
Corpus scriptorum de musica (Rome, later Stuttgart, 1950-)
Reading, University, Music Library
Studien zur Musikwissenschaft
Journal of the Viola da Gamba Society of America
Siena, Biblioteca Comunale degli Intronati
Etudes grégoriennes
Monthly Musical Record
Bari, Biblioteca Capitolare
Sammelbände der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft
Laon, Bibliothèque Municipale
Musical Quarterly
Vercelli, Biblioteca Capitolare
Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek
Musical Times
Utrecht, Universiteit Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek
Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek
Graz, Universitätsbibliothek
Österreichische Musikzeitschrift
M. Gerbert: Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra potissimum (St Blasien, 1784/R, 3/1931)
Prague, Národní Knihovna, Hudenbí Oddělení
Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek
Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart
O. Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (New York, rev. 2/1998 by L. Treitler)
International Musicological Society: Congress Report [1930-]
Durham, Cathedral Church, Dean and Chapter Library
Prague, Památník Národního Písemnictví, Knihovna
Dijon, Bibliothèque Municipale
St Omer, Bibliothèque Municipale
Journal of the American Musicological Society
The New Oxford History of Music (Oxford, 1954-90)
Paléographie musicale
Klosterneuburg, Augustiner-Chorherrenstift, Stiftsbibliothek
Warsaw, Biblioteka Narodowa
Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Handschriftensammlung
Bulletin of the American Musicological Society
Dresden, Sächsische Staatsoper, Notenbibliothek [in D-Dl]
Die Musikforschung
St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Handschriftenabteilung
Chieti, Biblioteca della Curia Arcivescovile e Archivio Capitolare
Seville, Institución Colombina
London, British Library
Reims, Maîtrise de la Cathédrale
Paris, Bibliothèque Ste-Geneviève
Paris, Bibliothèque Mazarine
see SMH
Fontes artis musicae
Revue belge de musicologie
Schweizerische Musikzeitung/Revue musicale suisse
Vienna, Schottenabtei, Musikarchiv
Revista de musicología
Linz, Bundesstaatliche Studienbibliothek
Collectanea historiae musicae (1953-66)
Early Music History
Rome, Biblioteca Casanatense, sezione Musica
The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek
C.-E.-H. de Coussemaker: Scriptorum de musica medii aevi nova series (Paris, 1864-76/R, 2/1908, ed. U. Moser)
The English Madrigal School, rev. as The English Madrigalists
Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft
Early Music
Musical Opinion
C. Burney: A General History of Music from the Earliest Ages to the Present Period (London, 1776-89); ed. F. Mercer (London, 1935/R) [p. nos. refer to this edn]
J.G. Walther: Musicalisches Lexicon, oder Musicalische Bibliothec
Archiv für Musikwissenschaft
Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana
Music & Letters
Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana
R.M.A. [Royal Musical Association] Research Chronicle
Verdun, Bibliothèque Municipale
Lucca, Biblioteca Capitolare Feliniana e Biblioteca Arcivescovile
Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Universitätsbibliothek, Abteilung Handschriften, Nachlässe, Alte Drucke
Chantilly, Musée Condé
Chartres, Bibliothèque Municipale
Monumenta monodica medii aevi
Leipzig, Karl-Marx-Universität, Universitätsbibliothek, Bibliotheca Albertina
Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi Müzesi
Hereford, Cathedral Library
Perspectives of New Music
Aachen, Domarchiv (Stiftsarchiv)
Studia musicologica Academiae scientiarum hungaricae
Deutsches Jahrbuch der Musikwissenschaft
Pelplin, Wyzsze Seminarium Duchowne, Biblioteka
O. Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (New York, 1950/R)
Anuario musical
Trier, Stadtbibliothek