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date: 16 September 2019

Poland [Polish Republic] (Pol. Rzeczpospolita Polska)locked

  • Katarzyna Morawska,
  • Zygmunt M. Szweykowski,
  • Zofia Chechlińska,
  • Adrian Thomas,
  • Jan Stęszewski
  •  and Krzystof Ćwiżewicz

Extract

[Polish Republic] (Pol. Rzeczpospolita Polska)

Country in eastern Europe. Christianity was introduced in the late 10th century, and in 1025 Bolesław I became the country’s first king. With the death of Bolesław III (1138) the kingdom was divided into principalities and was threatened by outside powers, but it was reunited in the 14th century by Wladisław I and his son Kasimir the Great. By the Union of Lublin (1569) Poland absorbed Lithuania, thus reaching its maximum extent, and subsequently prospered both economically and culturally. In the 18th century the country was attacked by both Sweden and Russia, losing considerable territory; by the First Partition of Poland (1772) much of the country became West Prussia, while Lithuania was lost to Russia and Galicia to Austria. By the Second Partition (1793) further territory was lost and the country was reduced to a third of its former size; with the Third Partition (...

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[flourished]